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Energy Savings in High-Performance Telecommunication Networks

Your aim is to discover relevant, peer-reviewed, academic research articles on a computing topic chosen by you. This topic should be the same topic as that on which you base your project proposal (Part 2 of this ICA). Your list of articles should include some primary research, not just papers that summarise the literature or give a personal opinion. In your Part 1 report you should describe your full literature search and review process:
1. Short introduction of your topic.
2. Your repeated cycles of define search question, search, assess results, refine question, refine search, assess results, refine question etc.
3. Your criteria, with reasons, for deciding the relevance to your topic of articles that you found and therefore their inclusion or exclusion from your final list.
4. Your conclusions about the results of your literature search, and your evaluation of the search’s limitations.
5. A reference list with full reference details for your final set of papers, Teesside University Harvard style, use Cite-them-right: Bibtex if using the Latex editor.
Part 1, your literature search/review report, should be a maximum of 2000 words excluding references. As a guide, you should aim to have a final list of 10-30 papers that are the most relevant to your chosen research topic.

Write a proposal for a new research project which could end up as your masters project. Your proposal should mostly draw upon the papers that you found in Part 1 (but you can include additional references). It should contain the following sections, with the headings and numbering as shown in bold below, and in this order:
1. Research purpose. Introduce and explain the research’s purpose, including a single overall research question that will be addressed by the research. You must also define the anticipated product(s) i.e. the anticipated contribution to knowledge.
2. Background context. Discuss previous academic research in your topic area, and how your project will relate to that previous work. The majority of your cited references in this section should be to the papers that you found in Part 1 of this ICA.
3. Research methodology. Explain and justify the intended research methodology by which you will address and answer your research question. The research methodology should consist of one or more research strategies, one or more data generation methods and, if appropriate, your intended data analysis techniques.
4. Evaluation methodology. Explain and justify how you plan to evaluate your end product(s) or contribution to knowledge. Note that masters projects are expected to include third party evaluation of the end product if at all possible.
5. Schedule and publishing. Explain the set of tasks, the timescale for each task and hence the timescale for the overall research - include within this section a Gantt chart which captures your schedule visually. Allow 13 weeks from ‘project start’ to ‘hand-in of all project work’ (you need not include the presentation & viva, which normally come after the hand-in). Also identify, with reasons, the academic journal or conference for which you will prepare your project’s final research paper.
6. Professional, legal and ethical issues. Discuss any professional, legal and ethical issues that your proposal raises, and explain how they will be addressed. This includes identifying which level of ethical clearance will be required from the School’s Research Ethics Committee.
References. All references cited in the proposal should be listed alphabetically at the end of the proposal (Teesside University Harvard style, use Cite-them-right:  and all references listed at the end should be cited in the proposal. Highlight in yellow those references in your list at the end of Part 2 which also appeared in your final list of 10-30 papers at the end of Part 1.

Part 2, your project proposal, should be a maximum of 2500 words, excluding references. Don’t use appendices as a way of including extra material which does not appear in your word count!

Energy Savings in High-Performance Telecommunication Networks

Power consumption is very high for the transmission that needs high-performance networks than low networks in a telecommunication system. However, in most of the existing bandwidth scheduling operates from the traditional methods such as the data transfer time of minimization. The little effort has been put in place to save the energy in the High-performance network. Bandwidth scheduling is considered an important factor in the data transfer between the given networks (Dixit, Lannoo, Colle, Pickavet and Demeester 2015). The increasing number of internet connections call for the high performance, in the end, to end networks results in the energy consumption between the Networks. The number of network deployment has provided the link through the on demand and the advance scheduling resulting in the application of the high-performance network (Galante et al. 2016). The algorithm and the path computation are critical elements needed for the bandwidth scheduling associated with the fixed slots of a network and its respective available bandwidth for the given slots and all the available slots in the computation. The available algorithm for the bandwidth scheduling is based on the extending of breadth-first search (Ghouma and Jaseemuddin 2015). A large number of commercial and scientific applications always generate number of data based on the order of petabytes from terabytes which must be transported across all extensive area networks. An excellent example of the process is when the large simulation is generated by the science application on the source to the remote storage site.

