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You need to design an experiment that will answer your research question. This is accomplished by answering the following questions. In your document use the following subheadings to clearly identify each question. You will be penalized for not doing so

Restate the research question outlined in your introduction and why it is important


Select two research designs from the literature that you have read related to your research question. For each paper in about 200 words explain the research design, the strengths and limitations of the design and how this design will be useful to support your research design.

What research design will you use to answer your research question That is,experimental, quasi experimental, correlational, ethnography etc. Explain your design. For example, outline your control and experimental groupings, the
number of samples you need, and how you will determine the accuracy of your results.Why did you select this design What are the strengths and limitations of this design in relation to your research
Your design should show how it will answer your research question

This section is NOT related to your research topic. This is simply testing your understanding of key concepts. Use ‘Design Questions’ as the subheading. DO NOT include this section in the peer review activity in the week 9 tutorial.

The Importance of Personalized Content

The most useful form of communicating information and knowledge today is by using videos. The recent development of technologies pertaining to computer science, networking and information technologies have allowed the world to devise ways to develop a much more immersive experience in terms of video learning. The main problem distributing the audio and video over IP networks and the conventional and traditional methods have been subjected to changes and modifications. The customer demands are the main factor responsible for transitioning the service providers from basic access to experience providers who have the capability to deliver audio, as well and data services for customers and their variety of devices [1].

As already mentioned the customers demand an ultimate video experience which is responsible for driving the newer technologies. These technologies are responsible for providing an interactive content which is more personalised and on demand type of entertainment which have become backdated since the technological modifications and changes have not ceased. The real-time video distribution service has few conventional solutions which are based upon a centralised network architecture which is used by the service provider to manage both content streaming and storing which can either be placed at local, regional, or national head end locations. The providers need to assume the fact that the applications they use can support and handle the no real time hierarchical distribution of the video titles as well [2].

In the changing paradigm of technological advancement, a service provider needs to deliver videos effectively and for this they need to consider the various elements of video distribution such as consumption of bandwidth, variety of content, demand of the subscribers and especially quality of the distributed video. The contents were previously based on the availability of content to the provider but nowadays, the video on demand feature allows the customers to access only those videos which they want and this has made the process more personalised [3]. However, the technological advancements and addition of new features namely the digital video recorder which allows the service users to enjoy using the content they need.

The time shifting has been adopted by the mass market and this is because of the capacity to manipulate the linear streams of contents which enable features such as pause and restart for video streams in real time [4]. The cost and technological barriers are becoming less and less profound, the content providers have realised that the videos cannot be downloaded from a centralised distribution by using only way connections with the isolated customers.

The need is to be more personalised and communal in nature. The development of internet and web service has facilitated the advent of real time video distribution which has over the effectively transformed the entire functions of the internet as online repository for statistical contents. The content on internet is nowadays dynamic and the customers have the capability to become content provider as well [5]. The rise of YouTube is a testament to this fact and their growing demand only underlines what is already known, that the conventional and traditional methods of video distribution have been long gone.

Real-Time Video Distribution Methods

The two major technologies that have been identified to facilitate expansion of storage are time-shifting and Video on Demand and these features are provided by each real-time video content provider. The factors are somewhat interdependent and thus it is necessary to conduct analysis to know the contents that needs to be stored by the content provider for either a long-time period or a short time period. These analyses have effectively highlighted the fact that having long-tailed content can be used by content providers to increase the customer base that is enjoyed by them and helps in generating a substantial revenue as well [6].

In the dynamic content distribution, the aspect of content distribution is highly feasible and this allows the elements present in streaming to interchange the less popular contents with highly accepted and loved contents which the subscriber demands.  This allows for subscriber to short latency stream of the newly available content. There are mainly three types of methods which are used in the real-time video distribution nowadays and these are accelerated whole title fetch method, progressive fetch method and segmented cache-fill method [7]. The first two methods consist of certain demerits which makes them unable to ideally distribute contents, real time. The last of the method can be used quite effectively order to counter the limitations posed by the other two methods [8].

In accelerated whole title fetch and progressive fetch there is the risk ingestion latency can quickly overrun the links and this disables the ability of the provider to stream video in high resolution. They also pose threat in the scaling up process and the distribution system may be unable to handle the concurrent simultaneous searching operations. The average performance of ingestion of content and the streaming elements is very limited and the features such as fast forward and rewind only add up to the growing list of limitations. These two methods of dynamic video content streaming even though used would be laid off as soon as new alternatives are available [9].

The min alternative method of content delivery available today is the segmented cache fill method which not only provides lower latency but is also responsible for a scaled down bandwidth consumption and utilisation. The segments are defined as content portions and include every aspect of real time video distribution that is storage, distribution, and streaming functions.

The model allows the content to be stored permanently by effectively using the storage array. The cache system is gaining popularity as they are transient storage which can be used to store the different types of files resources. Web pages are known to use this functionality in their web pages and this brings down the cost of implementing expensive network I/O. The customers demand a connected life and to fulfil the dream into reality it is necessary for the provider to understand that their content is accessible across platforms and devices so that the user's experience is more personalised and immersive [10].

