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Critically evaluates the Comparison and evaluating the role played by the state in the System of Employment relations in France and in Denmark. 

This paper critically evaluates the comparison and evaluating the role played by the state in the system of employment relations in France and in Denmark. The structure of the paper describes the facts and figures of France concerning its economic and employments conditions, the second part reflects the facts and figures about Denmark and then the third part reflects the effective contrasting and comparing of the facts between these two countries. State interventions are believed to be vital in the development of the French employment relations and it effectively reflects the traditional reluctance of diverse employers along with the unions for using controlled agreements. The state act as the main employer, which then offers nearly concerning 5 million services to the people and these facilitate in exerting influence on the diverse pay rates accessible within the private sector. Few of the significant roles of the state seriously reflect that the employer chair meetings desires to be held monthly as to understand the desired needs in the expansion of the employment relations. There are two figures provided in the paper in order to understand the desired comparison between the two countries regarding the role of the state in the development of the employment opportunities. Furthermore, it becomes vital to understand that the role of the state is of great importance in enhancing the employment relations for their respective countries.

In order to make the desired comparison between the roles played by the state in the development of employment relations in France and Denmark, the effective analysis of these two countries becomes more important. France is supposed to be the world’s 6th largest country in terms of economic power concerning GDP (Amable, 2016). The population size of the country refers to an approximately of 63.8 million have a labor rate of market participation of nearly 63%. There exists crucial role of the state in the system of employment relations in France. State interventions are supposed to be crucial in the development of the French employment relations and it effectively reflects the traditional reluctance of different employers and the unions for using voluntary agreements. It becomes important to understand the desired change in actions taken by the state as to enhance the employment conditions throughout the concerned nation. As per (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014) it has been seen that the unions have pressed mainly for the legislations when the left was in ascendancy. A development of the close link was found in between the industrial law as well as the outcomes of the collective bargaining and in occurred in the 1960s. The industrial laws are seen to be based on the desired content of the collective agreements or the different types of the outcomes of tripartite discussions (Benach et al., 2014).  Moreover, the state acts as the major employer, which offers near about 5 million services to the concerned people and these helps in exerting influences on the different pay rates offered within the private sector.  A crucial change in the actions led by the state brings out major changes towards the development of the employer's relations throughout the entire nation. Different opportunities have been provided in order to enhance the effectiveness of the living conditions of the people. 

State intervention in France

Figure: Comparative Figures of working life in France

A comparative figure evaluates the fact that the GDP of France in 20010 was 27,400 and it got raised up to 30,400 in the year 2015. Moreover, it has brought elevation in the change in the unemployment rate; it was supposed to be 9.3 in total which got raised up to 10.4 which signifies a change up to 1.1 within 5 years from2010 to 2015.   The economic background critically evaluates the fact that between the year 2010 to 2015, there has been a significant increase in the desired GDP rate of 10.9% of France and this is supposed to be slightly below the EU average for the similar period of 13%. Moreover, this situation critically gave rise to the number of unemployment, in particular for men it was 1.8 percent. For youth, it was 1.4 percent. This brings out the need of state in bringing up the number of job opportunities within France that will help in extending the employment relations (Brewster & Hegewisch, 2017). The employment figure for France was mainly available for the concerned metropolitan areas.     

