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Corporate culture and its features

Discuss About The Core Cultural Values Marketing Implications.

The role of culture is valuable for doing trade in local market but it is more vital for international marketing, it is because in international the beliefs, values and cultures are totally different. The cultural of an organization is known as corporate culture and the feature of corporate culture is different from organization of a country (Luthans & Doh, 2018). This report will focus on the marketing cultural report of Malaysia. The culture of Malaysia is different from other country. Depth information about its host country (India) will be mentioned in this assignment which will be shown by analysing the culture of host country. Hofstede’s cultural dimension is a theory of cross-cultural communication which is developed by Greet Hofstede. It would be helpful to define the different acceptance of different culture of different country. By taking help of analysis and evaluation of secondary data, the dissimilarity between the culture of Malaysia and India will be described so that valuable recommendations can be made.

There are multiple reasons to choose India. It is a Southeast Asian Country with diverse terrain – from Himalayan peaks to Indian Ocean coastline. This country has been chosen for its multicultural population. There are various reasons liable to choose India for business that is business friendly laws and markets of this country are ready to explode. The population of India is friendly which can easily exchange the ideas and views with other country and have in impact in global affairs. The similar diversity shows seemingly inflexible problems of social cohesion (Adekola & Sergi, 2016). The major three things are defined below which shows the reason behind bringing business to India from Malaysia.

Business friendly law: it has been found that major four bills are passed in last year that is Goods and service tax bill which increase the efficiency to move the goods from India to other country. The Direct tax code which cleans the tax laws and most important law is Land Acquisition Bill and the companies bill which help to increase the business in India.

Moderate inflation: A falling inflation rate linked with the respectively high growth rate which can be considered as the kind of the environment through which outside investors should delight.

Proper market: in the comparison of India’s GDP, the customer spending stands at just 57% in comparison of the US where the ratio of it is 72%. It shows that approx $1.2 trillion worth of opportunity of rising customer sector is increased (Chikermane, n.d.).

Why India was chosen for business

India is a democratic republic which is divided into 29 states, that each state has its own government which is elected by the living people of there. Diversity can be considered as the keyword to describe India, in relation to religion as well as the population and languages. There are 14 official languages in India which is spoken by people of different states. India is the second most populated country on earth with a population of 1.2 billion (CountryEconomy, n.d.). It has been found that the culture of India is among the world’s oldest civilization. Indians made noteworthy advances in mathematics such as the invention of zero, in architecture such as Taj Mahal and medicine such as Ayurveda. The customs and celebrations of India are different from other country as it develops relationship with other country politely. There are existences of subculture which make different it from another country. The saying “Atithi Devo Bhavah” is vital in India which shows that the guest is equal to God. It is a verse of Sanskrit which has been taken from the scriptures of Hindu which developed into the major components of the code of conduct for the Hindu society.

The unique cultural components of India is mentioned below which will be helpful to analyze the culture of India.

Technology: the technology of India is more advanced as it never looks back to compete with developed country and adapts the latest technology to bring change in the work style. The impact of technology to the culture of India is considered as the promotion to their culture.

Languages: India is a country that has numerous languages of different states. It has been found that the people of India speak different language as per their comfort, culture and beliefs. More than 14 languages are spoken by people in India which shows the huge example of diversity (Patel, 2010).

Symbols: symbols are considered as anything that brings a different meaning identified by people who share culture. National flag is the most well known symbol of India. Along with that it has number of symbols that represent their country. These are mentioned below:

  • The symbol of four lions on national emblem which are the indication of courage, power and confidence.
  • The national flower is lotus that represents the honour, fortune and ling life.
  • The national bird is peacock that depicts beauty, pride and grace.
  • The national animal is lion that represents the power, strength and grace.

Along with that India has different symbols that shows the integrity of the country to others cultures. These are the way of greeting to others by saying Namaste.

Value and beliefs: respect is considered as the valued component of the daily life of people in India. Children are taught from a very young age to give respect their elders. Children take care of their parents when they are adults. Parents live with them until theory lives have ended. Family is also vital component of Indian culture. The value to god is being given by Hindus. They have faith on with good karma and reincarnation. It has been found that the ultimate goal of the Hindus to reach “nirvana” which is the releasing of the soul from a cycle of rebirth.

Cultural components of India

Norms: the rules and regulations or folkways of India are quite different. People of India use Namaste while meeting each other and when they say goodbye. It is done by putting palms together in a prayer like position. It has been evaluated that from the eternal snows of the Himalayas to the developed peninsula of far south. 