Distribution of video is a vital part of many existing and future organized administrations. Modern-day internet wishes bolster for nature of ser-lousy dependency affirmation, which makes the transmission of ongoing motion, challenging. What’s more, the hetero entity of the net's transmission assets and only system makes it excessive& hard, if now not outlandish, to concur on worthy hobby functions amongst numerous beneficiaries of a comparable video movement. In this text we overview technique united states which were proposed for transmit-tin video on this example.

Accelerated Whole Title Fetch Method

Notwithstanding their materialness to the near term abilities of the inter-internet, they moreover are of importance to a destiny, quos-aware internet state of affairs due to the unavoidable errors in interest and asset reservation specifications. First of all don't forget supply-based totally strategies in which the source adjustments the video flow movement to healthy a few accord among the recipients about its coveted attributes.

These methods can bring about an out of line remedy for collectors, particularly those whose ability is fundamentally above or under the gathering consensus. Bear in mind techniques that intend to decorate [11] the decency a number of the collectors through sending the video in various streams. Likewise communicate approximately some mistake manipulate additives, utilising auspicious retransmission of lacking information to additionally decorate the character of the have been given video. At lengthy ultimate, we talk approximately a portion of the problems that live to be settled inside the improvement of net video multi-solid conventions.

Media content material management and conveyance is a very dynamic studies range every in enterprise and the scholarly community. The exam is completed on a few fronts to research one-of-a-kind problems. The troubles pass from media encoding, to media dissemination, media stockpiling and so on. In this segment we strive to examine the absolute most unmistakable artwork with our framework. Berkeley disbursed Video-on-call [12] for is a standout amongst the most significant works approximately the ability part of expansive scale media substance. This framework usually is going about as a reserve for media substance located away on tertiary stockpiling gadgets.

Andrew Swan and Lawrence Rowe depict a framework for video content introduction, encoding and appropriation over mbone multicast set up. Ketan Mayer-Patel et al. painting a media playback application that could get to and play remotely located away media streams. Every honestly certainly one of these items set up together shape a media conveyance framework over multicast systems [13]. Tivo is a tool which catches clean video signs, digitizes them and stores them on community circles for destiny playback. Tivo may be considered as a automated substitution of VCRs. notwithstanding the reality that Tivo does no longer frame some part of any circulate framework, basically the idea of encoding television flags and putting away them on plate is largely the same as that of WiVision.

Dremedia instances to have innovation that joins discourse acknowledgment, image investigation, discourse to-content cloth interpretation, and the functionality to compose unstructured information. It arrangements to utilize this innovation for making all television content material documented, recorded, and are seeking capable. This is essentially the same as WiVision with a variety of pursuit in slight of discourse acknowledgment and unstructured records [14].

The Stony Brook Video Server concentrates on consistent media recuperation from circles and after that changing the media streams to definitive customers on stressed out LANs with everyday certifications. This painting for the maximum element concentrates on capability and shipping factors of records.

The notion the usage of this disseminated method comes from the advantages of achievable versatility of the prevent elements, which are, the securing server and the clients. Given that, the wellspring of video flag require now not live at constant vicinity, the procurement server also ought to be bendy and the overall framework unwavering nice and accessibility goals ought not to be vigorously reliant on it. Considering this necessity, it finally ends up it seem that obviously crucial to decouple the management and lengthy haul stockpiling angle from the securing segment [15]. The mobile clients are essentially effective segments of the framework which join and leave the WiVision framework as consistent with the situations of the clients coping with them.

Progressive Fetch Method

An evaluation of the written paintings related to spilling video in making ready changed into driven, and is shown as takes after:

  • Audit of spouting video developments,
  • Spouting video ask about,
  • Define of spilling video practices,
  • Research on the practicality of Web-based route,
  • Study at the ampleness of video in non-spouting media packages, as an example, tape, and
  • Computes that impact the ease of spilling video. The assessment of the written work included online Internet assets and studies articles, books, journals, gatherings, and microfiche reviews.

Real time video distribution is transmitted over a data compose. The term construes a restrained transmission to the watcher, in which each the patron and server programming crew up for consistent improvement. The patron aspect pads multiple snapshots of video statistics before it begins sending it to the display, which compensates for transient deferrals in package deal movement. With non-spouting video, a significant piece of the video file need to be properly downloaded over the Internet earlier than a video fasten can start playing. Spouting video considers live video transmission over the Internet, and it empowers the server to capably trade the video information transmission charges structured upon the client's to be had affiliation status, paying little appreciate to whether or not that association is a short T-1 line or a 56K dial-up modem.

The capability to play video over the Internet is later. Just 5 years earlier, the maximum best approach to play video on a PC become to very well down load a video record from an Internet server or play it from a CD-ROM on the close-with the aid of PC. In the days preceding the expansive utilization of short modems, video records might set apart a protracted risk to download, and the reports expected to very well download before playback might be possible. The weight development becomes primitive and video nice became to an incredible degree terrible.

