This assessment requires you critically analyse the system design process of a project using the theory and principles studied during the course. This assessment item relates to the course learning outcomes 1 to 5.
Chapters 1-6, 9 & 14, Blanchard and Fabrycky
Your group has already analysed the conceptual design of a project in Assignment 1. In this assignment, you are required to write a report which critically analyses the preliminary design and detailed design phases of the project discussed in Assignment 1. Particular attention is to be paid to the system test, evaluation and validation processes employed and any optimisation that was required. In the Introduction, you will need to briefly summarise the content covered in Assignment 1.
To demonstrate your research skills and understanding, the report must draw upon relevant sources like journals, books or reputable trade publications in analysing the project. You must also present the case study in terms of the above two lifecycle phases and evaluate the detailed design against the identified needs / requirements.
Analyzing the needs of the Rose bridge
In the first assignment, the conceptual design and the needs of the rose bridge was analyzed by majorly focusing on the design process, needs definition, feasibility study, performance measurement, system operation requirement, and system planning. Some of the of the Rose bridge system analyzed in assignment one include the site planning, identification of the longitudinal section of the ground, identification of soil condition, understanding local condition of the bridge design, proper data identification, and design sketch of the bridge. This paper is based on the dissimilar aspect of designing that is to be maintained while developing the design for the construction of the Rose Bridge in Tasmania Bridges are the common designs of the built environment and one of the key element of the civil engineering.
The basic elements of the design of the bridge is dependent on the structure of load bearing, whether the flat, concave, and convex. This paper gives the preliminary and the detailed design of a bridge. When designing a bridge there are many factors that are important to be considered in addition to the actual integrity of the structure. These include the construction costs, and the construction of needed handrail, geotechnical consideration, hydro-technical consideration, aesthetic consideration, and load consideration.
The first appraisal milestone is the preliminary design review which is the consideration of the least of 300% comprehensive point. Before the checkup, most of the design selections and the researches required to start the design of the bridge would have been accomplished. These comprise research of the primary bridge, type of the report selection, and the final report of drainage, preliminary geometrics traffics, and the location surveys. Using this information, the preliminary bridge layout and the estimation of costs are made for the supplement of the preliminary design (Birnstiel, 2017).
The preliminary plan must have the elevation and plan opinions of the bridge and the planned segment of the bridge. The existing bridge and other conditions of the site in the vicinity should be indicated too. Because of the unfinished landscape of the project at this level, a comprehensive magnitude based estimate is normally not acceptable. Many of the bridges, an approximation based on the area of the deck of the bridge will serve. Attention should be maintained in the selection of the unit price to change the approximation and the unit price should be established on the offer of the actual price. The preliminary layout and the estimated price should be sent to the state bridge engineering for the assessment and to the developer of the project for the addition of the preliminary design inspection (Chen, 2011).
Factors to consider when designing a bridge
Pre-final design inspection; this is considered the minimum of 60% completed points and thus is finalized by putting the comments gotten from the preliminary design inspection. Work on the design and specifying of the bridge building in introduced and the foundation investigation and preliminary foundation reports are completed.
In choosing the structure type of the bridge, the following should be taken into account; functional necessities, economics, maintenance in the future, aesthetics, and the accelerated construction of the bridge. The bridge type in the report will be prepared for every bridge project. Accelerated bridge construction uses the innovative planning, materials, designs, and the methods of construction in the price effective manner to decrease the time of building that occurs when constructing new or substituting the bridges that exist. The accelerated bridge construction includes the use of geosynthetic reinforced soil, prefabricated bridge systems and elements and slides in bridge construction. The matrix of the report about the bridge should include the type of the bridge, costs, the life of the bridge and the traffic control costs (Duan, 2013).
This is the phase that takes a lot of time in the design of the bridge. The design of every structural component is completed in this phase and also comprehensive construction strategies are advanced. This stage is labour intensive and it is significant not to start the work until the agreement on the planned type of the structure and layout. During this stage, all the team members are allowed to on the constructed type of the bridge the comprehensive building may begin and can run alongside with the foundation study and investigation phase. This is the final stage of the construction of the bridge and all every work is finished at this level. The review of the conceptual and preliminary design can also take place and thereafter the system is tested, validated, evaluated and optimized (Fu, 2016).
