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Article Question

Discuss about the Critical Analysis for Haci Guclu and Salih Guney.

In this article, the authors Haci Guclu and Salih Guney have presented the results of their study and analysis about the perceptions of the managers in using the different motivational techniques to increase the productivity of their employees. Different people in this organisation have different capabilities and it is one of the main jobs of a manager to employ the right motivational techniques which can help the employees realise their potential (Lunenburg, 2011).

The question that the article explores is whether motivational techniques can actually be used to increase the productivity and efficiency of the employees and the organisation.

I agree with the authors that both efficiency and productivity are measurable traits which can be enhanced by using the right motivation as different people respond in dissimilar manner to distinct motivational factors and techniques.

As studied by Reinholt, Pedersen, and Foss, the efficiency of an individual, is a measurable notion when it comes to the work and productivity of an individual in his organisational setup. Efficiency is a factor which helps people adapt to the changes in their work environment and make use of the different opportunities to utilise their talents in an optimum manner for the benefit of the organisation as well as personal satisfaction and gratification (Reinholt, Pedersen, and Foss, 2011).

According to Yeh-Yun Lin, and Liu, in any organisation or any sector like the manufacturing sector, the efficiency of an employee is a culmination of a number of factors. It is a result of utilising the organisational resources like the raw materials, factors of production, capital investment, technology, and the human resources in the most optimum or the best possible manner to meet the objectives of the organisation successfully The efficiency of any organisation is directly related to the productivity of the employees (Yeh-Yun Lin, and Liu, 2012).

According to Springer, the efficiency of the employees is determined by two main factors, the first is the intra-business factors like the organisational structure, systems, equipment and many more. The second is the extra business factors which consist of managerial practices, business approach, and other such influences. Enhancing the efficiency of the employees through different motivational techniques is the key to business development and growth (Springer, 2011).

In this article, the authors point out that while the management has a number of tools to measure the efficiency of the organisation and the productivity of its employees, it is the job of the managers to analyse their strategy periodically and try to understand from the results of the analysis, the reasons behind the low efficiency in the organisation. According to the research by Cherian, and Jacob, many factors affect the motivation level of the employees which directly impacts their productivity and efficiency at work negatively. These factors include, the unsafe working environments, barriers between the employees and employers, lack of effective communication between employees, inconsistent pay scales, lack of job satisfaction, lack of innovation and initiative, lack of growth opportunities, and much more (Cherian, and Jacob, 2013).

My Viewpoint

As Muogbo surmises from his study that Motivation is not just a psychological tool but is a very important business tool for the organisations in the competitive world today. With an increase in globalisation and rising competition from the local, national, and international companies it has become the need of the companies to produces their services and products at the lowest cost while maintaining the quality. This requires motivating the employees to use their diverse skills and directing their efforts as a team towards the organisation’s vision (Muogbo, 2013).

According to the study done by Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman, efficiency and motivation are correlated in all the aspects of a person’s life. Motivation is the factor which encourages an individual to try and achieve his best and strive for efficiency and excellence in all walks of his life whether they are personal or work related. The factors which motivate one person may be different from the factors that inspire another. These motivational factors stem from the basic needs of different individuals. While for some people economic considerations are the motivating factor, for others it could be personal gratification, growth and development, skill enhancement, and many other such factors (Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman, 2011).

Over the period of time, several scholars have proposed different theories of motivation which have tried to address the motivational factors for different people. The most prominent among these theories are the Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory which addresses the five layers of needs pyramid for every individual, the Alderfer’s ERG theory which addresses the existence; relatedness; and growth in an individual, the Herzberg’s Two-factor theory, McClelland’s need theory, Edwin Locke’s Goal-Setting theory, and much more. All these theories try to analyse the behaviour of individuals under the ever changing circumstances and the change in the factors which motivate people to perform better with the change in their circumstances (Chiang, and Hsieh, 2012).

Cerasoli, Nicklin, and Ford, in their analysis reflect that motivation in employees can be inspired by extrinsic factors and also by intrinsic factors. The extrinsic motivators are the material gains and tangible rewards like monetary compensation, promotion, benefits, and other such factors associated with a job role. But many scholars hold the view that while extrinsic motivators are powerful tools but the effects of this kind of motivation generally do not last for a very long time as these are imposed from the outside (Cerasoli, Nicklin, and Ford, 2014). The extrinsic factors are important in the initial stages of an individual’s work life till his basic economic and financial needs are met (Lazaroiu, 2015).

Efficiency and Productivity

The intrinsic motivation refers to the inspiration that a person derives from within himself. This kind of motivation moves above the financial and economic goals of a person and refers to the objective of finding happiness, satisfaction, learning, self- actualisation, and social needs of an individual. Intrinsic motivators encourage a person to perform a task or an activity not for some external reward but for the personal satisfaction of completing a task in an efficient manner (Cerasoli, Nicklin, and Ford, 2014).

According to the research by Gerhart, and Fang, the biggest challenge for the managers is to identify the motivational factors which can be applied to their organisational culture for different employees and use them effectively to increase the levels of productivity and efficiency of the employees, in a manner that is beneficial both to the employees and the organisation. The managers are constantly striving to find motivational techniques which help the employees in achieving the vision and mission of the organisation while fulfilling their personal goals at the same time (Gerhart, and Fang, 2015).

As the authors say the managers have to understand that what works to motivate one employee many not work in the same way for another employee. For example, an unskilled worker may be motivated by good wages but for a skilled worker monetary compensation may not be the only motivating factor. For a skilled worker, the opportunity to grow and enhance their skills may be a bigger motivator (Latham, 2012).