It is necessary for the success of the business to have the good understanding of the fundamental values and beliefs of the culture of India. India is a diverse, populous and vast nation including various languages, religions and identities. In the context of Indian Business culture, the development of the business is entirely relied upon relationship building. Indians are inclined towards providing effective deal to those whom they know and trust (Reis, Ferreira & Santos, 2011). The customer satisfaction is considered as priority for the business of Indians. The trust of customer can be earned by demonstrating the firm business insight, displaying respect and loyalty. Negotiation is involved in the business meeting of India and the process is slow of meetings. The decision making process is slower in comparison of others country because decision is taken at upper level and can take more time. Personal relationship has a huge role in Indian Business Culture. The introduction of third party is necessary for Indians because they tend to work with those whom they know and trust (Series, 2011). Trust is the key of success for Indians and they will be seeking for an honest commitment to make the relationship (Halkos & Tzeremes, 2008). They spread their business networks with partners they can rely on. The businesses of India are often hierarchically structured. An Indian manager is not expected to carry out tasks which could be assumed by someone at a lower level in the organization. The government of India is more active by measuring and controlling the limits of private sector. The company’s act 2013, consumer protection act 1986, commercial law and foreign exchange regulation act 1973 are the major acts implemented by the government to establish the ethics within the organization. There is a major role of Indian Government in handling the entire financial systems in India. However, it has been regulated by independent regulators in the area of insurance and banking.

The business culture of India is entirely differing from Malaysia. The base of difference is mentioned below between the business culture of India and Malaysia.

Indian Business Culture

The role of India is active in the United Nations by focusing on to increase the effectiveness, credibility and the representative nature of the ongoing process of reforming the UN organization. It has been analyzed from the doing business 2017 report, Malaysia has ranked on 23rd position out of 190 economies for entire simplicity of doing business. The market of Malaysia is best in among the emerging market economies is Southeast Asia (Ghazali, Abdul?Rashid, Dawal, Aoyama, Tontowi & Sakundarini, 2017).

English is the common language which is used by both country to communicate with its business partner and employees. Hindi is the native language of India. On the other hand, English is used in legislations and business in Malaysia but the official language of Malaysia is Malay.

India is increasing into an open market economy. It has diverse economy including traditional activities such as village farming, handicrafts, a huge range of modern industries and a modern agriculture. In the contest of exports, India has positioned on 19th rank which is 33% more than Malaysia. On the other hand the rank of Malaysia is on 24th in the context of exporting (Odhiambo, 2016).

Men and women both are the major part of the labour force in both jurisdictions. The participation of labour force is increased by 53% approximately in 2017 where as in Malaysia the rate of workforce is increase by 63% approximately in 2017.

The standard corporate tax rate is 24% in Malaysia. It has been evaluated that income tax in Malaysia is inflicted on incoming accumulating in.  On the other hand the government of India has reduced the corporate tax to 25% from 30% (CountryEconomy, n.d.).

The importance of culture is huge in terms of marketing. The whole economy of the world is encompassed of smaller economies that are separate themselves (Pratap, 2017). Different economies have various cultures and languages (Samaha, Beck & Palmatier, 2014). The impact of unique cultures components has huge influence on international business because people from different cultures can enhance the productivity of the business by sharing the different views and ideas in order to develop the business (Hill, 2008). Culture is considered as vital factor in the long term success of the organization. Culture is possessed knowledge that people of different country use to generate social behaviour and interpret experience (Knight & Kim, 2009). It has been analyzed that the success of the business in abroad is entirely dependent on the using skills of employee to handle the different culture. Unique culture has the ability to change the technology, attitude and decisions of top management (Ferraro & Briody, 2017).

Difference between Business Culture of India and Malaysia

In order to get better understanding about the differences between business and organizational cultures of different country’s cultural dimensions has the noteworthy role. Dimensions are considered as an important aspect of culture that can be evaluated in relation to other culture (ITIM, 2015). Cultural dimensions help to provide the ways of understanding of behaviour in various business situations that can be seen mysterious and odd at first (Banerjee, 2008). That is why the role of cultural dimensions has the dominant role in understanding the different culture of organization of different nations. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions comprise the six dimensions which are defined below in the relation of India and Malaysia.

Power distance index defines the degree of inequality that remains between people with and without power. This dimension has two categories such as low PDI and high PDI. The feature of high PDI is centralized organization on the other hand the feature of low PDI is flatter organization. The power distance index of India is 77, indicates the appreciation for hierarchy and top down structure. It has been found that he score of Malaysia in power distance index is 100 which is very high. It shows that the people of this country accept hierarchical order which require no justifications (Venaik & Brewer, 2013).

Individualism refers the fundamental issue of degree of interdependence. The score of Malaysia in this dimension is 26 which show the collectivistic society while the score of India is 48 which show that society of India is both collectivistic and individualistic. Masculinity is another dimension of Hofstede. A high score of masculine shows the society will be driven by competition and success while the low score of masculine represents the dominant value in the society. The score of India is 56 on this dimension and it considered as masculine society. The score of Malaysia is 50 which are intermediate.

