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Leadership Role and Qualities

The work examined is excellent and demonstrates comprehensive knowledge, understanding and skills appropriate to the Level of the qualification. There is also excellent evidence showing that all the learning outcomes and responsibilities appropriate to that level are fully satisfied. At this level it is expected that the work will be excellent in the majority of the categories cited above or by demonstrating particularly compelling evaluation and elegance of argument, interpretation or discourse and there may be some evidence of originality

The work examined is of a high standard and there is evidence of comprehensive knowledge, understanding and skills appropriate to the Level of the qualification. There is also clearly articulated evidence demonstrating that all the learning outcomes and responsibilities appropriate to that level are satisfied At this level it is expected that the standard of the work will be high in the majority of the categories cited above or by demonstrating particularly compelling evaluation and elegance of argument, interpretation or discourse.

Directly relevant to the requirements of the assessment

A substantial knowledge of relevant material, showing a clear grasp of themes, questions and issues therein

Generally coherent and logically structured, using an appropriate mode of argument and/or theoretical mode(s)

May contain some distinctive or independent thinking; may begin to formulate an independent position in relation to theory and/or practice.

Well written, with standard spelling and grammar, in a readable style with acceptable format

Critical appraisal of up-to- date and/or appropriate literature. Recognition of different perspectives.

Very good use of source material. Uses a range of sources

Some attempt to address the requirements of the assessment: may drift away from this in less focused passages

Adequate knowledge of a fair range of relevant material, with intermittent evidence of an appreciation of its significance

Some analytical treatment, but may be prone to description, or to narrative, which lacks clear analytical purpose

Some attempt to construct a coherent argument, but may suffer loss of focus and consistency, with issues at stake stated only vaguely, or theoretical mode(s) couched in simplistic terms

Sound work which expresses a coherent position only in broad terms and in uncritical conformity to one or more standard views of the topic

Competently written, with only minor lapses from standard grammar, with acceptable format

Uses a variety of literature which includes some recent texts and/or appropriate literature, though not necessarily including a substantive amount beyond library texts. Competent use of source material.

The evidence provided shows that the majority of the learning outcomes and responsibilities appropriate to that Level are satisfied – for compensation consideration.

The work examined provides insufficient evidence of the knowledge, understanding and skills appropriate to the Level of the qualification. The evidence provided shows that some of the learning outcomes and responsibilities appropriate to that Level are satisfied. The work will be weak in some of the indicators.

The work examined is unacceptable and provides little evidence of the knowledge, understanding and skills appropriate to the Level of the qualification. The evidence shows that few of the learning outcomes and responsibilities appropriate to that Level are satisfied. The work will be weak in several of the indicators.

The work examined is unacceptable and provides almost no evidence of the knowledge, understanding and skills appropriate to the Level of the qualification. The evidence fails to show that any of the learning outcomes and responsibilities appropriate to that Level are satisfied. The work will be weak in the majority or all of the indicators.

Leadership Role and Qualities

My experience as a leader of the group was very interesting. My leadership role in this group focused on the various aspects such as ensuring that the team sticks together, living direction for each group member, ensuring that they undertake their tasks within the recommended time-scale and chairing the meetings after every two days. I had to deal with different categories of individual behaviors more so driven based on the level of self-esteem. I realized the essentiality of neuroticism in leadership. My case involves less neurotic experiences since most of my leadership performances were basically focusing on interest as well as adequate preparation through training obtained from class. In this case, I demonstrated quality leadership as well as effective supervisory role since I had to follow-up on the progress of every individual on a daily basis. However, my weaknesses emerged from my interpersonal sensitivity which made it easier for me to ignore various situations such as making inconsiderate decisions towards every group meeting.  However, I found out the importance of possessing agreeable personality basically identified through tactful and sensitive leadership attributes alongside altruism that produces leaders who are more agreeable. In cases of coordination, my collaborative personality added to my strength since I was always capable of identifying with my group members. My ability to adjust to different group reactions determined the level of my relationship with team members and class moderators.