Video played from CD-ROM drives was every from time to time jerky, low exceptional, and usually depicted as "postage-stamp" video in light of its little size. PC and video weight development have advanced to the factor where it is as of now possible to play video over Internet affiliations continually and with substantially higher nice. Though spouting video is far short of impart TV requirements, it's far through and by means of seen as a sufficient shipping medium for an extensive combination of vocations.

Differentiated and maximum styles of information, video statistics are far reaching. Uncompressed video, for instance, that determined inner a TV technology studio, is produced from thirty person and unique housings consistently. Each packaging has a guarantee of 720 x 486 pixels, which calls for quite a lot 170 million bits for every 2nd to transmit. This is plenty too excessive a data price for maximum PCs to control, so the video archive have to be compacted to be usable and practical. A video record that is gotten to with the aid of methods for the Internet should be strongly compacted. As often as feasible, the edge charge each second is strongly decreased and the warranty is decreased to a fourth of its run of the mill measure. This some distance attaining degree of weight is possible in mild of the fact that the human visible structure can at gift understand a video progression that has been compacted sufficient to both be downloaded and spouted over the Internet.   

Segmented Cache-Fill Method

Real time communication between browsers

This file portrays a game plan of ECMAScript APIs in WebIDL to empower media to be sent to and gotten from every other program or tool understanding the first-class viable set of continuous traditions. This assurance become introduced by using the group to get the media neighborhood media devices get access to the IETF tradition made through RTCWEB amassing likewise, an API guarantee, along with the particular being brought.

  1. Media capture and streams

This report neighborhood media, which includes sound and video, has requested assent from the stage describes a route of movement of JavaScript APIs. Access to sight and sound streams ( video , sound , or both ) at the region contraption ( camcorder , enhancer , webcam ), a constant correspondence , recording , and watching the makes use of might be a variety of . This file movement mixed media gadgets used to make records that can be used domestically portrays API. This document in addition Section JavaScript or for the most element manipulate the facts circulate via which it could get equipped API portrays.

  1. RTC web datagram connection

Web Real-Time Communications (WebRTC) Working Total Audio, Video, and two accomplices " arrange instinctive rich correspondence of information between internet packages and traditions is rebuked for imparting help. The WebRTC framework file delineates elements of the non-media facts delivery. The stream control transmission tradition (SCTP) conveyed net program to allow standard data exchange as a general shipping employer is used as a bit of the setting of WebRTC offers an auxiliary survey. Nevertheless it's miles all in all a general understanding that for NAT traversal purpose it ought to be: Foo/UDP/IP or DTLS/UDP absolutely: foo//IP (for safety, guaranteed, checked and genuineness supply alternate) FOO swarm control and arranged to present some sort of phase or concept that could be a subculture.

Despite a brain boggling and Datagram-primarily based channel is a trusted accomplice is both a clear interest. This document, both risky and sturdy datagram base channel dispersed need and gives various occurrences of use proposed game plans provide an survey of Pro and cons, in the end dismember in greater detail the SCTP-based publications of motion.

  1. RTCWEB security architecture

The Real-Time Communications at the Web (RTCWEB) running get-collectively is endowed with standardizing traditions for enticing ceaseless correspondences interior purchaser directors using internet progresses (often known as "WebRTC"). This file describes the security plan for Legal. The Real-Time Communications at the Web (WebRTC) working social occasion is drawn nearer with regulating traditions for consistent correspondences among Web packages. Constant sound in addition to video calls, Web conferencing, and WebRTC improvement to exchange facts direct to the essential use cases. Not within the least like most widespread continuous systems as showed up, especially by strategies for a JavaScript API, the WebRTC correspondences are managed through an internet server.

Technique known as pass media bits of data are clearly associated for perceiving the statute video streams with help of essential case for sound viewing. The present sound sender is for the most part a major go between or a conventionally essential part in storing talks so the Marratech application offers customers the decision of picking "video takes after sound", with a ultimate objective to in this way pass the progressed speaker into the Focus window. Screen the substance of the centre window is so far an imperative segment for this situation could be agreeable to twist up discernibly aware of, however the sound sign to support get the centrality of sound from different "centred takes require over the sender to decrease the inaction can be useful as depicted inside the going with subsection," individuals. Whiteboard and talk also supply adored bits of learning, yet to a couple endorsements specific in nature than the sound and video.

Benefits of Segmented Cache-Fill Method

While drawing with the whiteboard pen or sending a discourse message is undoubtedly a blueprint that a customer has wound up being spellbinding to uncommon clients, this may possibly is for a short traverse of time while they "contemplate" the customer's development. Along these lines, at the variable while a sender has a low bundling cost (underneath 1 fps) an event from both of those media can be utilized as a bit of interest to have him send a further range or . Directly but again UI checking and cross-media hints can delude and may make a purchaser perceive senders as imperative while really their video backings are pointless.