The research paper addressed the problem of bandwidth scheduling for the double layer network operating as a learning network. The auction mechanism we employed to deal with the issue and also the application of bandwidth scheduling methodology appropriate.This was introduced for the allocation of the allocation of each subsection. The system is designed for the formulation of non-cooperative game fairness (Ghouma and Jaseemuddin 2015). The estimation of distribution is used under this framework to obtain the Equilibrium for the Nash Networks finally. The simulation and experimental results are bows used to demonstrate all the effects the proposed method. The system used is one of the best for giving out the quality output related to the bandwidth scheduling and other computational algorithms related to telecommunications.

The Network controlled Systems the examples of the multiple feedbacks which are always closed through the serial of the communication channels. If compared to various traditional systems, this new technology has some advantages which include the following:

sharing of the information sources,

compelling diagnosis,

distribution of remote control

There is also the option of modulation design and finally its low cost and flexibility in its configuration (Galante et al. 2016). As a result of these, the NCS has been very useful in different fields such as the national defense, the automation of industrial systems such as in aircraft, intelligent sector, the financial management and process control (Ghouma and Jaseemuddin 2015). In addition to these, there are a number of useful results that are associated with the process and also associated with the protocol if the network. Examples of such results are the induced delay in networks, the packet droplets of the system, the structure if the NCs, security, scheduling and other network constraints (Hameed 2016).

Importance of Bandwidth Scheduling in Data Transfer

It is also notable that some researchers mainly focus on the single layer structure kind of a network; their results have been reported on the NCs and the double layer structure of the system. The Learning control system of a network which has a double layer structure can obtain the better control and performance if the systems regarding their robustness and quality(Galante et al. 2016).However, in real time NCs in a provider network, a random induced delay can sometimes have an impact on the stability related to its performance in the whole system (Hameed 2016). On the other hand, the bandwidth availability is considered as one of the solutions to some network related problems in a telecommunication system. An example of a suitable network scheduling gives the appropriate allocation to all the resources in a network node which helps in the reduction of the packet collisions. The performance if its application is considered as directly being affected by the number of existing bandwidth and also the sampling rate of the same bandwidth scheduling.This implies that the quality of any service and its control does bit only depend on the algorithm of the system but also on the structure of the system; the scheduling of the networks also become a crucial factor of the consideration (Ismail, Gamage, Zhuang, Shen, Serpedin and Qaraqe 2015).The optimal allocation of the network bandwidth is considered as a key to the improvement of the Quality of Control as well as the Quality of Service.From the above discussion, the bandwidth scheduling and optimizing are also studied, and the arguments are majorly based on the NCLs in the entire paper.

The wireless network technology has extensively accessed the given technology in connection with the remote user terminal with its primary network within the system (Restrepo, Salcedo-Parra and Sánchez-Céspedes 2017). The Quality of Service is considered as one of the parameters which can be used when the data transfer between all the user terminals is available to the network and system administrator. By using the WiMAX technology, the Quality of Service is then determined by the use of MAC layer; but the allocation of the bandwidth scheduling algorithm is much defined by Quality of Service but not as defined by the IEE 802.16 and its network structure (Shawish and Salama 2014). The research of this paper evaluates and makes a comparison of a various existing algorithm which is used in the designing of the IEE 802.16 WiMAX protocol. This system then helps in the improvement of Quality of Service.The following represents some of the keywords used commonly in the research paper: Wimax, Schedule, the QoS, the given bandwidth, the allocation of scheduling and finally the IEE 802.16.

From the research paper above, different terms are found to be useful for the study in the network scheduling. The WiMAX ( the worldwide interoperability for the microwave Access); this a telecommunication technology which is applied in the design of the network protocols in improving the effectiveness of the data transmission by use of different modes of transmission such as the point to multipoint technology (Restrepo, Salcedo-Parra and Sánchez-Céspedes 2017). WiMAX is considered as one of the high performings to the end to end of all the network protocols. The features are unique and also increase the rate of data transfer, high performance of the system, somewhat secured communication between the data among others. The main types of WiMAX technology include the following: mobile and the fixed nature of WiMAX system.The mobile model of Wimax can enable the user to access the internet when traveling while the set form of WiMAX, its stations can provide the wireless internet.