There were several issues to deal with in the team especially time keeping. On several occasions some members were late, therefore, delaying the group discussions’ starting and stopping time. At times some members came unprepared leading to shallow discussions that dragged the outcome results. However, the input of some members was exemplary since they did thorough research and ensured delivery of up-to-date information on our topic of discussion. Communication at times became an issue in a case where some individuals used technical terms to explain their concepts. It forced me as a leader to be ahead always for the purposes of simplifying any such occurrences. It was of profound importance for the leader to hold frequent face-to-face group meetings that ensured formulation and planning on the given topic. Such attributes were necessary for the group to view their leader as a reliable strategist, a good planner and a think tank who ensures progression within the group. However, most of the leadership work as per the research topic given to us was majorly determined by out-of –the class work. Such demand on the leader required my management’s ability and consistency in dealing with some complex occurrences that ensured required accumulation, systematization of information and also delegation. Additionally, time distribution becomes a major challenge since the group had to allocate time that was convenient to every member for the face-to-face group discussion. This ensured balance within the activities of the group. The group work took a period of fourteen days to come up with the task solution despite the several occasions that the group failed to meet due to lack of quorum.  

Dealing with Issues in the Group

The employment cycle represents the different stages within an organization at which the organization determines its employment needs in relation to its business objectives, goals, and strategy. The process involves the establishment of employment needs before undertaking the process of hiring staff. After the hiring process, there is need to ensure that employees are productive at their level of engagement and also feel satisfied with the rewards thereof. Finally, it is important for the organization to manage the various activities that follow in case employees leave the business (Lai, 2010).

Three key phases of the employment cycle and its individual practices

The Establishment Phase

In this phase, there are a number of activities that involves the planning of the needs of the staff, recruitment, and selection of appropriate staff and organizing for employment arrangements including remuneration. The planning process entails such aspects as identifying staffing needs which involve increasing the number of staff that ensures the current functions within the organization are running productively (Hales, 2005). Moreover, the planning process ensures identification of new tasks that requires attention and the appropriate skills that ensure the performance of such tasks. This is job analysis process and comprises of a job description and the job specification. Job description refers to duties, responsibilities as well as tasks that are associated with the job. On the other hand, job specification entails qualifications, experience, skills required for an employee to undertake the job (Glickman et al., 2009). Recruitment as part of the establishment phase refers to the aspect of attracting suitable applicants to the already created position through means such as advertisements and employment agencies. The recruitment process may take place externally or internally (Watson, 2001).

This is the phase that represents the entire period of time the employee gives services to the organization. The phase entails induction, performance management, training, and development. The induction process entails introducing the new employee to the organization where the employee becomes acquainted with the history, vision, mission, goals, structures and practices of the organization. The organization ensures that the new employee knows the responsibilities associated with the new job and has full knowledge of the tasks (Abbritti and Fahr, 2013). It is also important to introduce the new employee to existing team members for mentorship process.

Termination Phase

The phase entails termination of the working relationship between the employer and employee. The process of termination requires robustly dealing with entitlement as well as transition issues. There are several issues that might surround termination where the process may end voluntarily where the employee retires or rather resigns. This requires different management tactics since departures on voluntary terms cannot be handled the same as indefinite termination. Dismissal results in cases of unsatisfactory job performance or behavior where the person in the position can no longer serve. The entitlement involves the issues on payment of outstanding benefits. This may be in-terms of accumulated annual leave or rather leave associated with long service. The process requires the keeping of detailed and accurate records for easy calculation of such benefits. In cases that involve involuntary termination, some employees may require counseling as appropriate to help them transition to the new environment outside their current job (Watson, 2001).

Importance of Face-to-Face Meetings

Phase 1: Recruitment

This involves the finding of a suitable person to fill a job vacancy through the use of advertisements, word of mouth or employment agencies. The recruitment process always takes a different method and can either be done by use of internal or external recruitment process. The internal recruitment process considers the employees present in the company and have potential qualifications for the available position. This may happen in form of promotion that generally acts as strong motivation incentive, especially for current employees. In the internal process, the organization is capable of utilizing its own employees’ skills, therefore, very cost-effective. At the same time, the organization is capable of selecting a replacement that is already familiar with company environment and operations. In this case, employee referral schemes also work effectively where existing employees identify and recommend potential candidates. However, referral bonuses should be applicable to the event that an employee helps the company identify the right person for the vacancy available (Watson, 2001). In external recruitment potential candidates are identified from outside the organization. This method helps the organization to bring aboard people with different ideas as well as attitudes of which may be of benefit to the organization. However, the size of the organization determines the method of recruitment applicable; also some other determinants include the nature of position available and the nature of the work within the particular area (Storey, 2014).

