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To critically compare and contrast two models of early years education.
1. To appraise the theoretical perspectives which underpin the identified models of early year’s education.
2. To justify aspects of effective pedagogy which inform/ influence personal professional philosophy.
3. To communicate in an appropriate academic style, drawing on a wide range of sources, including journal articles, which are referenced accurately using the Harvard Referencing system.
Extra information to support the assignment
1. Introduction - State the purpose of the essay and the two models of education selected. Sign-post the reader to the rest of the essay.
2. A grid to summarise the approach in this country and the international approach for the selected country.
3. The main body of the essay - the comparison and contrast of this country with an international approach (LOs 1, 2 and 4).
4. How your own personal and professional philosophy has been influenced by aspects of effective pedagogy (LOs 3 and 4). 

The Early Years Development Framework in Singapore

The purpose of this essay is to compare and contrast the early years approach in Singapore with that of Australia. The Early Years Development Framework of Singapore puts a high emphasis on the development and welfare of a child between the age of two months and three years in childcare centres (Karuppiah 2015). The structure of Early Years Development Framework includes guiding strategies, educational methods and the preferred outcomes that cater to the learning needs and care of babies and toddlers. This structure was created after a research that was held in union with the National Institute of Education on the prevailing methods of tender care for very young children who were less than four years old (Karuppiah 2015).

The Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework recognizes, and holds the culture of the Aborigines in high regard and their special place in the history of Victoria. It is based on the belief that learning about the Aborigines will increase a child’s sense of place in the community and increase bonding (Karuppiah 2015).

The Early Years Development Framework of Singapore uses a framework to attend to the needs of the children and ensure a holistic development of each child. This framework ensures that children are secure, confident, safe and healthy. It further ensures that children are involved, engaged and enquiring (Karuppiah 2014).

Under the concept of the Developing Child, growth is associated with a change in size, while development refers to changes in complexity and function (Karuppiah 2014). A child develops at home with his parents and other members of the family, in the childcare centre with his teachers, educators and peers. A child needs good food, a safe environment that is culturally stimulating as well as adults who help to support the holistic growth of a child.

The Intentional Programme is flexible to cater to the needs of children. It focuses on interactions and lays emphasis on forging caring relationships. It aims to focus on the exploratory behaviours for development and learning (Karuppiah 2014). Babies who have discovered the joy of walking requires their own environment, which gives them opportunities for movements and a plethora of activities.

The Professional Educarer is receptive to the requirements of a child. He or she is aware of the distinctive phases of development, especially the need for toddlers and infants to build up safe associations and relationships (Karuppiah 2014).

The Involved Family Families play a significant role in a child’s development and parents are considered to be the first teachers of their children (Karuppiah 2014). Parents and child care centres should work in collaboration in order to ensure the optimum growth and welfare of a child.

The Engaged Community The development of a child is affected by the quality of the milieu at home. Secondly, the center’s environment affects the development of a child (Rao 2015). Last but not the least, the larger community also has an effect on the development of a child either directly through play spaces, medical care parks etc or indirectly through family friendly work places, marital counseling centres etc.

The Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework in Australia

Care-giving routines like bathing, changing diapers and feeding a child are the staple of Early Years Development Framework infant and toddler program. The care routine leads to developmental opportunities. It offers daily opportunities to build relationships and leads to a child’s development and learning of their sense of self and autonomy. It also leads to socio- emotional and cognitive development.

In regards to Communication and Language Development, the first three years of children are extremely significant during which language and speech are developed. A child ought to be immersed in a good language environment as it helps them a lot in their language development. Reading books daily to a child and picture talk further facilitate development of language.

As regards to Cognitive Development, Early Numeracy and Problem Solving, this includes the ability to develop a number sense, learning the various attributes of an object, classification and the concept of quantity (Rao 2015).

As regards to Aesthetic experiences, creative experiences offers a child invaluable opportunities to improve a child’s physical, socio-emotional and intellectual development. Art, music etc helps a child to express itself and promote creativity and self esteem and self confidence in children. Art also provides a sensorial learning experience for children (Rao 2015).

As regards to Play as Learning, toddlers develop and grow through play and games. Toddlers and very young children explore the world with their five senses. Different kinds of play foster cognitive, physical, social, linguistic and emotional development in children (Karuppiah 2014).

As regards to Thinking about Spaces, toddlers learn by experiencing about interacting with the environment around them. As infants grow old and reach the age between six and twelve months, they need spaces that help in the physical development. There is a lack of space in Singapore. Thus, one must ensure that whatever space is available, it must be clean, hygienic and safe. It is important to ensure that the environment surrounding a child is safe and healthy. Physical and mental health and hygiene are also important as is food and nutrition. Proper nutrition is extremely essential especially in the early years for proper development of brain. All food groups must be well represented to meet all the nutritional requirements of a child (Karuppiah 2014).

The Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework adopts a complete method to the development and the process of learning in a child. The Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework consider health to be a significant factor for development and learning from birth. The Victorian Early Years Learning and Development recognizes the fact that relationships are important for the well-being of a child and promotes an active building of skills with adults in the community and in their families (Moore 2015).

The Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework believes that children have rights as an individual and is a learner who is a competent being and possesses the ability to learn since birth. The Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework establishes practices and outcomes to direct childhood educators in their work with families and their children ever since birth. The core of Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework is providing support to children to move forward to these outcomes,

Comparing and Contrasting the Models

in conjunction with the families of children (BROWNE 2017). The  Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework draws upon the Early Childhood Australia Code of Ethics 2016 and the Australian Human Rights publication entitled, ‘Supporting Young Children’s Rights Statement of Intent (2015-2018). Thus the Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework aims at supporting children’s development and learning (Colliver 2014).

The early period in a child’s life is extremely important and deeply impacts their development and learning. From the time they are born and up until they are eight years old, the brains of a child goes through rapid change. During this phase in a child’s life, a child develops neutral paths of learning and is vulnerable and open to experiences that are negative in nature. (Redman 2014).

Families and children living in Victoria are offered a plethora of services. Right through the early years of the life of each child, nurses and healthcare professionals work with families to ensure the well being of a child. Families are told to engage in a variety of services including childhood education, playgroups, and kindergarten programs and cultural organizations that include zoos, botanical gardens, museums, historical places etc. All these services result in the development of a child. The Practice Principles that are a part of Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework help to promote children’s learning and development (Colliver 2014). The eight interrelated Practice Principles are Reflective Practice, Partnerships with Families, High Expectations for every child, Respectful relationships and responsive engagements, Equity and diversity, Assessment for development and learning, Integrated learning and teaching approaches and Partnerships with professionals (BROWNE 2017).

Reflective Practice is an important part of the work of all early childhood professionals. Partnerships with Families are equally important as children learn the most from their parents and other members of the family. Families play a huge role in a child’s learning and development.

High expectations and encouragement are closely linked to the capability of a child. Ever since birth, having warm, secure relationships with adults leads to the development and learning of a child. These relationships make a child feel secure and confident to try out new things and learn new concepts and skill. Children’s identity, cultured histories and their family shape their development and learning. Equitable opportunities for children help in their learning and development. Each child has the innate capability to succeed, despite its abilities and circumstances. Assessment of children’s understandings, knowledge, capabilities and skills is an important element of development and promoting development and learning.

Play plays a significant role to the idea of incorporated teaching and approaches to learning. Play is important to integrate and stimulate a plethora of a child’s physical, intellectual, creative and collective abilities (Moore 2015). Through play, a child learns to make sense of the outer world. This leads to children having a  feeling  of identity, they are connected to the world around them, children have a sense of well being, children are positive and concerned learners, and children are able to communicate efficiently. A child’s knowledge is promoted when they indulge with other individuals.

Influence of Effective Pedagogy on Personal Professional Philosophy

Early childhood educators use Transitions to promote learning . Transitions are crucial as they help the educators to understand the interests and abilities of each child and build on these. Starting school is a major transition in the life of a child. It is a challenging experience and is a time of change for both the families and their child as they adjust to new functions, expectations, identities and relationships. A Positive Start to School Initiative seeks to develop the knowledge of starting schools among children by improving the growth of transition programs (BROWNE 2017).

For children with disabilities there is a provision, to make transition from kindergarten to schools, there are supplementary sections of the Transition Learning and Development Statement that ought to be finished so that schools are able to comprehend particular knowledge and necessities to sustain the orientation of a child into a school. Early Abilities Based Learning Education Support (Early ABLES) is also used as an estimation for programming resources and learning  to sustain the growth of education and learning for children with disabilities as they make a transition  into schools (Redman 2014).

The difference between VEYLDF and EYLF is the fact that EYLF is for children between two months and four years of age while VEYLDF is for birth until the child is eight years of age. VEYLDF places a great emphasis on recognizing and respecting Aboriginal cultures unlike EYLF. EYLF is more about the various practices, principles and the five learning outcomes. The Early Years Learning Framework was authorized by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) in 2009 and gives a common early childhood language to all educators who are working with children. Essential and intrinsic to EYLF is a view of a child’s life characterized by belonging, being and becoming.

On the other hand, the Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework is a state framework for all educators who work with children from birth up until the children are eight years old. It includes the Victorian Essential Learning Standards used in schools in Victoria. Essential and intrinsic to the VEYLDF is the outlook in the shared knowledge for the successful transition of a child to school. The Transition: A Positive Start to School Initiative aims to enhance a child’s experience in starting school by improving delivery and development of transition programs. It further initiates the Transition Learning and Development Statement.

Aspects of effective pedagogy have influenced my personal and professional philosophy largely. I have learnt a lot on how to interact, engage and teach children. It has made me a better person and has made me more patient, compassionate and caring. The Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework have taught me to ensure that all the rights of children are met. These rights that are present in the United Nation Convention on the Rights of the Child include right to life and development of the being, the right to non-discrimination, the right to be heard, the right to uphold the rights and interests of the child (Karuppiah 2014).