Critical Elements in Bandwidth Scheduling

The trends in the telecommunication infrastructure with the packet networks have brought about the primary question of the quality of service.Different methods can assign the priorities inflow according to the various needs in network nodes as related to the Quality of Service. The queue scheduling algorithm technique used in the network is fundamental in choosing the output for describing the packets from the queue (Marinescu 2017). The system is therefore designed to give the division of the bandwidth optimally. One of the algorithms that of can decide according to the priorities is the primary component of the modern QoS which supports the network. In case there is a need for the configuration for the optimum algorithms, there is need to calculate the simulation of the settings to give the desired results which will have the impact on the quality of service.

There are some bandwidth scheduling algorithm and respective bandwidth allocation models that have been very useful for the desirable estimation (Vu, Tran, Juntti and Hong 2015). The most model that is preferred by the engineers is the WFQ which is commonly used as a model for the traffic engineering in the telecommunication field. Allocation if the bandwidth helps the engineers in designing and coming up with the appropriate model for simulation.

The genetic algorithm for the processes scheduling in the distributed system of a network in the systems considering the load balancing.

The main work and purpose are to present and evaluate all the methods in the scheduling of a distributed network. The system has a significant role in the performance of the distribution and the scheduling platforms of a network system. All the problems associated with the system is solved through the means of an NP-complete system of a telecommunication system. The data analysis of the research is to be done through the simulation of all the findings in a laboratory network. The scheduling of the distribution system is considered as a critical factor in the overall performance and the efficiency of given network in a field of telecommunication engineering. In a Distributed Computing Systems (DCS) there is always a combination of processors which are connected within the given network. The process involves the connection of operations to the processors for the total execution of time be minimized; utilization processes should also be minimized, and finally, the load balancing maximized. Several methods have been considered as a way of solving the problem of Distributed Computing Systems (DCS).Some of the examples of the proposed strategies for this solution include the following: the graph -theory-based applications, mathematical methods that use the models and finally the heuristic technique.

The above models are mainly used to solve the problem that is experienced due to load balancing. The proper modeling and use of the mathematical models help in the analysis and understanding the simulation system within the given network in a telecommunication system (Dixit, Lannoo, Colle, Pickavet and Demeester 2015). The balancing of the load is essential because it is used to spread the load, minimization of the execution time and at the same time, the system administrators will be able to use one processor to connect a variety of processes. Virtualization technologies are one of the areas that have attracted the number of people in the development systems. It is considered as one of the fundamental technologies that should be improved on.The proposed research is set to improve the quality of service and efficient system.

Evaluation of Bandwidth Scheduling Algorithms


The review tries to compare all the wireless and the standard networks during the transfer of data. From the study, a proposed project does not require the information from the sender for the bandwidth allocation and scheduling. The review of the literature acts as an eye opener to the research of the proposed topic. The subject of discussion in all the reviewed paper summarized the bandwidth technology requirement into both the quality of service and the quality of assurance. Some several research should always be encouraged to improve the network protocol and topology of the telecommunication system. The systems performance and efficiency are one of the requirements for the design of the related project. The project is considered as one of the best improvement of the data transfer regarding speed and cost. Bandwidth scheduling has a variety of functionalities that ranges from the radio applications to the network protocols.For the effective operation of any bandwidth system.

Chapter One


The paper deals mostly with bandwidth slot allocation, calculation, and the analysis in the active and passive of the optical networks. The fundamental principle applied in the slotting of the bandwidth allocation for the upstream in the telecommunication is known as MPCP protocol of the messages in the system. The project has both the down and upstream for its functionality. Some of the results of the high performance can be accomplished by some network topologies within the provider network. Several simulations have been made to cater for the rise in some optical units (Vu, Tran, Juntti and Hong 2015). The central topology is introduced during the workflow to strengthen the simulation, the transmission of data and also helps in the handling of the network and the upstream traffic scheduling for the completion of the allocation of the bandwidth. The project majorly focuses on the utilization of the system, the calculation of the delay and the overall eventuality in the system delay. For proper functionality of all the networks, bandwidth scheduling becomes one the critical issue that should be looked into. High-performance networks need adequate bandwidth scheduling with efficient slots within their networks (Vu, Tran, Juntti and Hong 2015).