An electronic route part for example frequently gets video streams to perceive any room, paying little respect to the open entryway that the supporter keeps on following up inside the excitement of a purchaser, which for an made time assignment can pull back their workplaces. These kind of false characters with a particular end motivation to help the effect of that can be picked up a procedure inside the enthusiasm of the purchaser before settling on to take after to get deduces around outside activities. This kind of masterful manifestations commonly will be perceived as fundamental to the sender that reduce and besides refine the way closer to finding the customer significance.

Research design

Video transmission over far flung frameworks and the web is a testing errand due to the stringent QoS required with the aid of video packages and moreover impacted by way of many channel boundaries. By using a rapid mode selection figuring for H.264 intra conjecture and a bendy transmission control approaches for video can increase incredible QoS and finishes 30% to 60% figuring lessen on parts of video coding, in order that the trustworthiness and terrific features of video transmission may be ensured. In mild of the above examination the paintings may be persisted in the going with locales which consolidates capable video coding, robust faraway transmission, QoS, transmission fee, imperativeness adequacy of hand-held devices to upgrade the general far off video transmission shape.

The Video Acquisition Server digitizes and packs the clean video motions constantly and transports the encoded streams to the focal stockpiling in addition to speak servers for further dissemination. The easy video signs and symptoms and symptoms may be gotten from any video supply, for instance, Cable television, for stay information talk; a VCR, for screening of tapes; a camcorder, for gushing stay activities like addresses or video games wearing events; or a few distinct proper video supplies.

The consistent digitization and pressure is finished with particular device which acknowledges easy video alerts. Strengthen, if the video signs deliver close subtitle message, those are likewise required to be decoded and positioned away alongside the digitized video streams for destiny ordering and referencing. The video flag is moreover sustained to a content material grabber device that's in charge of putting aside the near subtitle content material from the video flag. preserving in mind the quit goal to inspire the synchronization of near inscription content material with the video circulate amid playback at the clients, the close subtitle content material is went with timestamps.

Challenges Faced by Other Distribution Methods

These timestamps are later utilized by clients to reveal the close subtitle message in synchronization with the video circulates and give an inscription based totally video route [16]. We make use of an infrared a ways flung manage system related to the AS, and managed via programming, to track into the coveted channels. The purchase Server exchanges records to the storage Server for practicable playback in destiny. This information need to be exchanged dependably. Henceforth we've picked TCP as the car tool among the acquisition Server and the storage Servers.

Video Server subsystem of WiVision [17] is in rate of control, stockpiling, and speak of the video streams and shut inscription content. The Video Server gets the encoded statistics and close subtitle content material from the acquisition Server, oversees and shops the facts midway, and conveys it to the intrigued clients constantly. It likewise obliges on-request playback needs from flexible clients for already placed away statistics. The Video Server is sort of partitioned into two segments,

  • A Metadata Server and
  • Push Servers. The Metadata Server is in price of control of the metadata like, video clasp records, server data, and so forth. Approximately the complete WiVision circulate framework. The rush Servers play out the errand of setting away and broadcasting flow facts to the customers. A format of the focal Video Server is seemed in figure three. The Metadata Server oversees WiVision using a social database [18]. The social database holds the statistics approximately the pre-recorded media streams, their areas, close inscription content cloth, and the whole framework configuration.

The Metadata Server has a global angle of the WiVision framework and video show devices the metadata evaluating to the video streams. The acquisition Server and clients hold up a TCP manage association with the Metadata Server. Special clients can start recording of the video streams which is privately located away on the push Servers. Upon start-up, each Acquisition Server interfaces with the Metadata Server and registers with it. The Metadata Server offers the acquisition Server a rundown of Push Servers to which it desires to stream the encoded facts. This factor onwards, the AS is dealt with in the conveyance framework. The push Servers are in fee of converting the video records to the transportable clients using becoming shipping conventions. The frenzy Servers likewise stores the video locally for destiny on-request playback. Push Servers make use of community plates for putting away data.

Design question

Is digital video bit rate adoption possible in real time video distribution?

Answer

The rate of a video association changes with the pressure mode, scene multifaceted nature, and motion stage of the video. So extra usually, the yield of a video encoder is at a variable piece price. At the issue whilst transmitted over a conventional regular piece fee installation, e.g., Smartphone or digital TV organizes, the video fee is adaptively managed on the deliver encoder to keep up a steady transmission rate. In the below figure wherein a crude video motion is sustained into an encoder, and afterward the yield is despatched right into a smoothing useful resource that is depleted at a constant price.

In order to hold the constant use up price on the cushion without flooding or under flowing the assist, the encoder's yield needs to be adaptively managed. Normally, the cradle's statistics degree is utilized as an input flag to govern the video yield charge from the encoder, and the fee adjustment is completed via altering sure encoding parameters, e.g., the quantization stage, the casing rate, or the pixel willpower. The alteration of the video facts charge thru change of compression parameters is in a few unspecified times within the future known as media scaling. The paper carries an outstanding depiction of the diverse scaling alternatives [19].