This comprises of all the bridges components that are overhead the bearing elevation seat. This detail of building start with the crosswise sector view that display the constituents comparative to each other. The supplementary particulars important to describe the superstructure follows then the details of the very constituent may be integrated by the picture or may be displayed on a different drawing thereafter all the particulars must be dimensioned adequately and explained to build the bridge. The type of foundation usually depends on the waterway or the soil loading conditions. Early in the bridge development, the geotechnical information may not be present and the engineer of the project may rely on the present soils information from the neighboring structure to define the most practical type of the foundation. The types of the typical foundation are; drilled shafts, pipe piling, spread footing, and the steel H piling (Koglin, 2014).
The preliminary and detailed design of a bridge
The docks can be numerous and singe bents pillar. If the structure is very extensive a solitary column is used to lower the disorder under the bridge. The bents of more structures have many round columns typically rest on the solitary drilled channels or the pile cap footing. For every short on the stream crossing, the line of the piling may be stretched into the cap of piers and enhanced in the concrete to form the curtain wall (Melaragno, 2014).
In the use of the LRFD project methods, loads factored are matched to the factored resistance and the load's factor used to the separate load depend on the types of the loads and the limits state under the deliberation. The load's types are explained below;
Modifiers loads; there are 3 modifiers connected to the redundancy, ductility, and the significance of the structure and their applications are straightforward (Michigan, 2015).
Dead loads; this comprises the weights of the long-lasting percentages of the whole structure and include the weight of the predicted future accompaniments. Future effectiveness and the prearranged future bridges extension effects should be lodged in the design of the bridge. The weight of the concrete wall obstacle can be equally spread between the girders if the circumstances are met.
Live loads; the live loading s that the bridge must carry comprise of the moving lively weights of the vehicles, equestrians, pedestrians, cyclists, and other crossing the bridges. The design of live loads comprises of the design trucks or the design of the tandem and the lane loads and they are applied simultaneously. Other loads types are wind loads, stream pressure and buoyancy forces, permit loads, and seismic forces (Pedrozzi, 2010).
Reinforced concrete is used extensively for many elements of the bridge, these elements are wing walls, piers, abutment, decking, and foundation. The superstructure is less used and the prestressed concrete is more common. This slab bridge exception has proven the record of being durable and long-lasting structures. The span length that can be attained with the slab bridge is small, between 20 and 4o feet hence should be used on the small stream crossing. The deepness of the superstructure for the slab bridge range between 12 to 18 inches and where the location conditions need the shallow superstructure the slab bridges are the best choices. The reinforced concrete structure is made and built with grade 60 rebar partaking the yield strength of 60ksi. The standardized slabs design can be used in many deck slabs though attentiveness must be taken if the bridge has unusual characteristics and large skew. If the deck slabs cantilevers are no lengthier than about 4feet (Pipenbaher, 2016).
Types of bridges and accelerated construction
To decrease the slanting cracking in the newly built bridge deck, the transverse bars in the bottom and the top mat of the deck slabs reinforcement must be counterbalanced by half of the spacing bar. The staggered splices use in the neighboring lines of longitudinal bars was though to regulate cracking initially there is slight evidence astounding the spices in this form has the influence on lowering the quantity of cracking that occurs in the deck slab (Pipinato, 2016).
with the bigger attention in the enhanced bridges methods of construction, precast concrete deck panel may be favored in a certain situation. There are two precast concrete types. Partial-depth panel and the full depth panel. Elastomeric bearings are the best bridge devices that should be used in the bridge construction. They are fabricated with the bearing pads that consist of the elastomer only and they are made to convey the loads and accommodate arrangements between the bridge and the subsidiary structure. The plain bearing pads must be a three-quarter inch or less in the thickness since the pads thicker than three quarter must be reinforced with the laminates (Ponnuswamy, 2013). The design property usually linked with the bearing is the girder harbor system. The intention of is to stop transverse, vertical, longitudinal is the mixture of any of these movements at the girder end.
Bridges are under numerous load and environmental effects that make them lose their mechanical integrity. Load testing that is not destructive is an operative method to quantify the structural reply of the bridge under load settings and to regulate the integrity of the structure. The current development in the bridge administration is the use of the sensors embedded in the structure of the bridge to observe the elongated term performance of the bridge under numerous loads and effects to the environment. This technology allows the prefabrication of the structural constituents to be done offsite under well-measured conditions with the advantage of higher quality precast structural components that can do better with a lower need of maintenance (Popovic, 2015).
because of the uncertainties involved in the construction, modelling and systems of measurements, the assessment of the model validation must be performed based on the stochastic measurement to give the designers confidence for further uses. The aim of model validation is to improve the mathematical model of the serious bridge structure using the data for the reference gotten from the numerical simulation and experimental tests within the required accuracy, and thus can be used for the optimization of the design. When validating a bridge, the relative frequency, MAC values of the every calculated vibration frequency, and the level of confidence should be calculated to see of the construction of the bridge is valid (Rosignoli, 2011).