Agencies are also potential sources of recruitment that are capable of supplying organizations with potential candidates for a job vacancy. At times, they help identify employees on either temporal or casual terms capable of replacing current employees on a temporal basis especially to fill administrative positions. The aspect is one of the best remedies for the current skill shortage in organizations. This is since the agencies provide the necessary expertise that ensures hiring of best and potential employees (Kellerman, 2010).  

Phase 2: Training and Development

This is a process in the second phase of employee cycle. Training and development improve employee’s skills and abilities to perform tasks that benefit personal development and business growth (Wilton, 2016). The level of new employee experience determines the nature of training they are given for the purposes of upgrading their skills. Training is essential for the change in employee skills, attitude, knowledge as well as behavior for the purposes of improving organizational performance. The nature of the presentation of the training program has the capability of maintaining the organization’s sustainable and competitive advantage. The level of innovations and progress within the global platform stirs high-level competition, therefore, making it critical for the promotion of the concept of a learning organization within companies (Certo, 2015). Training enables the organization to become aware of various actions that promote a healthy environment by improving understanding as well as the relationships within the company. The organization benefits through higher productivity and helps in reducing costs of production by enhancing employee integrity at the workplace (Certo, 2015). Effective implementation of any new technology requires that the human resource manager identifies appropriate training needs (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014). Such process ensures that the required change is consistent with the employee capabilities and expectations. At times, rapid technological changes demand that the employees obtain training within the shortest time possible. There are often different kinds of training methods that organizations can utilize such as Off-the-job training, On-the-job training and competency-based training (Chiang et al., 2015).

Employment Cycle and its Phases

The aspect of development entails developing employees for the purposes of preparing them to take more future responsibilities. Development enables the employee to plan for future needs on behalf of the company (Usman and Rizwan, 2010). Implementation of effective development programs ensures that employees receive training on regular basis. This enhances the levels of motivation and commitment since it opens opportunities for employees on the long-term. In this case, employees are given opportunities in developing themselves as well as reaching their true potential. The development of such employees depends ultimately on the needs of the organization in consideration of employees’ career stage. For the instance, the development of effective managers focuses on the application of such concept as job rotation, mentorship, and formal business training programs (Kitao et al., 2016). The concept of succession planning is also part of the development plan that ensures availability of potential managers in the organization capable of taking-up higher responsibilities on management in case of vacancies.

Phase 3: Dismissal

The act on dismissal is applicable in the event that the organization finds that an employee has unacceptable behavior. This calls for termination of the entire employment contract of such particular employee. Dismissal takes different forms depending on the level of offense committed by the employee. At times, summary dismissal is applicable in the case where an employee commits a serious breach of employment contract such as involvement in criminal activity and use of drugs. In such cases, the employee is never given a notice which is contrary to dismissal on notice. In the case where an employee fails to deliver on performance, dismissal on notice is applicable. However, the nature of notice is safeguarded by a number of factors such as contract, age of the employee and the period they’ve worked for the employer (Sabia, 2014). Importantly, the issue of dismissing a staff requires awareness of legislation as well as industrial agreements. The employers are always required to undertake the act of dismissal of an employee in compliance with law procedures. Preferably, the organization can use written warnings for the purposes of understanding (Albrecht et al., 2015).

However, unfair dismissal is applicable in the event that the employer uses discriminatory reasons to justify the action. Some of the discriminatory examples include dismissal because of absence due to illness, race, sex, the age, disability, marital status, religion and also political affiliation. In such cases, employees can always lodge claims on unfair dismissal to the industrial tribunal. It is also important that managers undergo training on how to handle dismissal cases for the purposes of accounting for the legal as well as financial implications. This may also minimize trauma on both the sides of employer and employee and negates the effects on the remaining staff (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014).