Conclusion

The source makes use of the criticism records to alter its information fee. One of the functionality problems with this technique are the problem of enters implosion that can occur if there can be an extensive huge form of beneficiaries endeavouring to move lower back criticism to the supply. Common sense video multicast conventions specializing in an expansive huge kind of recipients need to address this trouble, as we can discuss later. The single movement technique, on the same time as being the maximum direct, cannot bargain satisfactorily with the heterogeneity difficulty depicted in advance [20]. 

Literature planar

Reference Number: 1

Authors:Weichel Shi

Title of Article:Equivalence of the notch stress intensity factor, tip openingdisplacement and energy release rate for a sharp V-notch

Type:Journal Publication: Elsevier

Year Published: 2013 Number of citations: 10

Primary or Secondary: Primary

Publication Rating:

Cite Score:2.66Rank: #18/219 Percentile: 92nd In-Category: modelling and simulation

Cite Score Year:2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

This journal is considering various specific aspects or concepts within it. These are energy release rates of the sharp V-notch, Estimation of initial crack length as well as Perfectly Plastic Dug dale model. These aspects are elaborated with respect to Equivalence criterions.  

What was the research question?

How to apply a new conservation integral to the perfectly plastic strip ahead of the V-notch tip.

Design:Statistical

What was the finding?

According to the statements and concepts elaborated within this article this is clear that the conservation integral perfectly investigated Dugdale model and found the V-Notch’s length in case of this concern. In addition to this, this aspect is proved that one or two critical parameter is very important for establishing the failure criterion for sharp V-notch.

What were the gaps?

This gap is analysed that the maximum opening displacement is not entirely supported by Dugdale model. This aspect introduced the inefficiency of this model in describing the concerned elevation angle of notch.

Reference Number: 2

Authors: Julián A. Ávila, Vinicius Lima, Cassius O. F. T. Ruchert, Paulo Roberto Mei, Antonio J. Ramirez

Title of Article:Guide for Recommended Practices to Perform Crack Tip Opening Displacement Tests in High Strength Low Alloy Steels

Type:Journal Publication: Technical Papers

Year Published: 2016 Number of citations: NA

Primary or Secondary: Primary

Publication Rating: NA

CiteScore:0.35 Rank: #79/137 Percentile: 42nd In-Category: metals and alloys

CiteScore Year:2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

This literature is elaborating about the fracture mechanics approaches that are important for all kinds of civil and mechanical projects. There are various cracks that are incorporated within metals and steels. These needs to be managed and maintained with respect to various aspects and concepts, these aspects are being elaborated within this article.

What was the research question?

How to approach fracture mechanics for all mechanical and civil projects and especially for those using welding as a structural joining process.

Design: Analytical

What was the finding?

The finding collected from this article is that this consists of the discussion on the detailed consideration of several practical issues that are related to experimental procedures that helps in accessing fractures toughness within high strength alloy steels.  

What were the gaps?

In accordance with the discussions found within the article geometry selection and number of replicate tests are not entirely supported by this test.

Authors:Amara, M. B., Pluvinage, G., Capelle, J., & Azari, Z.

Title of Article:Crack Tip Opening Angle as a Fracture Resistance Parameter to Describe Ductile Crack Extension and Arrest in Steel Pipes

Type: Journal Publication: Research Gate

Year Published: 2015 Number of citations: 2

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore:1.74 Rank: #74/316 Percentile: 76th In-Category: mechanics of materials

CiteScore Year:2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

This literature is elaborating about the crack tip opening angle that is important here for fracture resistant parameter for describing ductile crack extension. In contrast with these facts, this article is also elaborating about the critical evaluation of the criterion related to the fractured resistance parameter.

What was the research question?

How to assume a constant rotation centre distance using the experimental load displacement curve method(SSM).

Design: NA

What was the finding?

There are various findings involved within the description identified within this article. In contrast with these facts and discussions, this aspect is experimentally proved that the crack tip angle is denoted as the fracture resistant parameter for steel.

What were the gaps?

This gap is analysed that the method used to identify the crack angle are similar methods.

Authors:Khor, W., Moore, P. L., Pisarski, H. G., Haslett, M., & rown, C. J.

Title of Article:Measurement and prediction of CTOD in austenitic stainless steel

Type: Journal Publication: Research gate

Year Published: 2016 Number of citations: 1

Primary or Secondary: Primary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore:1.85 Rank: #94/520 Percentile:82nd In-Category: mechanical engineering

CiteScore Year:2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

This article is elaborating about the variation of crack tip opening displacement values that have significant effect on the engineering critical assessment structure. In contrast with these facts, this paper is investigating about the development of CTOD with increasing load across the specimen thickness.

What was the research question?

To examine the development of CTOD with increasing load in an austenitic stainless steel.

Design: NA

What was the finding?

This article is elaborating about the Increase in the CTOD values with respect increasing load across the thickness of the steel. This evaluation is done with respect to various critical perspectives involved within the research process.

