Discuss about the Dynamic Data Reallocation in Disk Arrays.
A computer is a device or a machine that is programmable. This means that it can be given instructions to perform tasks such us arithmetic automatically. In my study and answer to the above question my area of specialize will be a laptop as that what am knowledgeable and uses daily. A laptop is a small computer that has portability capability and functions the same way as the desktop computers that are not movable. A laptop sometimes is even more effective and efficient in terms of interacting and deliverables as compared with the desktops. A laptop is also referred to as a notebook that is a personal computer that is portable and has a keyboard that is alpha-numeric, and a screen which usually opened when using the computer.
The make of my device is Hewlett Packard laptops as one of the best manufacturer of most windows widely used globally. The model being HP EliteBookX360 which is the best and the most advanced HP laptops and they are referring to is as the global thinnest and the most secured in terms of business convertibility (Quinlan. 2009). Just like a normal laptop the technical functions are the same, just that they differ in the way they are executed depending on the speed and the capabilities of the machine. The basics works achieved are such as: Input where there is transfer information in to a laptop and this is accomplished eg by use of a keyboard, use of mouse, etc.
Secondly is Processing where information is controlled and manipulated within the laptop and mostly done by the control and arithmetic logic units as well as the temporary storage in place.
Thirdly is the storage that is the technical means by which the information is stored and saved permanently. It can occur on HDD, CD, flash disks or even diskettes and last but not least is the Output which shows how information is displayed on the screen or also when the information is printed on a paper.
Describe the physical footprint of the device. Talk about how the physical footprint/ergonomics of the device supports the main functional aims of the device.
HP EliteBook X360 is a sleek and has stylish features and most current feature in Hp is introduction of diamond-cut inflections on an iconic unibody emphasizing its precision. The physical size is 13.3 inches’ diagonal then 14.95mm width and weigh 2.82 lbs3
The other physical feature is 3600 versatility which has 5 nodes across and security that is unmatched. This make it easy as one can use the touch screen separately from the keyboard and can opt to use the keyboard as a normal computer.
The 360 degrees’ versatility has helped in creating more portability in terms of movement and this using it as a touchscreen and at the same time with its keyboard hence making business environment in it more presentable as nowadays we are in the world of touchscreen whereby we interact with icons. Its size is also a major boost in to its environ use and this makes it more convenient as one can put them in normal shoulder back bags like normal exercise books.
Use of a pointing stick and very durable battery in place is another advantage to the user of this laptop. The battery life while in use it can take more than 6-9hrs. Lastly is its physical flexibility makes it more durable, convenient, creating more extension in its use and much more how reliable it is to the client.
Describe the main components on its main system board.
In most devices that are built electronically we have the main system board in the device that does all the functions or instructions given by the programmer. A laptop has main system board referred to as the motherboard which a very crucial part in a laptop as it holds most components of a laptop such as processor, Memory, central processing unit(CPU), Slots that are expandable and helping in connection with inputs and outputs devices. It’s good to note that the make or type of installed motherboard greatly influences on the expansion and speed of a machine. The components of motherboard are described in details below:
The first one is Central Processing Unit which is also known as the processor of the laptop. In our Model HP EliteBookX360 the processor used is Intel 7thGeneration which is the latest generation with a speed of up to 3.7Ghz and a turbo. CPU acts as the brain of a laptop as it fetches, decodes and executes program instructions as well maths performance and calculating logics. Secondly is the Main memory(RAM)Random access memory of a laptop is a chip that store dynamic data temporary when the laptop is working and which helps to enhance the performance of a laptop. RAM is a volatile memory that makes it to lose the content when the power goes off. Third is the BIOS (Basic Input Output System) which consists of softwares of low-level controlling the system hardware and mostly acts as interface between hardware and the OS.
Fourth is CMOS (Complementary metal Oxide Semiconductor). They are included in the motherboard as small separate block of memory and they are kept running by CMOS battery hence prevention all the time configuration when the machine goes off especially in unexpected situations. They store information which are basic especially in configuration of a laptop. The information is time and date, power saver settings, plug and play info, Ram Size, cpu, hdd types etc. Fifth is the CACHE which is a small block of RAM that have high speed in terms of memory that will enhance the laptop performance by loading information prior from main memory and passing it over to processor that is on demand and last but not least are the expansion Bus which is an I/O pathway that runs from central processing unit to other peripheral devices and it’s made of series of slots on the board.
Describe the type(s) of primary memory in the device.