The industrial relations critically evaluate the desired fact that the industrial relations throughout France were always dominated and tensed by the strong involvement of the law and state. Few of the facts from previous years reflect the domination of the industrial relations by the state and concerned law. Few of the evidence will help in bringing out more industrial relations facts, such as in the year 1884, the law eventually recognized the desired freedom of association and then other laws concerning collective bargaining were effectively passed in 1919.  The first step towards the generalization and extension in the coverage was achieved by the law in the year 1950.  In 1971, there was an establishment of collective bargaining at the inter-sectoral (cross-industry).  Finally, “Auroux laws” of 1982 created collective bargaining at the desired workplace and it also established the annual obligation for negotiating wages and work on time. There exists a traditional lack of the mutual recognition among the different social partners which could demonstrate the interventionist's roles and responsibilities of the state throughout social and industrial matters (Brewster et al., 2017).  The state is effectively losing all its influence as the desired regulator within an internationalized economy and in the same ways as the preferred regulator of labor. Therefore, it becomes more important to understand its desired role in managing the industrial relations throughout the entire country.  According to (Campbell & Pedersen, 2014) in few of the decades, there has been the development of the decentralized bargaining system, which provides more amount of autonomy from the nation or sectoral collective agreements and the labor legislation.

Industrial relations in France


Relying on the dimension of the corporation, an employer has to, unless precise in a different way by a sectoral and social agreement, pay among 0.55 as well as 1.60% of the payroll to a specialized Joint Collecting organization (OPCA). OPCAs are characteristically put up by division; there are presently 21 sectoral OPCAs within a place. The arrangement of training is supposed to be more important in order to develop the skills within the concerned employees as to bring out more positive results for the entire organization.  According to (Chung, 2015) in France, in line with the recent development of the vocational training programs, from January 2015 all workers will contain an individual teaching account applicable from at what time they first connect the labor marketplace to when they leave. A worker who changes jobs or alternates among work, as well as unemployment, will keep his or her true to preparation. This agreement will restore the entity Right of Training, which was produced in 2003, in addition, to being hardly ever used (Crouch, 2014). There is another data which critically evaluates different facts and responses on the employee representation within the enterprises. The successive French government and authorities have effectively established a wide range of representative bodies at the different enterprise level.  Below mentioned are few of the most important data that will help in understanding the facts and figures which will help out in making the desired comparison between Denmark and France.

Figure: Comparative figures of Demark

Denmark has practiced major global awareness connecting to development in the Danish labor marketplace. This has particularly been the desired case in a glow of the so-called flexicurity replica that dominates that marketplace. Flexicurity is supposed to be characterized – at the smallest amount in theory – by the particular relation among flexibility, communal security as well as active labor marketplace policy, wherever a high stage of social safety is seen as a condition for a work noticeably characterized by elasticity (Euwema et al., 2015).

In Denmark, all significant issues connecting to the service relation, like the wage, working circumstances, training along with pension are synchronized by the community associates during recurring communal bargaining (Fagan et al., 2015). Most important levels are primarily sector as well as company level that cooperates according to a decentralized centralization scheme. Collective agreements are generally binding.

Interlink among the middle level as well as local/business level is resolute by the salary scheme in the division. In this minimum-wage region (which cover 85%) only the smallest amount salary augment is settled at a middle level, whereas the real wage increase is bargain at the corporation level. Thus, the least amount wage established within the sectoral agreement barely ever reflect the genuine pay level in the company (Geppert et al., 2015). Wages, though, can too alter depending on division or the marketplace circumstances of the corporation. 

Comparison of facts between France and Denmark

Collective bargaining within the private as well as the public sectors occurs within the first section, commencement in January. Subsequently, the close of conformity within the private sector, discussions start throughout the companies. The legitimacy of a combined conformity has ceaselessly been among 2 to 4 years relying on the financial perspectives. In Denmark, all aspect of running life is the focus to collective bargaining. As per (Ibsen, 2016) in addition wage along with working time, teaching, life-long knowledge, additional training, paternity run off, learning leave, option for the free-time, depart throughout sickness, a child’s primary sick day, older days, pressure, as well as annoyance is part of the bargain program. Throughout the last two decades, the concerned subjects that are used to be synchronized by legislation contain also appear in the combined agreement, counting leave, pressure as well as harassment.