What were the gaps?

For high strain hardening austenitic stainless steel the accuracy of CTOD is low.

Authors:Stefano Beretta, Silvio Rabbolini, Angelo Di Bello

Title of Article:Multi-scale crack closure measurements with digital image correlation on Haynes 230

Type: Journal Publication: Research gate

Year Published: 2015 Number of citations: 6

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore0.72: Rank: #258/520 Percentile:50th In-Category: mechanical engineering     CiteScore Year:2015  

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

This article is elaborating about crack closure of the steel manufacturing process. There are various reactions that are utilized by the digital imaging facilities involved within the project. This article is considering the measure of crack closure involved within the steel manufacturing process.

What was the research question?

Investigating about effect of crack closure with digital image correlation, by applying two different approaches

Design: NA

What was the finding?

This article is highlighting the fact that shows the significance of the local closure measurements and steel manufacturing process.

What were the gaps?

Experimental points in the reference curve should be more accurate. S. H. Hashemi, R. Gay, I. C. Howard, R. M. Andrews* and J. R. Yates

Title of Article:Development of a Laboratory Test Technique for Direct Estimation of Crack Tip Opening Angle

Type: Journal Publication: research gate

Year Published: 2004 Number of citations: 9

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore:1.33 Rank: NA Percentile: 54th In-Category: mechanical engineering

CiteScore Year:2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

This article is elaborating about the development of laboratory test techniques that are related to direct estimation of crack tip opening angle. This article is elaborating the calculation for this tip angle.

What was the research question?

How to measure the slope of deformed gridlines near the crack tip during crack growth from captured images.

Design:  NA

What was the finding?

The accurate angle for this research context is highlighted within this finding.

What were the gaps?

This gap is analysed that crack tip opening angle should be more accurate for the tested steels.

Authors: Toshiyuki Meshii and Kenichi ishihara

Title of Article:Engineering Framework to Transfer the Minimum Fracture Toughness in The DBTT Region Between SE(B) And 1T CT Specimens

Type:Journal Publication: Procedia

Year Published:2016 Number of citations: 2

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore:3.75 Rank: #67/218 Percentile: 92nd In-Category: Mechanical engineering

CiteScore Year:2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

This literature review is elaborating about the engineering framework that transfers minimum fracture toughness between DBTT region of steels. These elaborationsconsider the crack tip displacement process for testing various test set ups involved with respect to specimen sizes and essential conversion factors.

What was the research question?

To test the size effect of fracture toughness for the single edge notched bend

Design: NA

What was the finding?

This literature consists of various experimental set up for managing the effectiveness of the engineering frameworks. In contrast with these facts, this literature is explaining about prediction for minimum Jc for a specific specimen’s type. This journal is proving the validation for 05.T and 1T CT specimen.

What were the gaps?

In contrast with the elaborations provided within this article shows that the gaps are associated in the segment of material selection for managing effectiveness of the 05.T and 1T CT specimen.

Authors:  Kenichi Ishiharaa, Takeshi Hamadaa, Naohiro Kikuya and Toshiyuki Meshiic

Title of Article:Applicability of Modified Ritchie-Knott-Rice Failure Criterion to Predict the Onset of Cleavage Fracture for the Test Specimen with Residual Stress Introduced to the Crack Tip

Type: Journal Publication: Procedia

Year Published: 2016 Number of citations: 1

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating

CiteScore:2.83 Rank:#24/320 Percentile:65th In-Category: Mechanical engineering

CiteScore Year:2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

This literature is elaborating about the applicability of modified Ritchie-Knott-Rice Failure Criterion for predicting the Onset of cleavage fracture for the residual stress introduced to the crack tip of steel element.

What was the research question?

In accordance with the experiments, this journal is not considering any research question.

Design: Analytical

What was the finding?

The modified Ritchie-Knott-Rice Failure Criterion is identified with respect to crack tip displacement operations involved within the simulation of operations within the domain of interest.

What were the gaps?

In contrast with the journal article no gap is identified within its discussions. These discussions highlight various critical aspects involved within the experiment topic.

Authors:Gach, E., & Pippan, R.

Title of Article:Cyclic crack tip deformation-the influence of environment

Type:Journal Publication:Proceedings of ICF 10

Year Published: 2013 Number of citations:8

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore:2.65 Rank: #126/512 Percentile:89th In-Category: Mechanical engineering

CiteScore Year:2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

This article is elaborating about the cyclic crack tip deformations that are influenced by environment. This article is elaborating about the specimen involved within the crack growth process. In addition to this, this article is elaborating about the standard of the steel and metals.

What was the research question?

How to control fatigue in metals by the cyclic plastic deformation at the crack tip.

Design: NA

What was the finding?

This article is considering the crack tip deformation with respect to steel structure and thickness involved within the process.

What were the gaps?

The examined materials showed that the environment does not influence the cyclic crack tip opening displacement.      

Authors:Newman, J. C., Shivakumar, K. N., & McCabe, D. E.

