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Research Methodology

Discuss about the Business Decision Making Analysis.

Business decision analysis for the respective assignment highlights the tools and techniques that can be used for studying the organizational design and structure of Reliance Telecommunications Limited based on the stakeholder interest. Moreover, to evaluate the social and environment costs while evaluating different decisions organization has taken in operational perspective whether in India or Global.

Nevertheless, the research methodology accounts for a framework for research that needs to be undertaken in meeting the hypothesis as well as the decision-making attributes of Reliance Telecommunications Limited.

In previous assignment, we dealt with problem of business statement nadidentification, selection and analysis of the research methods that could be preferably be advantageous for the collecting and processing of the data from the stakeholders. However, the research methodology will further analyse the decision-making system through the formulation of hypothesis while carrying out different tests in the research process.

The research onion is a technique that is recognizes on the diverse sheets of the study procedure, which can be assessed over the activities of the exploration. Nevertheless, it outlines a structure for the study proposition embraced to advance information with respect to the exploration question (DePoy&Gitlin, 2015). Thus, the proper investigation is chosen from the layers in the research opinion to help in studying the organization design and structure of Reliance Telecommunications Limited.

Nonetheless, distinctive layers have been talked about under various heads deciding definite procedure that can go about as an arrangement of movement in the authoritative conduct sort of exploration managing in various settings.

Research Onion

Figure 1: Research Onion

Source:(Johnston, 2014)

The research onion is a device that recognizes the diverse sheets of the study procedure, which can be assessed over the activities of the assessment. Nevertheless, it outlines a structure for the paradigm embraces to answer the thinking as well as practice undertaken in the organization. Thus, the proper exploration is chosen from the layers of the research onion to help with advancing study with different tool used in the paradigm (Zhou&Nunes, 2015).

However, two types of research paradigm are studied. One is ontology in which is thinking based on real facts aligned with the behaviour of the people. However, the other research is epistemology in which the facts are considered with the knowledge and information affiliated with those facts (Goertz& Mahoney, 2012). Nonetheless, distinctive layers have been talked about under various heads deciding definite procedure that can go about as an arrangement of movement in the authoritative conduct sort of exploration managing in various settings.

Research Tool

The epistemology research paradigm has been undertaken to study the facts that are already prevalent in the reports of Reliance Telecommunications Limited and use the same set of ideas to test using the stakeholder interest. However, the study undertaken applies to the organization structure and design of Reliance Telecommunications Limited based on the objective nature of the research.

The first sheet of research onion constitutes to think about the physical positions and in addition philosophes with a watchful eye to define the structure and direction of the study. In any case, the choices of research philosophies are predominant on the breaking down the information and data.

There are six philosophical theories that are administered in the exploration. They are – objectivism, pragmatism, constructivism, interpretivism,positivism and realism (Gray, 2013). On the off chance, that objectivism manages the law that influences a gathering of people such, that social variables differ from social phenomenon. Although,constructivism is inverse to objectivism where social variables are independent of social phenomenon. The amalgamation of the two is known aspragmatismwhereas realism approach manages the social reality that recognizes two social substances from each other with the end goal that they are autonomous from each other (Bunge, 2012). Then again, positivism as well as realism are quite similar because hypothesisneeds to be generated and using that makes a group of exploration which will being out valid as well as reliable results. Lastly, interpretivism is a qualitative methodology as it includes support of individuals analysing the meaningful ideas the people regarding the research (Goldkuhl, 2012).

The positivism philosophy has been taken because the analysis of the various decisions cannot be based on the subjective knowledge because objective knowledge will help in evaluating the physicalenvironment and the way it has contributed to the internal and external structure and design of Reliance Telecommunication Limited whether through stakeholder interest or the business decisions.

The second sheet of research onion constitutes to think about undertaking a decision based on the goals that the research has set to evaluate. However, the research approach can be explainedbased on two approaches – one is deductive and the other is inductive. Deductive involves setting a level to meet the research using research hypothesis whereas inductive approach devises the explanation of the theory using analysis to subjugate a theory based on research questions (Hitchcock, 2012).

The deductive approach opts to be suitable for the research, as it will be based on evaluating the hypothesis testing and the way the research had been undertaken in forming departments, various controls, authoritative nature that has helped in undertaking various business decisions in the long run.

Research Paradigm

The research design is the second sheet of the research onion in which three forms of designs are mapped in the research. They are exploratory, descriptive and causal research. The exploratory design is discovering ideas and insights using the existing knowledge of the research. This research is flexible yet is considered the front end of total research design. On the other hand, the descriptive designcan be based on the characteristics as well as functions of the study. Although, this design is for large sample but is analysed quantitatively used surveys and observation of other data. The third design is causal design in nature as it helps in determining the experiments that can helps in manipulation of one or more independent variables (Younus, 2014).

The descriptive design is considered because the business decision analysis needs to be evaluated using business decisions undertaken in formulating vertical plan and being operation to customers through telecommunication service. Although, the design of analytical tool taken will be quantitative but new insights can also be drawn for repetitive process of optimizing design that could be acceptable in the market (Brandimarte, 2012).