The dimension of uncertainty avoidance enhances the understanding in the people that future cannot be predicted. The score of this dimension is reflected the rate of avoidance of unambiguous and unknown situations (Schmitz & Weber, 2014). The score of Malaysia is 36 which show the low preference for avoiding uncertainty. On the other hand, the score of India is 40 that represent the medium low preference for avoiding improbability.  The long term orientation score of India is 51, the preference of dominant culture cannot be decided whereas the Malaysia scores 41 in this dimension. The society of Malaysia has normative thinking and they demonstrate the respect for traditions. Indulgence is the dimension that defines the extent to which the people try to control their desires (Gupta & Bhaskar, 2016). In this dimension, Malaysia scores high with 57 which indicates the culture of this country is indulgence. On the other hand India attains the low scores of 26 in indulgence dimension. The society of India has tendency to pessimism.

By analysing the above discussion, it can be said that Malaysia can get efficient business opportunity by understanding the business culture of India. Malaysia (Home country) should focus on the difference between the cultures of both countries. The role of human resource management is integral in managing the difference of cultures that is why the business organization of home country should focus on training and development program, appraisal, target setting and recruiting (NCBI. n.d.).

Conclusion

In the limelight of above discussion, it can be concluded that the differences in culture for the organization is beneficial because it brings the different ideas and views which can be helpful for the growth of the organization. The unique cultural component of India (host country) has been evaluated in the terms of language, symbols, technology, norms, values and beliefs. The business culture of every country is different that is why the difference between the business culture of India and Malaysia has been discussed. The Hofstede’s cultural dimensions have been evaluated in the terms of analyzing the business opportunities and efficiency of the business of both countries.

References

Adekola, A., & Sergi, B. S. (2016). Global business management: A cross-cultural perspective. Routledge.

Banerjee, S. (2008). Dimensions of Indian culture, core cultural values and marketing implications: An analysis, Cross Cultural Management: an International Journal, Vol. 15 Issue: 4, pp.367-378.

CEIC, (2017). India Labour Force Participation Rate. Retrieved from: https://www.ceicdata.com/en/indicator/india/labour-force-participation-rate.

CountryEconomy, (n.d.). Country comparison India vs Malaysia. Retrieved on 25th March, 2018, from: https://countryeconomy.com/countries/compare/india/malaysia?sc=XE23.

Ferraro, G. P., & Briody, E. K. (2017). The cultural dimension of global business. Taylor & Francis.

Ghazali, I., Abdul?Rashid, S. H., Dawal, S. Z. M., Aoyama, H., Tontowi, A. E., & Sakundarini, N. (2017). Cultural influences on choosing green products: An empirical study in Malaysia. Sustainable Development, 25(6), 655-670.

Gupta, S., & Bhaskar, A. U. (2016). Doing business in India: cross-cultural issues in managing human resources. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 23(1), 184-204.

Halkos, G., & Tzeremes, N. (2008). National culture and multinational performance.

Hill, C. (2008). International business: Competing in the global market place. Strategic Direction, 24(9).

Chikermane, G. (n.d.). 7 reasons to do business in India. Retrieved on 30th March 2018, from: https://www.inc.com/gautam-chikermane/7-reasons-to-do-business-in-india.html.

ITIM. (2015). Geert Hofstede. Retrieved from: https://geert-hofstede.com/australia.html. 2015.

Knight, G. A., & Kim, D. (2009). International business competence and the contemporary firm. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(2), 255-273.

Luthans, F., & Doh, J. P. (2018). International management: Culture, strategy, and behavior. McGraw-Hill.

NCBI. (n.d.). Conclusions, implications of the study and directions for future research. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK259964/.

Nottingham, (n.d.). “Is Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement Good for Malaysia? Evaluate the Case for and Against.”Retrieved on 25th March, 2018, from: https://www.nottingham.edu.my/Economics/documents/Second-Prize.pdf.

Odhiambo, G. (2016). Malaysia’s Business Environment. Retrieved from: https://www.healyconsultants.com/blog/malaysias-business-environment/.

Patel, V. (2010). Cultural analysis of India. Retrieved from: https://learnonethingaday.wordpress.com/2010/02/19/cultural-dimensions/.

Pratap, A. (2017). Importance of Culture in Marketing. Retrieved from: https://www.cheshnotes.com/2017/01/importance-of-culture-in-marketing/.

Reis, N. R., Ferreira, M. P., & Santos, J. C. (2011). The cultural models in international business research: A bibliometric study of IB journals (No. 76).

Samaha, S. A., Beck, J. T., & Palmatier, R. W. (2014). The role of culture in international relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 78(5), 78-98.

Schmitz, L., & Weber, W. (2014). Are hofstede's dimensions valid? a test for measurement invariance of uncertainty avoidance. interculture journal: Online-Zeitschrift für interkulturelle Studien, 13(22), 11-26.

Series, G. N. (2011). National Cultural Differences and Multinational Business.

Venaik, S., & Brewer, P. (2013). Critical issues in the Hofstede and GLOBE national culture models. International Marketing Review, 30(5), 469-482.

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