Title of Article:Finite Elements Fracture Simulation of A533B Steel Sheet Specimens

Type: Journal Publication:Research gate

Year Published: 2013 Number of citations: 29

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore:0.86 Rank: #53/296 Percentile:69th In-Category: Mechanical engineering

CiteScore Year:2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

This article is elaborating about various finite element fracture simulation techniques that offers steel sheet strength to achieve success over critical situations.

What was the research question?

How to predict fracture behaviour in middle crack-tension M(T) specimens made of A533B steel sheet.

Design:Simulation

What was the finding?

The findings from this article is that the crack growth areas are considered within this article for managing the effectiveness of the crack tip growth element involved within the functional area of steel utilization.

What were the gaps?

There are no gaps identified within this article with respect to search of information.

Authors:Michael P. Wagoner, William G. Buttlar and Glaucio H. Paulino

Title of Article: Development of a Single-Edge Notched Beam Test for Asphalt Concrete Mixtures

Type:Journal Publication:ASTM International

Year Published: 2005 Number of citations:89

Primary or Secondary:Primary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore:0.44 Rank: 337/520              Percentile: 35thIn-Category: Mechanical engineer

CiteScore Year:2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

The methods used and development of fracture test that can determine the fracture properties of Asphalt concrete. The different investigating methods of test control and development of Asphalt concrete is discussed.

What was the research question?

The research question focussed on whether the standard fracture tests in order to develop metals that are homogeneous in nature are applicable on asphalt concrete.

Design:Analytical

What was the finding?

Asphalt concrete and reflection is cracking is seen and analyst techniques are developed for asphalt concrete.

What were the gaps?

 The testing program for development of fractures in asphalt concretes was not reliable.

Authors:Dylmar Penteado Dias, Clelio Thaumaturgo

Title of Article:Fracture toughness of geopolymeric concretes reinforced with basalt fibres

Type:Journal Publication:Cement and concrete composites

Year Published: 2005 Number of citations:129

Primary or Secondary:Secondary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore:4.23 Rank:#3/147 Percentile: 98th In-Category: Mechanical Engineer

CiteScore Year:2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

Investigate the influence of fractures in metals regarding volumes and toughness

What was the research question?

Are the fibres more composite than other types?

Design:Statistical

What was the finding?

The PSS concretes have more strength than the PC.

What were the gaps?

The capacity of the loads were not reflected accurately

Authors: Shin,S.Y

Title of ArticleEffects of Microstructure on Tensile, Charpy Impact, and Crack Tip Opening Displacement Properties of Two API X80 Pipeline Steels

Type:Journal Publication:Journal of light metals

Year Published: 2013 Number of citations:6

Primary or Secondary:Secondary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore: 1.78 Rank: #23/137 Percentile: 83rd In-Category:Metals and alloys

CiteScore Year:2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

Elongated grins, Granular bainites, high stress concentration, high tensile strength, rolling direction, secondary phasis, and crack propagation.

What was the research question?

To determine the effects of microstructure on tensile and CTOD properties of two API X80 pipeline steels.

Design:Theoretical

What was the finding?

The specimens of pipeline have high tensile strength due to low stress concentration.

What were the gaps?

Major difference in CTODs of 90 deg specimens compared to 30 deg specimens.

Authors:Pokrovskii, V.V., Sidyachenko, V.G., Ezhov, V.N.

Title of Article:A calculation-experimental study of crack-tip opening displacement and residual stresses upon warm prestressing

Type:Journal Publication:Springer NY

Year Published: 2014 Number of citations: 113

Primary or Secondary:Secondary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore: 0.45 Rank: #213/316 Percentile: 32nd In-Category: Mechanics of materials CiteScore Year:2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

Fracture toughness, heat resistant reactor, pressure vessels, CTOD, residual stress and stress analysis.

What was the research question?

 How to calculate CTOD and residual stresses upon warm prestressing?

Design:NA

What was the finding?

Warm prestressing reduces the strength singularity during subsequent loading.

What were the gaps?

The calculated results are shown are inappropriate.

Authors:Choi, H.C

Title of Article:The Prediction of Fatigue Crack Opening behaviour Using Cyclic Crack Tip Opening Displacement by Finite Element Analysis

Type:Journal Publication: Trans Tech publications

Year Published: 2006 Number of citations: 2059

Primary or Secondary: Primary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore: 0.21 Rank: #401/520 Percentile: 22nd In-Category:Mechanical Engineering

CiteScore Year: 2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

Crack opening, reversed plastic zone size, crack initiation and propagation and cyclic CTOD.

What was the research question?

To predict fatigue crack opening behaviour using CTOD by finite element analysis

Design:Analytical

What was the finding?

The effect of element size when predict fatigue crack opening behaviour using CTOD obtained from finite element analysis.

What were the gaps?

Casting of cylindrical space is not related to fatigue crack opening behaviour.