Conclusion

In this way, I have learnt to support young children’s development and learning by taking a leaf from the Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework. The Early Years Development Framework aims at making children well rounded individuals and it has taught me to focus on the mental, emotional, physical and social well being of a child. One of my duties is also to ensure that centres, families and the community connect and relate to one another for the proper development and well-being of a child. The desired outcomes of Early Years Development Framework is that children are confident and secure, the programmes offer ample opportunities for growth, learning and development, and I as an educator have learnt to take part in reflective practices.

I have learnt that the first three years of a child’s life is very important in learning and development of a child. This includes the capability to experience and express emotions, to form satisfying relationships and to explore learn about themselves and the world around them. Both of these frameworks have made me a more receptive person and I have become more aware of the temperament of every child under my care and with this insight, I ensure a caring situation to ease exploration, play and learning. This has made me more patient and approachable as a person.

Conclusion:

The Early Years Development Framework leads to an all round development of a child. It begins with babies who are as young as two months up to children who are three years old. The Early Years Development Framework and Nurturing Early Learner’s Framework support children’s development and learning from two months to six years. Caring adults who are respectful individuals contributes significantly to the increase of security in a child, confidence, emotional stability and independence. Consultation with teachers, educators, childhood experts, supervisors and parents ensured that the structure of these guidelines was based on thorough research while being pertinent to children in Singapore.

The Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework aims to support development and learning in a child from the time a child is born up until eight years. This is done by enabling childhood professionals and educators to collaborate and also with families to attain common goals for each child. The Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework set high expectations for all children throughout Victoria in all communities and creates opportunities for families and educators to advance development and learning outcomes.

The Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Program stresses on the importance of responsive, sensitive and practice that is engaging. It collaborates and interacts with children, their families and other educators involved in childcare. The Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Program persist to be used as the very basis of research for formulating policies for early childhood and the efficacy of programs. By developing a language that is common and comprehending the knowledge and growth outcomes of children, the Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework supports increased coordination and integration of childhood services. The Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework is followed as educators for children connect with it and employ it to notify the practice for the long term and immediate advantage for every child living in Victoria.

References

BROWNE, K., 2017. Problematising the present: the historical contribution of consultancy to early childhood education in Australia: 1960-1985.

Chancellor, B. and Hyndman, B., 2017. The rush to judgement: Mapping moral geographies of the primary school playground. Global Studies of Childhood, 7(1), pp.38-50.

Chigeza, P. and Sorin, R., 2016. Kindergarten Children Demonstrating Numeracy Concepts through Drawings and Explanations: Intentional Teaching within Play-Based Learning. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 41(5), pp.65-77.

Colliver, Y.J., 2014. The aim of the game: Insider stakeholders' perspectives on learning through play.

Eadie, P., Tayler, C. and Stark, H., 2017. Every Toddler Talking Final Report.

Garvis, S., Harju-Luukkainen, H. and Flynn, T., 2018. A Descriptive Study of Early Childhood Education Steering Documents in Finland, Sweden and Australia around Language Immersion Programmes. Asia-Pacific Journal of Research in Early Childhood Education.

Grieshaber, S. and Graham, L.J., 2017. Equity and educators enacting the Australian early years learning framework. Critical Studies in Education, 58(1), pp.89-103.

Karuppiah, N., 2014. Early childhood education in Asia: Singapore.

Karuppiah, N., 2015. Childcare staff and parents’ beliefs about quality care for infants/toddlers in centre-based programs in Singapore.

Keary, A. and Kirkby, J., 2017. ‘Language shades everything’: Considerations and implications for assessing young children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. TESOL in Context, 26(1).

Moore, T., 2015. Early intervention and inclusion for young children with developmental disabilities.

Moore, T.G., 2015. Towards full inclusion in early childhood: progress and challenges. Keynote presentation at NSW Inclusion Support Agencies Professional Development Day, Sydney, 25th March.

Morrissey, A.M. and Nolan, A., 2015. Just another meeting?: Investigating mentoring for early childhood teachers in Victoria. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 40(2), p.40.

O'Brien, F. and Herbert, S., 2015. Colour, magnets and photosynthesis. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 40(1), p.42.

Pilsworth, N., MacBean, C., Tayler, C., Page, J., Eadie, P. and Niklas, F., 2017. Victorian Advancing Early Learning Study Final Report.

Quinones, G. and Ridgway, A., 2015. Early Childhood Pre-Service Students' Transitioning into Discourses of Professional Practice. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 40(1), p.n1.

Rao, N., 2015. Enhancing Curriculum, Pedagogy and Assessment to support the development of 21st century skills in our youngest learners. In Early Childhood Conference and Carnival (ECDA). Singapore.

Redman, C., 2014. The Melbourne Graduate School of Education Master of Teaching. In Successful Teacher Education (pp. 11-29). SensePublishers, Rotterdam.

Rouse, E.J., 2014. Effective family partnerships in early childhood education and care: An investigation of the nature of interactions between educators and parents (Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University).

Swinkels, K., 2016. Mathematically-rich interactions in early childhood centres (No. Ph. D.). Deakin University.

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