Structural design and construction process
Figure 1: the validation process for the bridges (Unsworth, Design of Modern Steel Railway Bridges, 2010)
The new trend in the bridge building has been the optimization of the price-performance ratio. The greatest efficient way to enhance the price to the performance ratio is to maximize the effectiveness of the superstructure. The prioritization of the bridges is based on the satisfaction of man conflicting aims simultaneously like the minimum condition of the bridge rating, maximum average daily profit and minimize costs. The Markovian model is the main component of the management system of the bridge, it forecast on the future situation of the network of the bridge, and enable the reliable fund's allocations. The Markovian probability matrix coupled with the programming techniques can be approximated from the collected condition rating data during the required biannual bridge construction (Unsworth, Design of Modern Steel Railway Bridges, 2013)
The accuracy of the bridge evaluation can be improved by the use of recent development in the bridges diagnostics, material tests, structural tests, probabilistic methods and structural analysis. The workshop can be organized that exchange the existing experience in the area of the bridge evaluation which can be beneficial. The weighted evaluation methods can be used to assess the designs alternatives which can contribute to the development of the recommended solution. The first process of evolution can be to develop the criteria for the evaluation, the first was to develop the criteria to determine the goof relative weights of every criterion, to determine the bridges scores and to determine the important factors specific to every bridge alternatives (Unsworth, Design of Modern Steel Railway Bridges, 2013).
Material costs; the cost of the bridges can be calculated by determining the amount of the steel in the design and the fabrication costs hardware, galvanization and decking. The costs cannot be directly determined because of the difficulty of the estimation of the cost of the construction through the aspects that influence the costs can be considered such as the ease of construction, crane size needed which can be determined by the bridge weight and horizontal reach of the crane, and the abutment size required (Vayas, 2017).
Table1: how the bridges can be evaluated (Pedrozzi, 2010)
This paper discussed the preliminary and detailed design of the bridges. Bridges are the common designs of the built environment and one of the key element of the civil engineering. The basic elements of the design of the bridge is dependent on the structure of load bearing, whether the flat, concave, and convex. This paper gives the preliminary and the detailed design of the bridge. When designing a bridge there are many factors that are important to be considered in addition to the actual integrity of the structure. These include the construction costs, and the construction of needed handrail, geotechnical consideration, hydro-technical consideration, aesthetic consideration, and load consideration.
Birnstiel, C. (2017). Movable Bridge Design. Michigan: ICE Publishing.
Chen, A. (2011). Bridge Design, Assessment and Monitoring. Colorado: Taylor & Francis.
Duan, L. (2013). Bridge Engineering Handbook. Colorado: CRC Press.
Fu, G. (2016). Bridge Design and Evaluation. Toledo: John Wiley & Sons.
Koglin, T. (2014). Movable Bridge Engineering. Perth: John Wiley & Sons.
Melaragno. (2014). Preliminary Design of Bridges for Architects and Engineers. Perth: CRC Press.
Michigan, T. U. (2015). Bridge Design & Engineering. Michigan: Route One Pub.
Pedrozzi, P. (2010). A Software Tool for the Analysis. Toledo: vdf Hochschulverlag.
Pipenbaher, M. (2016). Giborim Highway Bridge. Paris: InÅ¾enirski biro Ponting.
Pipinato, A. (2016). Innovative Bridge Design Handbook. Chicago: Elsevier Science.
Ponnuswamy. (2013). Bridge Engineering. Chicago: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Popovic, O. (2015). Conceptual Structural Design. Perth: Thomas Telford.
Rosignoli, M. (2011). Bridge Launching. Paris: Thomas Telford.
Unsworth, J. (2010). Design of Modern Steel Railway Bridges. New York: CRC Press.
Unsworth, J. (2013). Design of Modern Steel Railway Bridges. Michigan: CRC Press.
Vayas, I. (2017). Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges to Eurocodes. Melbourne: CRC Press.
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