A computer without a memory is not computer. memory plays a major role in a laptop attaining it core functions. A memory is a part of a computer or laptop that resides on the motherboard where information first stored temporarily and can be retrieved easily. When we include the term “primary” we bring in the term physical systems termed to function at high-speed. The primary memory is the main memory in a computer well known as internal or system memory. It is a semiconductor memory and the information it holds can be directly accessed by CPU hence it is used in storing data and programs while still in use in a computer. Mostly it enhances in 512mb,1,2,4,8 and 16GB depending on the user needs. Primary Memory are of two types in a laptop.
RAM- Random Access Memory which is a type of primary memory that is responsible for instructions storage that are current in use by the laptop. Its main purpose is holding data and programs that are in use. It is volatile in that it cannot store data n case power goes off. They are of two types namely SRAM and DRAM standing for static random access memory and dynamic random access memory respectively (ARNAN 2007).
ROM- meaning Read Only Memory. Unlike in RAM it is a type of memory where the content etched in to the memory chip permanently during manufacturing. it’s known for always holding same data. Some of the types of ROM are. Programmable-Read Only memory- a type of ROM that is empty when new and programmer can write to it only once but can be read more than once actually subsequently. Erasable Programmable-Read Only memory- Developed as an improvement of PROM and the difference is that the information that the programmer write he can erase it by use of ultraviolet lights rays. Electronically Erasable Programmable-Read Only memory- Acts as an advanced improvement of EEPROM where the written content can be erases electrically by electrical signal.
Describe the main method of storage in the device.
Storage is termed as computer component one helps one to store data on basis that are long-term. The two types storage devices in a laptop are primary storage where we have such chips as RAM like discussed in question 4 and Secondary storage that includes devices such as hard drive and always referred to as secondary storage as they store information permanently. The secondary storage used in a laptop is hard disk drive
In a laptop we have a small hard disk that have some space that is always ready for storage. Hard drive differs with user needs. In case you do statistics, you watch movies and run programs that requires very much of the cpu then you will need a hard disk drives with larger space for storage (ZHANG 2007).
A hard disk relieves the memory or working area work by storing all the temporary instructions stored by RAM as instructed by the programmer or user. The secondary storage of a laptop is the hard drive as the laptop cannot function as it acts as the body for storage of everything including logs of all what is anticipated or was.
A laptop has expansion slots such as optical drive where cds and dvds can be put and provide more storage, it has also USB ports that allows USB disks such Flash disks which are removable to be put and store or retrieve information. The secondary storage supports other functionality in that all applications are stored in the HDD and this helps in keeping registries in it that help in launching the software all the time when there is need to.
Describe the main technical characteristics of the CPU used in the device.
CPU-is the Central Processing Unit in a laptop and is also known as the processor of the laptop. In our Model HP EliteBookX360 the processor used is Intel 7thGeneration which is the latest generation with a speed of up to 3.7Ghz and a turbo. CPU acts as the brain of a laptop as it fetches, decodes and executes program instructions as well maths performance and calculating logics. Processors for 7th generation intel core processors use alpha-numeric based on generation & product line. It follows on 7th generation intel coretm i7-7700T processor.
The following are some of the features of a cpu in a laptop and they improve the more the machine advances: Processor make and model- there are two make of processors widely known as AMD and INTEL where they may have similar features and performance but when in use one cannot be compatible to the motherboard of the other. Secondly is the Socket type where the socket is designed to fit is unique in that no other processor can fit there if it is not the compatible one. Thirdly is the Clock speed where a processor clock speed is used to determine in its performance and it is identified using MHZ or GHz but sometimes the speeds of the clock might be meaningless. Consider a clock speed for AMD processors that may run much lower speeds as compared to but can do more 50% work per clock tick. Fourthly is the Host bus speed where for both intel and AMD implements the paths in between the cache and memory differently. Fifthly is the cache Size and where the cache is used by cpu to improve performance by buffering the transfers that are in between processor and slow main memory.
In the case described in above the cache has two layers namely layer 1 and layer 2 and referred to as level 1 cache and level 2 cache respectively. Layer 1 is a cpu feature that cannot be changed without tampering with the processor itself. Layer 2 which is external to the cpu core meaning that that processors producers may manufacture the same processor but that have different L2 cache sizes.
Parallelism in processors is the process whereby there is processing of program instructions that is achieved by dividing them among the given multiple processors with an aim of increasing high performance and reducing time. The programs or task are executed concurrently or simultaneously by use of features such time slice and cpu schedules.
