Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
Discuss about the Encouraging imagination and creativity.
The report is prepared to discuss the important aspects of artificial intelligence and new generation robotics affecting the economic growth and development by creating a positive impact on the present jobs and employment patterns. The performance management focuses on the concepts of various trends and its impact on the societal level in the next 40 to 50 years of time. The three occupations that will be chosen are doctors, supervisors and small business owners. Due to the changes within the workplaces at present, several challenges and opportunities arise for both the human resource management or HRM and the employees. The technological changes and advancements have helped in developing artificial intelligence and the new generation robotics has brought immense development and growth in economy. The technological improvements include the development of artificial intelligence and new generation robotics that have created good employment patterns and influenced the society positively as well (Kerzner and Kerzner 2017). The performance management is enabled by focusing on the impact of artificial intelligence and new generation robotics on the three important occupational areas including the doctors, teachers and small business owners largely. The report will illustrate the trends and its impacts within the society for the last 4 years and even provide an explanation about how to improve the occupations in the future through the implementation of artificial intelligence and new generation advanced robotics. The report will evaluate the various ways of managing these kinds of occupations long time back and how it can be improved with time with the introduction of advanced technologies. The benefits of AI and robotics will be demonstrated here along with the production of robots, which may lead to mass unemployment (Bach 2013). The AI will change the fundamental for work and employment patterns and at the same time by ensuring completion of tasks at a faster rate and evolving in business too.
Artificial intelligence or AI includes the use of machines, equipments related to the natural intelligence showed by the human beings and other animals. The artificial intelligence includes the evaluation of intelligence agents and use of various electronic devices for perceiving the environment and undertakes actions for enhancing the scopes to accomplish the goals and objectives with ease. Based on the technical considerations, the AI can focus on the goals of machine learning and robotics. The cognitive functions associated with the minds of human beings can be useful for enhancing the learning and increase the ability to resolve issues and problems. The technologies can develop machines that replace the human beings and even replicate the human actions. This can reduce the workload for many occupational areas though there are chances of more errors, which will be illustrated in this report. There were nearly 30,000 doctors working in Australia in 2000, as identified by the Census of Population and Housing (DeNisi and Smith 2014). During the last 40 years, there were various issues related to the workforce such as determining the most appropriate individuals , roles played by the international medical school graduates and lack of efforts put to increase the numbers of individuals within the health industry in rural areas.
Impact on Doctors
Doctors and nurses play major roles in deliver the best quality medical care services in Australia for keeping the people safe and healthy. From the last 40 years, the doctors have committed themselves fully for the betterment of health of people and ensured providing them with the right kinds of medical services, which kept the service users healthy and the social and Australia’s social and economic wellbeing was ensured. The health workforce grew since then, with the increase in demands for health services. One of the major causes of this kind of issue could be the changing demographics in Australia that include ageing population and ageing health workforce (Armstrong and Taylor 2014). The prices of health services and charges of doctors were considerably lower during 1970 when measures in terms of the working hours. The time cost declined to a large extent and the general practice was influenced positively as well. During the past century, a huge transformation occurred within the Australia medical practice. Here, I would discuss about the things that have changed and few of the reasons because of which, the general practice has remained diverse (McDermott et al. 2013).
The family practices were present at the 19th century, which was soon filled by the graduates from the medical schools in Australia. The doctors who were recruited that time were mostly from the ranks of general practice. The RACGP was responsible for improving the education for general practice and this slowly started improving the care quality, research in general practice and promoting various guidelines and standards. There were postgraduate exams in the year 1970 along with vocational training programs, which soon was followed by formal recognition in the year 2002. After the World War II, the medical workforce supply started to increase and more female candidates were found to work as doctors and nurses. The women comprised nearly 20 percent of the general practice workforce in 1991 and it started increasing since then. The future situation for the general practice or medical related occupation could be no human doctor and rise of AI in medicine (Mone and London 2018). There would be tuned surgical robot doctors that might outperform the human physicians in case of diagnostic challenges. It seems funny, but still it may be possible with the immense application of artificial intelligence and robotics all around. For open minded and forward thinking during surgeries, the involvement of human doctors is much more essential than the robots, because in case of a simple mistake the lives of the persons may be harmed. The Royal Melbourne Hospital aims to use AI and machine learning to reduce the workload and use advanced technologies to deliver better quality medical services (Ates et al. 2013).
