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In vivo methods for recording neuron activity

Questions:

1.Describe a method that would allow an electrophysiologist to confidently record the activity from just a single neuron, and explain how this is different to the extracellular recordings performed in the laboratory class?

2.What neuronal properties account for the stereotyped shape of action potentials?

3.identify and explain the range of frequencies that is critical for resolving, or observing, action potentials. Based on this range of frequencies, describe what filter(s) are most useful for observing action potentials?

4.How and why cold temperatures affect action potential conduction in cockroaches. Compare the effects of temperature on action potential conduction in humans and cockroaches and account for any differences?

5.When playing music to the electrodes in the cockroach leg, the leg moves. What type of sounds, or music, caused the largest movements of the cockroach leg, and why?

1. The main aim of electrophysiology is to record the activity of neurons. In vivo methods are used to record the activities from a single neuron. Through this method, the neuron cells are able to pass the important message through integration and propagation of electrical signals. The neurons are of different sizes and shapes but they play the same organized function of the transmission of the signals. The dendrites are able to receive the signals from other neurons through this method and then send them through synapses. The major difference in this method and the extracellular recordings performed in lab is that this method is able to involve both chemical and electrical signals in the transmission of the signals (Gustavo et al., 2012). The laboratory test is able to involve only the electrical signals when transmitting the signal. The fact that the extracellular recordings is under control means that one can divert the signals to follow different paths and therefore able to record different recordings from multiple neurons. In addition, the.polarization of the membrane is able to allow the observation of the activity at different potentials and therefore able to record it at different points (Gordh and Headrick, 2009). The action potential is able to pass at one point and therefore causing a recording at that point. The extracellular electrodes are able to detect very small potential changes and therefore making it possible to record those changes. Lastly, the electrode is usually connected to the positive input of the voltage recording. This makes it possible to record the action potential whenever they happen. 

2. The neuronal property, which is able to account for the stereotyped shape of action potential, is the distance of placement of the electrodes from the neuron. The stabilization of the electrical conductivity is usually achieved when the electrodes are placed on far distance from the neurons (Gustavo et al., 2012). The stabilization of the acyional potential is able to produce the same stereotyped shape. Similar shaped will be produced at this level and able to lead to similar properties and shape type. When the electrodes are placed near the neuron, the action potential from the positive electrode and the negative potential from the negative electrode are able to collide. This is able to cause difference in the shape produced at any moment. Another key element, which is able to lead to the difference of the stereotyped shapes, is the extracellular fluid. The fluid is able to account for the speed at which the signal will be send and therefore the detection level. Ionic currents are able to move at different speed leafing to the.formation of the different shapes at the end (Della, Santinaa and Lewisa, 2013). The electrical potential measuring instrument is at times able to result to the stereotyped shape. The manner on which this instrument is able to measure and record the potentials is able to dictate the shapes, which will be achieved at any given moment between two points. The instrument nature of sensing the signal will therefore be a key property on the shape, which will be produced. The electrical potential between the electrodes will determine the speed and recording of the shape at the different points.

Difference between in vivo and extracellular recordings


3
. The filtering of the voltages is able to range from 0.1Hz and 300 Hz on the high pass and on the low pass filters between 0.3 to 20 kHz coupled with 60 Hz notch filters. Signals have to be filtered and observed properly at different frequencies in order to allow the amplification of action potential. Filtering of the voltages is essential to ensure that the best response is attained at specific voltage during the filtering process. The action of the cockroach's nerve action will differ according to the voltage at which it is exposed unto (Kruszelnicki, 2006). The sensory conduction differs according to the voltages at which the cockroach is exposed. This ensures that the monitoring of the voltage filtering between the given ranges is done closely in order to note the action potentials during the changes of the voltages. Therapeutic effects also depend on the voltage changes and therefore these action and effects has to be monitored well to ensure the effects are noted. Nevertheless, these effects can be noted at different levels and thus require close monitoring. 

4. The nerve conduction changes when the temperature around the bodies changes. The skin temperature is able to change when the cockroach are cooled. Nevertheless, the cooling does not stop the physiological level of response and this is able to induce hypoalgesic effect on the cockroach. Sensorial and tibial motor nerves are are in action and even under cooling, the nerves are still in action (Gullan and Cranston, 2014). The cooling is able to affect the upper skin and its sense and therefore affect the action. Reduction of the sensory nerve conducting velocity is usually achieved when the cockroach is cooled. The conduction parameters are able to change and this leads to change in action of the cockroach body when cooled. The reduced temperature is able to affect the upper skin operation of the cockroach skin. This does not prevent the inner nerves to produce and transmit the signals. This is able to induce the required electrical and chemical signals leading to the action potentials. It is possible to record the sensory action potential since the therapeutic effects are able to induce movement on the cockroach and enhance the response required.

The difference on the action potential conduction in human and cockroaches are far different. Under the cooling effect, the nerves of the human beings are affected and their action potential is affected. This is contrary to the cockroach aspects where the cooling only affects the upper skills and not the inner nerves (Rentz, 2014). The human nerves will be unable to stimulate the action in order to create the potential difference. Potential conduction in human is usually low under the exposure to low temperature. Therapeutic effect is largely seen where the motor nerves in human beings are unable to act under the cooling effects. This is a key difference, which is attained between the actions of the specimen when exposed to cooling effect.

5. When playing the music, the high frequency sounds are able to produce the most movements. This proves that high frequencies are able to produce high stimulation to the leg muscles (Harper, 2009). The increase in volume leads to low frequency sounds and therefore producing high movements of the legs. The low frequencies are able to produce the best response to the legs of the cockroach. In addition, at high frequencies, coupled with more volumes are able to stimulate the movement of the legs. The sound is able to produce produce some magnetic fields which produce signals for the legs to move. The sound is able to stimulate the cockroach nerves and therefore causing the movements (Dagda et al., 2013). Sound waves produce electrical waves, which make the cockroach legs to respond according to the frequency level on he music or sound produced. Ulnar nerve simulation is able to.depend on the electrical frequencies, which induce the simulation. Increase on the electrical frequencies is able to increase the simulation. This is the same aspect where the increasing the frequency of the sound causes the larger movement of the cockroach legs. The ulnar nerves are able to response slow to the articulation of the low electrical stimulation. The same response is seen in the cockroach when the.sound is made on the legs. High frequency sound high response of the legs whiles the low frequency sound produce low response on the legs.

References

Dagda R. K., Thalhauser R. M., Dagda, R., Marzullo, T. C., Gage, G. J., (2013). Using Crickets to Introduce Neurophysiology to Early Undergraduate Students. Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education (JUNE), Fall 2013, 12(1):A66-A74

Harper, D. (2009). "Cockroach". Online Etymology Dictionary.

Gordh, G.  and Headrick, D. H. (2009). A Dictionary of Entomology (2nd ed.). Wallingford: CABI. p. 200.

Gustavo, R. K., et al. (Nov. 2012). "The Adaptive Bases Algorithm for Intensity-Based Nonrigid Image Registration." IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 22, No. 11 pp. 1470-1479.

Della, C. C., Santinaa, G., T., and. Lewisa, K., E. (March 2013). Multi-unit recording from regenerated bullfrog eighth nerve using implantable silicon-substrate microelectrodes. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. Volume 72, Issue 1.

Rentz, D. (2014). A Guide to the Cockroaches of Australia. CSIRO Publishing.

Kruszelnicki, K. S. (23 February 2006). "Cockroaches and Radiation". ABC Science.

Gullan, P. J. and Cranston, P. S. (2014). The Insects: An Outline of Entomology. Wiley. p. 508.

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