Transfer of the significant data in the high-performance networks from all the scope requires a lot of energy for its daily functionality.Some of the bandwidth scheduling only uses the old methods which have brought very minimal effort in achieving the quality of the data transfer within the high-performance network. In the efficient performance of the project, some models are proposed to give the active data transfer within the high-performance network of a bandwidth scheduling. Some of the models used include the following, the power down and the speed scaling which can formulate the bandwidth scheduling which minimizes all the energy consumption under the transfer of data deadline and all the constraints and the reliability (Ghouma and Jaseemuddin 2015).There NP-completeness of the problems can be improved through the design of an approximation of the algorithm and another heuristic approach which will consider the issue between the objective optimality and the practicing time cost for the issue by the use of speed scheduling model. The performance of the superiority of the system is measured through the analysis of the results based on the simulation and real-time networks with a comparison of other given networks in the existing methods.Bandwidth is define as the space thatvallows the flow of data within the given period of time.The strength of the bandwidth is determined bby the amount of data that passes through any medium of communication. The unit of a bandwidth is measured in byte or kilobyte per second. For example the system which had the greater bandwidth is able to transfer the large amount of data than the bandwidth with the small bandwidth.The system should therefore have characteristics which is able to transfer the large amount of data at a specific period of time.

Network Controlled Systems

The increase in the number of the performance networks and the production networks always has the capability of providing the dedicated channels within the system for the high speed in the transfer of data which will support the significant applications. Due to the above reason, there is a need for coming up with a project to give the solution the problem during the transfer of data at high performance. Each of the channels within the networks always consists of one or more physical links which will be share3d by the various applications for both bandwidth and time to the reservation. Designing of the efficient algorithm of the scheduling bandwidth will be critical in maximizing the utilization of the dedication of the network resources within the end to end transport of the performance requirement. The challenges and problems associated with data transfer at high-performance efficiency will be solved by coming up with the best system which will be able to use the variety of topologies within the network for the different bandwidth scheduling (Vu, Tran, Juntti and Hong 2015). The bandwidth allocation has also brought a lot challenges in the field of wireless sensor networks; for this reason, the project is aimed at surveying the trending bandwidth reservation regarding the current states in the area of study. The bandwidth scheduling is also considered as time slot allocations in the pure TDMA or TDMA/CSMA based network systems. In addition to these, bandwidth allocation and scheduling were traditionally regarded as one of the problems asso9ciated with the various multiplexing techniques which include FDMA, CDMA, and TDMA; the survey will first examine the bandwidth allocation and the scheduling approaches in the star kind of topology. All these approaches will be discussed with all the limitations and strengths the further direction of the same research in the same field.Bandwidth scheduling with therefore gives some solution from both the v[private and public network companies which uses the high performance of the networks.

The aim of the research is to

.Design a system with greater bandwidth for efficiency and high performance network

.Compare the functionality of the designed system with the available system within the field.

.Improve the already available system to meet the quality of high performance bandwidth of the high network.

.What are the component requirements of designing a bandwidth with high performance netwok ?

.What is the efficiency and the performance of the available system in the field?

.What changes should be done to improve on the already existing system in the field? 

This chapter discusses the related review about the topic of research as already analyzed in assignment one above.

The theme of bandwidth performance on high efficiency is one of vote reach area of study that has called for some research and related conferences. The following are the related study to the research topic.

The cloud users had a combination of the computer virtualization, automation of the software and the connectivity of the internet which could help in the provision of the required services. The following represents the essential elements of the cloud computing, the client, server and the connectivity of the network. In this type of research, the cloud computing allows the user to access both the public and private services within the computer which creates the more and flexible system regarded as cost friendly. The computer system forms a hybrid model which provides various functions within the required service. The constituents of the cloud computing include web-based applications, data as a service the infrastructure of the computer as a service, the software as a service and the implementation of the email as a service. This research is consider5ed vas a very useful since there is additional virtualized storage which can help during the transfer of a significant amount of data, the system also increases the speed of data transfer hence it is considered as one of the most efficient and cost-effective in the field of telecommunications and networking. The cloud computing operates under the virtualization of data in the unseen server.The combination of cloud computing and the bandwidth scheduling and allocation inefficient and high-performance network can lead to an efficient system which oper5ates under minimum real time and also considered the most cost-effective.