Along with these factors, while dealing with the workers, the attitude and behaviour of the managers make a lot of difference to the motivation levels of the employees. As proposed by Chiang, and Hsieh, in the changing business dynamics today employee participation in the key decision making processes of the company, especially the decisions which directly impact the performance of the employees, is very crucial to the success of the organisation. It is essential for an organisation to value their human resources and address the employee needs along with the goals of the company. A positive organisational culture acts as a big motivating factor for the employees and directly affects their efficiency and productivity (Chiang, and Hsieh, 2012).

In this article, the authors have evaluated the motivational techniques and the effects of these techniques on the workers of a manufacturing unit. Here, the authors find out that that the employees respond differently to the different motivational techniques due to many factors like the age, gender, skill set, education level, basic requirements, and many more. The education level makes much difference in the way the workers perceive and understand the motivational techniques employed by the management. The better-educated people respond much more positively to the intrinsic motivation as they can understand the difference it would make to their work, life, and the rewards that would follow as a result of productive work (Lazaroiu, 2015).

Motivation

Conclusion

The research and studies carried out to study the correlation between organisational productivity and the efficiency and motivation levels of the employees suggest that the human resource management of the company and the organisational culture play a very important role in shaping the behaviours and attitudes of the employees. A professional growth and personal goals’ satisfaction from the job role hold an equal importance for the employees at all the levels in the organisation. A manager who can understand this and generate a motivated workforce will be rewarded with a more efficient and productive organisation giving his business a definitive edge of competitors and rivals in the business world today (Yeh-Yun Lin, and Liu, 2012).

References

Cerasoli, C.P., Nicklin, J.M. and Ford, M.T., 2014. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin [Online]. Vol. 140, (Issue 4), p.980. Available from: https://my.apa.org/apa/idm/login.seam?ERIGHTS_TARGET=http%3A%2F%2Fpsycnet.apa.org%2Fpsycarticles%2F2014-03897-001 [Accessed 24 August, 2017]

Cherian, J. and Jacob, J., 2013. Impact of self efficacy on motivation and performance of employees. International Journal of Business and Management [Online]. Vol. 8, (Issue 14), p.80. Available from: https://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijbm/article/viewFile/26770/16992 [Accessed 24 August, 2017]

Chiang, C.F. and Hsieh, T.S., 2012. The impacts of perceived organizational support and psychological empowerment on job performance: The mediating effects of organizational citizenship behavior. International journal of hospitality management [Online]. Vol. 31, (Issue 1), pp.180-190. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278431911000685 [Accessed 24 August, 2017]

Gerhart, B. and Fang, M., 2015. Pay, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, performance, and creativity in the workplace: Revisiting long-held beliefs. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav.[Online]. Vol. 2, (Issue 1), pp.489-521. Available from: https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032414-111418 [Accessed 24 August, 2017]

Herzberg, F., Mausner, B. and Snyderman, B.B., 2011. The motivation to work [Online]. (Vol. 1). Transaction publishers. Available from: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=KYhB-B6kfSMC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=work+motivation+and+efficiency,+2011&ots=njVAVJHDUp&sig=BJ0gB8dnod573bKKIK4dVDTEtOU#v=onepage&q=work%20motivation%20and%20efficiency%2C%202011&f=false [Accessed 24 August, 2017]

Latham, G.P., 2012. Work motivation: History, theory, research, and practice [Online]. Sage. Available from: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=LmApklWApCQC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=motivation+and+effective+performance+in+the+workplace,+2012&ots=usUwTfcqIQ&sig=Y747T1vbHTZgOifraETZm2NQ7Hw#v=onepage&q&f=false [Accessed 24 August, 2017]

Lazaroiu, G., 2015. Employee Motivation and Job Performance. Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations [Online]. Vol. 14, p.97. Available from: https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=290576 [Accessed 24 August, 2017]

Lunenburg, F.C., 2011. Self-efficacy in the workplace: implications for motivation and performance. International journal of management, business, and administration [Online]. Vol.14, (Issue 1), pp.1-6. Available from: https://nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Lunenburg,%20Fred%20C.%20Self-Efficacy%20in%20the%20Workplace%20IJMBA%20V14%20N1%202011.pdf [Accessed 24 August, 2017]

Muogbo, U.S., 2013. The impact of employee motivation on organisational performance (a study of some selected firms in anambra state nigeria). The international journal of engineering and science [Online]. Vol. 2, (Issue 7), pp.70-80. Available from: https://www.theijes.com/papers/v2-i7/Part.6/J0276070080.pdf [Accessed 24 August, 2017]

Reinholt, M.I.A., Pedersen, T. and Foss, N.J., 2011. Why a central network position isn't enough: The role of motivation and ability for knowledge sharing in employee networks. Academy of Management Journal [Online]. Vol. 54, (Issue 6), pp.1277-1297. Available from: https://amj.aom.org/content/54/6/1277.short [Accessed 24 August, 2017]

Springer, G.J., 2011. A study of job motivation, satisfaction, and performance among bank employees. Journal of Global Business Issues [Online]. Vol.  5, (Issue 1), p.29. Available from: https://search.proquest.com/openview/fd8503973f2c32043fa0f9b1f55c2f04/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=39974 [Accessed 24 August, 2017]

Yeh-Yun Lin, C. and Liu, F.C., 2012. A cross-level analysis of organizational creativity climate and perceived innovation: The mediating effect of work motivation. European Journal of Innovation Management [Online], Vol. 15, (Issue 1), pp.55-76. Available from: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/14601061211192834 [Accessed 24 August, 2017]

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