Authors: Brian Cox and Qingda Yang

Title of Article: In Quest of Virtual Tests for Structural Composites

Type: Journal Publication: Research Gate

Year Published: 2006 Number of citations: 2

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore:2.97 Rank: 32/105 Percentile: 83rd In-Category: Mechanical Engineering  

CiteScore Year:2016

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?  Understanding the pattern of the complex fracture patterns and modelling of fractures that are conceptual.

What was the research question? Can the effect of the material choice be measured with combining the fibre properties in metals?

Design: NA

What was the finding? The appearance of fibres is random and that patterns are not specified

What were the gaps?The loads on the fibre are and affect to it various for different patterns.

Authors: Bernd Gludovatz, Anton Hohenwarter, Dhiraj Catoor, Edwin H. Chang,  Easo P. George, Robert O. Ritchie

Title of Article: A fracture-resistant high-entropy alloy for cryogenic applications

Type: Journal Publication:Research gate

Year Published: 2014 Number of citations: 1

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore: 1.45 Rank: 87/243 Percentile: 76th In-Category: Mechanical Engineering   

CiteScore Year:2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review? The various properties and solid solution state that affects the stabilisation of metals.

What was the research question?  How a desired structure and combination of different alloys affects the reaction properties of metals.

Design: NA

What was the finding? The tolerance level of the damage properties of alloy along with other materials is tested and compared.

What were the gaps?Toughness of alloys exceeds all metals irrespective of their properties

Authors: M. T. Kazemi,  F. Fazileh and M. A. Ebrahiminezhad

Title of Article: Cohesive Crack Model and Fracture Energy of Steel-Fiber-Reinforced-Concrete Notched Cylindrical Specimens

Type: Journal Publication:Journal of materials in civil engineering

Year Published: 2007 Number of citations: 1

Primary or Secondary: Secondary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore:2.31 Rank: 129/356 Percentile: 72nd In-Category: Civil Engineering

CiteScore Year: 2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review? More evaluation related to the methods used to measure fracture energy

What was the research question?  Whether the methods used to measure fracture on plain concrete are applicable for cylindrical space.

Design: Analytical

What was the finding? The Experiments related to the notch sections in concrete space, and plain and cylindrical phase is different.

What were the gaps? Casting of cylindrical space and plain space is not equal.

Authors:Dietzel, W

Title of Article:The Use of Crack-Tip Opening Displacement for Testing of the Hydrogen Embrittlement of High-Strength Steels

Type:Journal Publication:Springer international publication

Year Published:2014 Number of citations:66

Primary or Secondary:Primary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore: 0.17 Rank: #416/520 Percentile:19th In-Category: Mechanical engineering

CiteScore Year: 2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

Stress corrosion cracks, Crack tip opening angle, elastoplasticity, embrittlement

What was the research question?

The hydrogenembrittlement of a higher-strength structural steel and welded joints of a C-Mn steel is assessed by using the CTOA and CTOD methodologies.

Design: Statistical

What was the finding?

The value of CTOD and CTOA for thin sheet metals are main findings for this research

What were the gaps?

The generated opening angle for which the crack propagates into the material by the crack-growth resistance curves (R-curves) is not accurate.

Authors:C. Kim, W. Kim and Y. Kho

Title of Article:The effects of hydrogen embrittlement by cathodic protection on the CTOD of buried natural gas pipeline

Type:Article Publication:The Korean Institute of Metals and Materials

Year Published: 2002 Number of citations:765

Primary or Secondary:Primary

Publication Rating:

CiteScore: 1.54 Rank: #25/137 Percentile: 81stIn-Category: Metals and alloys

CiteScore Year: 2015

What themes were discussed in the Literature Review?

Cathodic protection, crack propagation, buried pipeline and hydrogen embrittlement.

What was the research question?

How to protect corrosion of naturalgas transmission pipelines using cathodicprotection and a coating technique method.

Design:Analytical

What was the finding?

Cathodic overprotection results in hydrogenembrittlement at the crack tip.

What were the gaps?

There is no reason for why “CTOD decreased with increasing cathodic potential and current density”

References

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[4] J. Chieh, H. Horng, W. Tseng, S. Yang, C. Hong, H. Yang and C. Wu, "Imaging the Distribution of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Animal Bodies Using Scanning SQUID Biosusceptometry Attached with a Video Camera", IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1601503-1601503, 2013.

[5] T. De Pessemier, K. De Moor, W. Joseph, L. De Marez and L. Martens, "Quantifying Subjective Quality Evaluations for Mobile Video Watching in a Semi-Living Lab Context", IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 580-589, 2012.

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[8] J. Wu, J. Yang, Y. Shang, B. Cheng and J. Chen, "SPMLD: Sub-packet based multipath load distribution for real-time multimedia traffic", Journal of Communications and Networks, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 548-558, 2014.

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 [10] F. Wang, X. Jiang and X. Hu, "A TBB-CUDA Implementation for Background Removal in a Video-Based Fire Detection System", Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol. 2014, pp. 1-6, 2014.

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