Wireless Network Technology

The wireless technology is considered as technology which is extensively used in the access of the network in both the areas of the consideration within the system. One of the parameters commonly used in this process is the quality of the service. The WiMAX technology uses various technologies within the telecommunication engineering in the transfer of data by the use of different technological systems (Vu, Tran, Juntti and Hong 2015). The paper also compares the analysis of the wireless allocation and scheduling with the relation to the transfer of data within the given network. The centralized result of the bandwidth scheduling and allocation for the network is one which does not require the information from both the senders of the bandwidth systems.

This chapter contains the research methodology intended to be used in the research; this includes all the strategies and data analysis methods for the study. The following are some of the methods that will be utilized to realize the intended objective of the study.

The model methodology is one of the strategies intended to be used in the design and implementation of the quality project. The modeling is one of the representations of the real-time for a planned system with the core objective of making the projected to a limited and also in representation of components which then allow for the connection between the qualitative and quantitative discussion of the project's properties.Modeling is purely not described as the object of the research, but it is considered as the part of the instrument of research. The process of building a model is always driven by the research which will be used to make the model itself.

Apart from modeling as a research methodology to be implemented in the study, the experimental will also be used as research as a method of research (Dixit, Lannoo, Colle, Pickavet and Demeester 2015). Experimental methodology is the practical demonstration of the actual project either through the simulation or the actual of demonstration of the project within the laboratory. The experimental method will be very useful by considering the following aspect of the procedure. The experimental research has a number of advantages over other research methods .In this kind of research a number of results can be verified over a long period of time. The researcher has a control over the experiment therefore he is able to get the results which cannot thrive in a natural environment. A number of modifications can be made since the research is always done within the laboratory and the researcher is able to get the results that he desires. Due to these reasons a number of researchers always prefer to use thus method for the quality result.

Speed is considered as one of the important factors considered during the exploratory study for the experimental work. The setting up of the materials and tools for the experiment is one of the first things to be considered before the start of the experiment.The presentation of the actual project forms the last part of the project and gives the final image of the component or the system developed.


The results of the experiment will be analyzed in the laboratory through simulation and another computer-related report and the associated software. Statistical data analysis will be implemented to the numerical data. The results of the experiments will first be received through a prototype from the clients before the final system is taken for the final and full implementation.

The research will use two primary methods for the realization of the quality system which is much welcomed by the clients. The results from the experiments and modeling will both be taken to the laboratory for the verification. Prototyping of the designed systems will be encouraged before the actual project is decided. The feedback from the customers will be a definite indication whether the applied method is appropriate or not. The acquired knowledge will be advantageous in application and improvement of the most recent research. All the results achieved from the experimental research can also be analyzed through the project exhibition combined with the project simulation. Through the repeat of the experiment in the lab, the researcher is able to have a final project with good qualities as required .The proposed research shall first be taken to the supervisor for approval. Thus will act as the evaluation of the third party in projects evaluation and approval.

The proposed research project will be govern by the legal and ethical issues during the actual research. All the experiments shall be done in the laboratory and all the findings shall remain as the custodian of the lead researcher. The consent I'd the respondents will be highly maintained. All the data collected shall be purposely used for the research. One of professional issue to be addressed by the project is to come up with a system which us cost effective and also the one which gas a greater bandwidth. The experimental procedures shall be followed in getting the results the findings. The particulars of the respondents and the questionnaire shall be handed over to the school research committee before the actual work begins. Proper training will also be offered to the respondents by the assistant research leader at the beginning of the process.

The chapter contains the findings of the study with respect to the aims and objectives. The following represents some of the findings of the research study related to the topic of to be achieved.

The performance of the system to be designed -With the features of the proposed project, the system is able to transfer the large amount of data within a short period of time. The system is able to give a greater bandwidth within the network at a high performance.

Most of the bandwidth systems used in the field are not able to transfer the large amount of data due to their size of the bandwidth. The proposed system has a greater efficiency and large bandwidth compared to the available system within the field .For this reason much time and energy should be taken in the full implementation of the project.