Describe the main groups of instructions in the CPU instruction set (if there are multiple, choose one)
Instruction set is part of a laptop that is widely known by programmers as it is basically language of the machine. The set instructions usually provide directions to the processor and tells it what to do as per that specific time. This instruction may consist of addressing means, the data types, architecture of the memory, registers external input/output etc. Depending on what the operation the perform the instructions may be divided in several groups. The presiding part of every operation is often referred to as MNEMONIC. Eg INC R1 is a command that means increment register 1The first group of instructions are as follows in a laptop cpu.
Arithmetic instructions are instructions that are based on performing addition, subtraction, division etc. operations and whose result will be stored in the first operand. Eg. ADD A, X the solution of this addition A+X will be stored in the accumulator. Secondly is Data Transfer Instructions that are instructions set that transfer data content of a specific register to another. The mover content register remains unchanged as it already stored. Eg MOV A,Rn moves the register to the accumulator. Thirdly is Logic Instructions where in a Cpu the instructions set for logic operations widely depend upon corresponding bits of two registers.
Describe how the main instruction set of the CPU has evolved over time.
In my case the continuation of the MIPS instruction set architecture is as described below. MIPS is one of the traditional set architecture. With introduction of release 5 the evolvement has largely affected how this set instruction have grown and how advance they have evolved and to what extent they have been enabled to reach to the normal programmer and how adaptable they are in terms compatibility with older versions of the base architectures. The evolvement is as describe below
First is the Base Architecture Release 2.8which was an update of the architecture in 2009 concentrated on the memory management unit but with MIPS32 introduction in 1999 the JTLB was standardized. The advancements were support for JTLB MMU where it had more than 64TLB entries, For MIPS64 very huge pages of TLB could now support 1gb to 256tb.Secondly is the Base Architecture Release 3 where in 2010 Micromips instruction set was main feature that replaced both mips32 and mips 64 in helping in reduction of code sizes. Thirdly is the MCU Application Specific Extension ASE and this is an extension of MICROMIPS and it extended features such as: interrupt delivery improvement, interrupt latency improvement and to automatically set and clear bits’ instructions within input/output devices. Fourthly is the Base architecture release 3.5 which in early 2012 the incorporation of release 3.5 was put in to place that added new features such extension of 32-bit life version and this was done by making the address which is virtual more usable depending on the space. Lastly but not least is the Base architecture release 5 which was a basic improvement was the hardware could support visualization and introduction of simple instruction multiple data(SIMD)
Which operating system does the device use? Briefly describe the history of the OS. (If a mobile device, has it evolved from a desktop OS; what recent changes have occurred).
The operating system is the system software that lies between the application software and the hardware and without it a a laptop cannot be called a laptop. Hp ElitebookX360 uses windows 10 which is termed as the latest and last operating system to be produced by Microsoft windows.
In the history of windows and the versions in 1995 GUI extended to MSDOS in windows version which was direct use of command that were keyed in using a keyboard. In 1995 the release was integrated fully in that supported built-in internet. In 2001 release of windows xp most packages of windows were integrated in a one banner which offered multiple editions to consumers. It led to abandonment of earlier windows 95 kernel in use. In 2006 there was introduction of windows vista which had troubles when rolling out and it was resisted in market as it was considered as a consuming system. In 2009 there came the release of windows 7 which was the same as vista but it was noticed to eliminate all problems that existed in vista and its speed and improved requirements.
Windows 8 became in offer in 2012 and could offer start screen that had icons with applications appearing as tiles in a grid format. The feature that was of great importance is the ability of a user to log on to another windows 8 machine and use their preferred settings. Lastly in 2015 windows 10 has come up as an improvement of windows 8 which came with Cortana, a digital PA like Apple’s Siri etc.
Describe the main methods of creating software for the device? (Describe the most common programming methods, which development environments and tools are used).
ARNAN, R., BACHMAT, E., LAM, T.K., and MICHEL, R. 2007. "ACM Trans. on Storage,." Dynamic Data Reallocation in Disk Arrays," vol. 3, vol3: 83-87.
Quinlan., Marshall Kirk McKusick and Sean. 2009. "Gfs: Evolution on fast-forward. ACM." GFS.
ZHANG, Z., and GHOSE, K. 2007. "A Hybrid File System Prototype for Improving Small File and Metadata Performance." HFS ," Proc. Eurosys ACM 175-187.