Human Resource Representative Working Relations with the Line Manager on employment cycle practices

In the recruitment process, the HR professional assumes the responsibility of deciding on the nature of procedures to follow in the process of implementing the practice (Tengblad, 2006). For instance, it is the work of the HR representative to decide that all candidates must complete application forms, undertake employment test as well as undergoing the interview conducted by both HR representative and line manager. In the recruitment process, the HR representative develops structured interview guide and also constructs application blank and ensures that in the process firm’s HRM practices are properly put into consideration. In this case, both the managers evaluate the requirement of the position to be filled and usefulness of employment tests. Line managers handle the task of interviewing candidates and providing orientation for the job candidates (Sabia, 2014).

The Establishment Phase

In training and development, the line managers ensure the success of the training programs applicable for various positions and the cost effectiveness of the outcome. Further, they have the task of monitoring records for the purposes of ensuring that performance appraisals are well kept and completed. In this case, the line managers provide HR with details on job performance ratings and at the same time provide coaching as well as on-the-job training. The HR professionals provide options on appropriate topics on areas that require training. In this case, they may assist in providing formal training programs in such areas as employee job performance, selection and the law. Line managers have the task of directing day-to-day activities that concerns employees. In this case, the line managers implement HRM practices where they provide necessary input in the development of effective practices. In cases of dismissal, the line managers take the role of carrying out disciplinary procedures that also entails settling grievance issues amongst employees (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014).

Conclusion

It is important to note that employee relations are concerned with various aspects such as pay and conditions and the process under which such conditions work. Therefore, the employee conditions should be consistent with the strategies that organization uses to achieve objectives. In most organizations, the human resource department develops and at the same time implements human resource management practices. The responsibility of implementation lies with HR representative and line managers that eventually lead to the development of effective HRM practices. For instance, the level of success that an organization obtains from performance appraisal system depends on the ability of both managers to perform their work rightfully. In this case, the human resource representative develops the system while on the other hand; line managers provide evaluations on the actual performance.

References

Abbritti, M., & Fahr, S., 2013. Downward wage rigidity and business cycle asymmetries. Journal of

Monetary Economics, 60(7), pp.871-886

Albrecht, S.L., Bakker, A.B., Gruman, J.A., Macey, W.H. and Saks, A.M., 2015. Employee engagement, human resource management practices and competitive advantage: An integrated approach. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 2(1), pp.7-35.

Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014. Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.

Certo, S., 2015. Supervision: Concepts and skill-building. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Chiang, Y.H., Li, J., Zhou, L., Wong, F.K., & Lam, P.T., 2015. The nexus among employment opportunities, life-cycle costs, and carbon emissions: a case study of sustainable building maintenance in Hong Kong. Journal of Cleaner Production, 109, pp.326-335.

Glickman, C., Gordon, S., & Ross-Gordon, J. 2009. Supervision and instructional leadership: A developmental approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Hales, C.2005. ‘Rooted in Supervision, Branching into Management: Continuity and

Change in the Role of First-Line Manager,’ Journal of management studies, 42 (3)

Kellerman, B. 2010. Leadership: Essential selections on power, authority and Influence. New York; McGraw-Hill

Kitao, S., Ljungqvist, L., & Sargent, T.J., 2016. A life-cycle model of trans-Atlantic employment experiences. Review of Economic Dynamics

Lai, J.H., 2010. Building operation and maintenance: Education needs in Hong Kong. Facilities, 28(9/10), pp.475-493.

Sabia, J.J., 2014. The effects of minimum wages over the business cycle. Journal of Labor Research, 35(3), pp.227-245.

Storey, J., 2014. New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.

Tengblad, S .2006. Is there a ‘New Leadership?’ Journal of Management Studies, 43

(7), 13

Usman, A, & Rizwan, D., 2010. Leadership Spirituality in Banking Professionals and its impact on organizational commitment. International Journal of Business and Management. 5 (2), pp185-189.Print.

Watson, T.2001. The Emergent Manager and Processes of Management Pre-Learning,

Management Learning, 32 (221), pp 33

Wilton, N., 2016. An introduction to human resource management. Sage.

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