The analytical tools in the business decision are the mainstay of the analysis that the organizations undertaken in understanding the workflow processes employee efficiency as well as financial management (Camm, et al., 2015). However, the tools that turn to be significant in the study are simulation, decision tree, trend chart, financial projections as well as benchmarking. The tools are performed by the organizations to depict the performance of the organization in relative to its competitors and the different opportunities that are presented in front of the organization. If decision tree on one hand is used to determine the potential outcomes then simulation, on the other hand, records the characteristics of the abstract system as well as physical process. Trend charts is to display data over time and financial projection is to depict how fast investments can be bring in as profit (Bordawekar, Blainey&Puri, 2015).

The justification for choosing decision tree as a tool is because it helps in applying the basic consequences whether outcomes, utility or resource costs. Moreover, to analyse the operations of any organization whether domestic or international, it is important to map out the thought process of the organization. However, in this case, we will analyse the different projects undertaken in to study the growth of organization structure and design of Reliance Telecommunications Limited.

Justification for Epistemology Paradigm

Decision Analysis Tree

Figure 2: Decision Analysis Tree

Source:(Rokach&Maimon, 2014)

The research onion has fourth sheet as research method which depicts that whether the research undertaken will be qualitative, quantitative or mixed research. This sheet incorporates the model to highlight the real plan in gathering information. Qualitative study depends on individual records, feelings and depictions while quantitativestudy depends on the records and is worried with estimations and amount (Anderson, et al., 2012). Nonetheless, mixed is a blended strategy takes both subjective and quantitative study in consideration.

The quantitative method in this study is taken for two purposes – first is that the business decision tree is quantitative in nature and will help in investigating on the operation decisions in the research. Secondly, the research needs to be evaluated to study whether the decisions taken had been fruitful in growth of organizational structure and design or not based on the stakeholder interest. The stakeholder will be evaluated based on the survey questionnaire using different case studies based on the decisions or could have been taken in case of Reliance Telecommunications Limited.

The research onion fifth sheet is the time horizon that studies the time taken to carry out the study. The time taken for the research can be either short or long. However, the two time horizons are cross section study and longitudinal study. The cross sectional study is for short duration and is carried out once and represent of one period of time whereas longitudinal study is repeated over and over again and that is it is of long duration analysing the cause and effect relationship (Mann,2012).

The longitudinal study is taken in the case of Reliance Telecommunications Limited because the business decisions needs to be analysed over a period and the questionnaire undertaken for the research is based on the stakeholders. As a result, the organization has evolved and for proper analysis of cause and effect, the duration of the study will be long.

The data collection technique determines the method thatcan be founded on essential information or secondary information relying upon the reason for the study. The information gathered efficiently characterizes the basic aid in arranging the procedure of the study as well as formulates the decision-making process (Albright& Winston, 2014). The essential information is gathered from primary data and is gathered with mixed results, as the researcher cannot be bias. In spite of the fact that, the primary information gathered is unique as well as time taking but it helps inconducting the study for future purposes. On the other hand, when it comes to secondary data collection method it warrants the use of newspaper and magazine articles, books, case studies, decisions taken in past regarding the topic, diaries, books and other sources of material (Hammond& Wellington, 2012). The validity and reliability of the examination creates learning in the business decision-making process.

Research Philosophy

Both data collection methodhas been considered because when it comes to decision analysis, the research needs to be advocated from the information available from the operations of Reliance Telecommunications Limited. However, when it comes to analysis of those decisions then primary data analysis will be considered on the stakeholders of the organization.

The sampling method is the basis of any research as it helps in analysing the group and the number of respondents and the way they will be selected from the population (Fowler Jr, 2013). Nevertheless, the sampling method is of two types – one is probability sampling and the other is non-probability sampling method. In this case, random probability sampling will be considered because the stakeholder (customers, debtors, creditors, suppliers, manufacturers, shareholders as well as owners) need to be of Reliance Telecommunications Limited as they would be the one who would be proper knowledge in regards to the organization’s whereabouts. Even more, the sampling method undertaken will accompany the responses of 125-150 sample. The large sample taken will give valid results and the operations as well as business decisions could be evaluated on the business tree.

According to the study, the data analysis plan is based on quantitative method based on primary and secondary data collection method. The primary data collection method will be used on questionnaire method where Likert Scale would be followed and will have values from ‘Strongly Agree = 5’ to ‘Strongly Disagree = 1’ (Zikmund, et al., 2013). The questionnaire will be of case studies from the Reliance Telecommunications Limited analysing the scenario of organizational structure and design. However, this method will gather responses and new insights could be drawn to the business decisions taken until now.

On the other hand, the business tree from the business analytical tool will accompany all the decisions undertaken from departments, enterprise services, controls and division of labour undertaken in the organization. The business tree will not only evaluate organization’s decisions but also will help in analysing the different practices undertaken by the company representative of model integration and internal quality management (Wiegers& Beatty, 2013). The hypothesis generated for the research is given as:

H0 (Null Hypothesis): Business decisions taken has no impact on the organization structure and design while maintaining stakeholder interest of Reliance Telecommunications Limited.