After the full implementation of the project, some changes and improvements should be done to the already existing system. The research shows that the already existing systems is very expensive in terms of data transfer and cost if the system itself; different changes should be done in order to meet the requirements of the greater bandwidth at high frequencies and high performances.

The format of the final report shall take the format of the research paper represented by the followed reference. This journal paper gives a step by step explanation of all the experiments and the findings of the researched project.

  • Marinescu, D.C., 2017. Cloud computing: theory and practice. Morgan Kaufmann.
  • Restrepo, C.M., Salcedo-Parra, O.J. and Sánchez-Céspedes, J.M., 2017. Traffic model for the interconnection of networks and operators using MPLS-TE/Modelo de tráfico para la interconexión de redes y operadores con MPLS-TE/Modelo de tráfego para a interconexão de redes e operadores com MPLS-TE. Revista Facultad de Ingeniería, 26(44), p.85. Retrieved from






week three


Week four

week five

and week


Week seven


Week eight

Week nine







Analyzing the topic of the proposal and identifying the required components

Research on the project idea.

Working together with supervisor on the in depth knowledge of the project.

Sketching on the models of project.

Beginning the actual project by deciding on the computer language if any

Assembling all the programming software.

Practical work on the project/exhibits.

Writing the draft project.

Taking the project for the experiments in the laboratory

Taking the project for a prototype and explain the important features and their application areas

Receiving of the feedback from the clients.

Performing difference maintenance of the project by debugging and testing.

Writing a final project report ready for presentations

Conclusion and Recommendation


The project proposal if fully implemented will give quality and efficient system which can send data in large number. The system is considered to be one of the most cost-effective and efficient regarding time consumption and the related factors in the high performances of the bandwidth network. With the full implementation of the project different companies which offer the bandwidth allocation shall be able to come up with a strong bandwidth which is able to transfer a large amount of data within the effective cost and affordable time.

I, therefore, recommend for the full implementation of the project. All the findings and results of the research should be implemented to realize the improvement of network technologies about the telecommunication technologies.


Dixit, A., Lannoo, B., Colle, D., Pickavet, M. and Demeester, P., 2015. Energy efficient dynamic bandwidth allocation for Ethernet passive optical networks: Overview, challenges, and solutions. Optical Switching and Networking, 18, pp.169-179. Retrieved from

Galante, G., De Bona, L.C.E., Mury, A.R., Schulze, B. and da Rosa Righi, R., 2016. An analysis of public clouds elasticity in the execution of scientific applications: a survey. Journal of Grid Computing, 14(2), pp.193-216. Retrieved from

Ghouma, H. and Jaseemuddin, M., 2015, October. Context aware resource allocation and scheduling for mobile cloud. In Cloud Networking (CloudNet), 2015 IEEE 4th International Conference on (pp. 67-70). IEEE. Retrieved from

Hameedgy efficient resource allocation techniques for cloud computing systems. Computing, 98(7), pp.751-774. Available at:

Ismail, M., Gamage, A.T., Zhuang, W., Shen, X., Serpedin, E., and Qaraqe, K., 2015. Uplink decentralized joint bandwidth and power allocation for energy-efficient operation in a heterogeneous wireless medium. IEEE transactions on communications, 63(4), pp.1483-1495.retrieved from

Marinescu, D.C., 2017. Cloud computing: theory and practice. Morgan Kaufmann.

Restrepo, C.M., Salcedo-Parra, O.J. and Sánchez-Céspedes, J.M., 2017. Traffic model for the interconnection of networks and operators using MPLS-TE/Modelo de tráfico para la interconexión de redes y operadores con MPLS-TE/Modelo de tráfego para a interconexão de redes e operadores com MPLS-TE. Revista Facultad de Ingeniería, 26(44), p.85. Retrieved from

Shawish, A. and Salama, M., 2014. Cloud computing: paradigms and technologies. In Inter-cooperative collective intelligence: Techniques and applications (pp. 39-67). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Retrieved from

Vu, Q.D., Tran, L.N., Juntti, M.J. and Hong, E.K., 2015. Energy-Efficient Bandwidth and Power Allocation for Multi-Homing Networks. IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, 63(7), pp.1684-1699. Retrieved from

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