The comparison between the roles of the state played in France and in Denmark critically evaluates the development of the more employment opportunities as to enhance the effectiveness of the entire country concerned.  As per (Kim, 2017) bargaining at the national level critically provides the desired framework having much of the Danish International system of relations for Denmark, whereas the collective bargaining effectively took place at the national industry along with the company level  and there are efficient detailed rules in order to negotiate with the concerned requirements having a valid agreement. For France as compared with Denmark, the industrial relations are supposed to be crucial in terms of negotiation with the numbers covered, moreover, the rates are being set those are what actually paid. Moving to next, for Denmark, the pay along with the conditions are effectively negotiated among the unions or the cartels of the employees and unions at the concerned industry level. Overall it has been found that the more than 80% of the employees are effectively covered by the collective bargaining (Rodan, 216).  The proportion of Denmark and France of employees in unions is 67% for Denmark and 8% for France.  There has successive establishment of the different governmental bodies by the French government; these governmental bodies are workplace delegates, work councils, union branches and collective bargaining at the respective workplaces.   The article (Kornelakis, 2016) reveals that the state needs to bring out the most effective work activities in evaluating the effectiveness of the development of the employment relations. The French work delegates are not supposed as the union representatives, however, in general practice majorities are elected on the union platform.  Moreover, the workplace union delegates are efficiently appointed by the concerned local union branch. The unions are present in 38% throughout the private sector having more than 20 effective employees.  The union density is supposed to be high in Denmark as compared with that of France and it has two-third of the concerned workforce which also fallen in the recent years. As per (Leisink & Bach, 2014) there are three of the main confederations in Denmark as compared with France; they are LO, FTF and the Akademikerne which was previously known as AC. Considering the membership terms, it is a matter of fact that the trade unions movement is considered as the one weakest within Europe having 8% of the employees in the unions. It is mainly divided into a wide number of the different rival confederations such as the CGT, CFDT, FO, CFTC, and CFE-CGC.  On comparing with that of the role played by the state in Denmark, France evaluates the fact that French trade unions have stronger support in elections for employee representatives also these are able to mobilize the French workers towards a great effect (Pfau-Effinger, 2017).   Few of the important roles of the state critically reflects that the employer chair meetings need to be held monthly as to understand the desired needs in the development of the employment relations. Many of things can easily be compared between these two of the countries regarding the role played by their respective state in the development of employment relations. It has been found that in every three months the French employers are effectively required for informing the desired work councils of the state of respective corporations: outputs, orders and the finances (Leruth et al., 2017).    Moreover, it is a matter of fact that France is well known for maintaining its exceptional employments relations and therefore, it becomes very important to understand the desired role of the state. The French employment relations are mainly characterized by the lower amount of social dialogue as well as great interventions of the concerned state. According to an researched data, the 2007 reports evaluate the fact that French GDP   growth, productivity growth, unemployment rate and inflation does not have larger differences from EU averages (Marginson, 2016).

Denmark's labor market


The demographics and the legal political environment have played the most important role in influencing the employment relations in France.  Moving towards the role of the state it has been evaluated that the state has primarily aimed for participating in developing comprise instead of imposing decisions. The use of the Aubry Law has boosted the collective bargaining at the sectoral as well as enterprise levels,  as it has helped in encouraging employers and unions for negotiating the agreements concerning wages and supporting recruitment (O’Reilly, 2014).  In enhancing the skills of the concerned employees, it becomes more important for the state to bring out the most skilled persons to execute the respective work processes. The state government in France has brought out the national system for ensuring skills as well as employability programs and on the other hand, there exists a crucial difference between the role of the state played from France and for Denmark. The national system in France which ensures skills and the increase in the percentage of employability opportunities reflect that all of the employers I the funding process.  The representation of the European-level is important and it needs to be analyzed effectively for these two of the countries concerned. The cooperation committee selects most of the employee representatives for EU level bodies (Virtanen et al., 2013).  There exists one exception that is related to the board level of the representatives within EJU Company and they must be elected with the help of the workforce in Denmark, whereas the EU representatives in France are appointed by the concerned unions (Wilkinson et al., 2014).  As compared with the system of Denmark, the one exception of this is the board level representatives within the EU Company where the concerned representative bodies decide the desired method of their selection.   