H1 (Alternate Hypothesis): Business decisions taken have an impact on the organization structure and design while maintaining stakeholder interest of Reliance Telecommunications Limited.

Justification for Positivism Philosophy

The results analysed from both questionnaire and business decision analytical tool will be compared to see the efficiency of organization in maintaining stakeholder interest as well as structure and design of the organization. The quantitative results will be analysed on Excel using regression, descriptive statistics as well as ANOVA to bring uniformity in the results (Evans, 2013).

The accessibility issues highlights the efficiency of facing information on the grounds of the desired sample. The questionnaire will be sent to all stakeholders through direct email by the organization. However, from the population, only 125-150 sample needs to be taken. Conversely, the issues remains that being decision on organizational structure and design, it is important that questionnaire should be send to loyal customers where there is uncertainty that someone else would be solving the questionnaire. Moreover, as the questionnaire is not taken face to face, there is high possibility of risk in running out of time and cost.

Nonetheless, all unethical acts like hacking, using illegal means of getting information were avoided such that all the analysis of business decisions were kept unharmed to maintain integrity and truthfulness of the results. Moreover, the direct mail send to stakeholders were not forced to fill the questionnaire rather they were given a choice whether they wish to submit it or not (Weiss, 2014).

The research limitations of the research can be highlighted through the following.

  • Firstly, the research can had also followed qualitative method following face-to-face interviews from the top management to get to know the depth of the problem.
  • Other decision-making tools like financial projections as well as trend charts could have been considered to evaluate the profit of the organization over a period of years.

Conclusion

To conclude, it can be said that the research methodology constitutes to be a significant part of the study to analyse the process. The research methodology is an amalgamation of research techniques used in research as well as analytical tools used in business decision analysis. However, the research carried is on primary as well as secondary data followed on the grounds of quantitative research method. Conversely, all the ethical as well as accessibility issues have been kept in mind while undertaking the research on stakeholders. Moreover, the business decision analysis taken will keep the decisions intact while maintain the integrity of the organization. Hence, hypothesis generated will helps in carrying out the results using the framework of research methodology.

References

Albright, S., & Winston, W. L. (2014). Business Analytics: Data Analysis & Decision Making. Nelson Education.

Anderson, D., Sweeney, D., Williams, T., Camm, J., & Cochran, J. (2012). Quantitative methods for business. Cengage Learning.

Bordawekar, R., Blainey, B., &Puri, R. (2015). AnalyzingAnalytics.Synthesis Lectures on Computer Architecture, 10(4), 1-124.

Brandimarte, P. (2012). Quantitative methods: An introduction for business management. John Wiley & Sons (this book is available in EBSCO Library).

Bunge, M. (2012). Evaluating philosophies (Vol. 295). Springer Science & Business Media.

Camm, J. D., Cochran, J. J., Fry, M. J., Ohlmann, J. W., Anderson, D. R., Sweeney, D. J., & Williams, T. A. (2015). Essentials of Business Analytics. Cengage Learning.

DePoy, E., &Gitlin, L. N. (2015). Introduction to research: Understanding and applying multiple strategies. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Evans, A. N. (2013). Using basic statistics in the behavioral and social sciences. Sage Publications.

Fowler Jr, F. J. (2013). Survey research methods. Sage publications.

Goertz, G., & Mahoney, J. (2012). Concepts and measurement: Ontology and epistemology. Social Science Information, 51(2), 205-216.

Goldkuhl, G. (2012). Pragmatism vs interpretivism in qualitative information systems research. European Journal of Information Systems, 21(2), 135-146.

Gray, D. E. (2013). Doing research in the real world. Sage.

Hammond, M., & Wellington, J. (2012). Research methods: The key concepts. Routledge.

Hitchcock, D. (2012). Deductive and inductive: Types of validity, not types of argument. Informal Logic, 2(3).

Johnston, A. (2014). Rigour in research: theory in the research approach.European Business Review, 26(3), 206-217.

Mann, C. J. (2012). Observational research methods—Cohort studies, cross sectional studies, and case–control studies. African Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2(1), 38-46.

Rokach, L., &Maimon, O. (2014). Data mining with decision trees: theory and applications. World scientific.

Weiss, J. W. (2014). Business ethics: A stakeholder and issues management approach. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Wiegers, K., & Beatty, J. (2013). Software requirements. Pearson Education.

Younus, M. A. F. (2014). Research Methodology. In Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Bangladesh (pp. 35-76). Springer Netherlands.

Zhou, L., &Nunes, J. M. B. (2015). Research Paradigm and Methodology. InKnowledge Sharing in Chinese Hospitals (pp. 39-52). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Zikmund, W. G., Babin, B. J., Carr, J. C., & Griffin, M. (2013). Business research methods. Cengage Learning.

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