Impact on Supervisors
There are few effective areas of AI application as well such as the Cogito Companion that has already been considered as an effective mental health app that tracks the behaviors of the patients. The surgical robots during the surgical procedures might be used as an extension for the human surgeons. The robots would be responsible for controlling the devices from a nearby console because proper surgeries should be done by human doctors only. Thus, it could be concluded that there could be improvements but not much in the future, because human doctors’ activities should be prioritized the cost for treating a patient. Thus, the AI and robotics could not bring much change for this occupation. Hence, it is proved that AI cannot replace human doctors but it may help with the diagnosis (Smith and Anderson 2014).
Figure: AI in general practice (Smith and Anderson 2014)
The year 1970 was considered as a time for major economic, political, social and technological changes. The teacher development was possible with the help of apprenticeship model based on the pupil teachers and those individuals who used to work as employees in the model and normal schools. Soon, in the 1980s, the teacher educators in Australia were allowed to go back to a centralized and government mandated school based approach for educating the teachers. Soon, with the importance of education and for enhancing the skills and knowledge among the students, the pupil teachers were allowed to take part in the four years of studying and teaching. During the nineteenth century, specific teacher training institutions were introduced to facilitate the use of apprenticeship model and this resulted in a shift towards the craft of teaching. The pupil teachers were trained and it was the responsibility of the teachers’ college lecturers to make sure that they attain the relevant skills, knowledge and expertise to teach the students properly (Wachter, Mittelstadt and Floridi 2017). Teaching became a scholarly pursuit and various academic programs were promoted to enhance the teaching occupation in contemporary Australia. The human resources management practices helped in recruiting and selecting the best individuals who could teach the students properly and improve the reputation of the schools, colleges and Universities. During the 1980s, education took most of the budget and a significant portion of the public servants. After few years, school councils were also set up to place education in the public sphere rather than forming an autonomous authority (Russell 2015).
Impact on Small Business Owners
The present century experiences huge advancements in technology and so the solution to the education crisis in certain remote and rural areas in Australia could be Artificial intelligence. The autonomous systems could replace the human teachers in jobs and soon the unique demands would increase. Students always try to learn from a good teacher who could deliver the lessons in a manner that it resonates with every student. The demands for teaching occupation could be the presence of high level of empathy, grit and thus the development of robotic teachers might be challenging. According to United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is adopted to overcome the issues related to poverty and make everyone gain equal access to quality education. The organizations have already planned for recruiting more than 20 million primary and secondary teachers to the workforce, though the replacements might also be quite large (Lorencik and Sincak 2013). Teachers need good pay and working conditions to provide lessons and there would be huge developmental costs, administration costs, etc associated with it. The formation of digital teachers could reduce the work load, as there would be no days off and o additional charges to be paid to them. By programming the robotic teachers properly, there should be no bias towards the students based on gender, race, ethnicity, religion, etc. Use of AI in classrooms could reduce the problems of labor shortage as well as make the teaching place fun and enjoyable for the students to learn quickly. The systems could enhance the positive behaviors among students and improve their performances too (Dogmus et al. 2015). Thus, the application of AI and robotics is expected to bring major improvements in teaching profession in the future.
There was a time, when the lack of employment opportunities made many of the individuals start small businesses to earn a living. Ownership of small businesses was considered as effective for generating revenue and make sure to attract as much customers as they can. Due to the resource-based economies, it was difficult for the small business owners to manage trade activities and control the commodity price hike effectively (Ray 2013). Australian small business owners failed to reposition its economy to enable sustainable growth and it was importance to focus on the policy lessons for the future. There were challenges faced by the small business owners 40 years back to identify the major new sources of growth according to the comparative advantage in raw materials and resources (Meleis 2016). Due to lower sources of income, the small businesses were not prominent at that time, and most of the large businesses dominated the central market of Australia. There were lesser customers, which even created difficulties to survive in the competitive business environment. The research and developmental activities were not managed properly due to the higher expenses and investments that were needed to be done in the years between 1970 to 1980. There was need for importing more consumers and capital goods through the reinforcement of chronic liability to manage positive trade balance. Lack of innovation due to absence of advanced technologies further created challenges for the small business owners in the earlier days (Xu et al. 2017).