Conclusion

The essay contrast and compares the desired role played by the state in the development of the employment relations. There exists crucial requirement to understand the growth in the GDP rate, production rate and the employment opportunities practiced in both of these countries.   The proportion of Denmark, as well as France of employees in unions, is 67% for Denmark and 8% for France.  There has consecutive establishment of the diverse governmental bodies by the French government; these governmental bodies are workplace delegates, work councils, union branches and collective bargaining at the particular workplaces.  In France, the state becomes the key employer which serves jobs to more than 5 million of the public service employees and this exerts effective influence on the different pay rates included in the private sector. Moreover, the paper also concludes that in France the state legislates increasing in the national minimum wages. The use and the development of the industrial laws are merely based on the content of the collective agreements. Moreover, the research paper will help in understanding the need and the importance of the role of the state of these two countries in developing the employment relations.

Employment relations in Denmark

References

Amable, B. (2016). The Political Economy of the Neoliberal Transformation of French Industrial Relations. ILR Review, 69(3), 523-550.

Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.

Benach, J., Vives, A., Amable, M., Vanroelen, C., Tarafa, G., & Muntaner, C. (2014). Precarious employment: understanding an emerging social determinant of health. Annual review of public health, 35.

Brewster, C., & Hegewisch, A. (Eds.). (2017). Policy and Practice in European Human Resource Management: The Price Waterhouse Cranfield Survey. Taylor & Francis.

Brewster, C., Hegewisch, A., Mayne, L., & Tregaskis, O. (2017). Employee communication and participation. Policy and Practice in European Human Resource Management: The Price Waterhouse Cranfield Survey, 154.

Campbell, J. L., & Pedersen, O. K. (2014). The national origins of policy ideas: Knowledge regimes in the United States, France, Germany, and Denmark. Princeton University Press.

Chung, H. (2015). Subjective employment insecurity gap between occupations: variance across Europe. Eichhorst, Werner and Paul Marx (2015)(eds.). Non-Standard Employment in Post-Industrial Labour Markets. An occupational perspective, 271-297.

Crouch, C. (2014). Class relations and labor-market reforms. Deconstructing flexicurity and developing alternative approaches: Towards new concepts and approaches for employment and social policy. New York, NY, Routledge, 27-46.

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Fagan, C., Grimshaw, D., Rubery, J., & Smith, M. (2015). Women and European employment. Routledge.

Geppert, M., Williams, K., & Wortmann, M. (2015). Micropolitical game playing in Lidl: A comparison of store-level employment relations. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 21(3), 241-257.

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Kornelakis, A. (2016). Inclusion or dualization? The political economy of employment relations in Italian and Greek telecommunications. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 54(2), 385-408.

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Leruth, B., Startin, N., & Usherwood, S. (Eds.). (2017). The Routledge Handbook of Euroscepticism. Routledge.

Marginson, P. (2016). Governing work and employment relations in an internationalized economy: the institutional challenge. ILR Review, 69(5), 1033-1055.

O’Reilly, J., Nazio, T., & Roche, J. M. (2014). Compromising conventions: attitudes of dissonance and indifference towards full-time maternal employment in Denmark, Spain, Poland and the UK. Work, employment, and society, 28(2), 168-188.

Pfau-Effinger, B. (2017). Development of culture, welfare states and women's employment in Europe. Routledge.

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Virtanen, M., Nyberg, S. T., Batty, G. D., Jokela, M., Heikkilä, K., Fransson, E. I., ... & Casini, A. (2013). Perceived job insecurity as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 347, f4746.

Wilkinson, A., Wood, G., & Deeg, R. (Eds.). (2014). The Oxford handbook of employment relations: Comparative employment systems. Oxford University Press.

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