Future of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in Workplaces
Figure: Small business trends and profit generation (Xu et al. 2017)
With the advancement in technology and communication nowadays, artificial intelligence can play a vital role in transforming the entire smaller business and influence many individuals to embrace this occupation of owning a business. Artificial intelligence and machine learning could create intelligent customer relationship management system or CRM to compile the information about the customers across various channels including phone, email or social media and create positive relationships with them (Griffiths 2014). This would create an automated marketing system and ensure lead generation through which more customers could be attracted and existing ones should be retained. The small business owners would be able to embed the AI functions into the CRM platforms to analyzing the consumer behaviors and maintain consistent communication with them for understanding their needs and preferences (Lee and Nie 2014). One such example could be of Pearly Whites, a small organization that invested money on using CRM systems to provide solutions to the customers against any queries regarding the products and services.
The customers’ services would improve and the average handling time would decrease gradually. The automation of repetitive questions could reach the objective of ensuring customer satisfaction. AI could manage the marketing activities properly by reducing the cost per click and online website management could be easy for the small business owners. In terms of human resource management at the small businesses, the AI could coach or train the sales persons for selling more products and services and even enhance the skills of marketing team to build ads (Hiver 2013). The Artificial intelligence could improve the engagement of employees and make the business owner find product market fit at a faster rate. The robots could be used for serving the guests and providing them with necessary services as well. Therefore, it could be believed that the artificial intelligence and new generation robotics could displace the current jobs and evolve the small businesses for economic growth and development in the future (Omar et al. 2014). The employees would be interested to adopt these areas as their occupational areas and learn new skills and knowledge to become successful in the future. The manager could also learn about the new AI procedures and make necessary changes within the organization to facilitate the learning experiences for the employees too (Blackburn, Hart and Wainwright 2013).
From the report, it was found that the situations for different types of occupations including the general practice (doctor), teachers and small business owners in the year 1970 were assessed. Due to the changes in workplace conditions and unemployment, there might be several challenges and opportunities for both human resource management and the employees. The three occupational areas chosen here were not much significant during the early years and it was difficult to choose any of these as a profession. With time and technological advancements, the artificial intelligence and introduction of new robotics had created enormous opportunities to excel in these occupations. When compared to the medical disciplines in the year 1970, the medical disciplines nowadays had become specialized and this even narrowed the scopes of these practices, thereby created patient centered care for dealing with certain problems of the service users. It enhanced the continuity of care over time and all throughout the life cycle. Rather than the GPs availability, the artificial intelligence created ease for the individuals to search for the health information and use the online services to get a diagnosis rather than visiting the GP. Obviously, it was not about visiting a robot, rather the AI and machine learning technologies had integrated the medical database and provided appropriate diagnosis. The GP workload was decreased to more than 50 percent. The entire health care system would be improved and this could overcome the issues of higher patient demand and reduce high workloads for the GPs. The education system was not much effective at that time and the occupation was not considered as noteworthy because of the move towards a more formal teachers’ college education that was present at the start of twentieth century. In the present century, scholarly approaches are approved for promoting teacher education with the rise of national system of higher education in Australia. Australia was on the brink of focusing again the apprenticeship model, thus focused in completing an entire cycle of teacher development to go back to the previous situation during the early days. The application of artificial intelligence and robotics brought a huge transformation and could further create a positive impact at the societal level in terms of occupational areas up to 2060. The robotics and machine learning included the concepts of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, computer science and applications along with the designing and construction of robots to be functional with the use of computer systems. This would provide effective control, sensory feedbacks and process information with much ease and efficiency. According to me, I think that the artificial intelligence and robots in the future could transform the occupational areas and bring various benefits for the businesses. Maybe there could be some areas like for general practice, robots might not replace human doctors, but on the other hand, AI and machine learning could improve the scopes for small businesses and make teaching profession reach new heights of success.
Challenges and Opportunities for HRM and Employees
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