Discuss About The Explained By Means Tabular Representation?
By reviewing the whole article, it has been found that no obscure phrase is present and key concepts related to the research problem has been adequaetely defined by the researcher. The research study by Ramjan et al., (2014) clearly mentions the purpose of research, which is to identify strategies that may assist nurse in increasing their competency in drug calculation teaching and assessment method. All types of teaching methods has been clearly explained by means of tabular representation.
The usefulness of this research is high because it is a newly published article published in the year 2014, which might give new insights to improve skills and competencies of registered nurse. The reliability of the data is high because it is a recent work that has considered recent approaches and teaching methods to improve the competency of nurse in drug calculation.
The key concepts related to factors that might affect the nurse’s ability to conduct mathematical calculation for drug dose has been discussed. This was dependent on experience, age, practice experience and age of nurses. Hence, the researcher highlighted the research problem, which is the rise in number of preventable medication errors, and need to prepare nurses to tailor drug calculation teaching. Therefore, the main concept behind the research is adequately explained.
The motivation for the research is understood from the background information related to the topic that the researcher has discussed in the introduction section. The importance of nurses competency in drug calculation was seen because patient’s lives depend on those calculation. Any error in medication dose can cost lives of patients too.
Mixed method research approach was used to collect data from 327 female and 63 male nursing students of final year. The same size is adequate for giving reliable results. Secondly, the strategy to select only final year nursing students in the study reveals purposive sampling approach was taken to include participants in the study. Use of purposive sampling method is a good step by the researcher because it ensures fulfillment of the goal of research and getting reliable data from those people who experience the issue on a daily basis. It increased the generalizability and reliability of the study too (Etikan, Musa, & Alkassim, 2016). Secondly, many teaching interventions were provided to improve the competency of the researcher. Two surveys were done to collect data-first was conducted during the tutorial classes and other was done after hands-on workshop. The use of both Likert scale and qualitative comment in the survey question is commendable because it will remove all possibilities of getting ambiguous data. The researcher also followed the ethical consideration that is required before conducting the research which further increased the viability of the research article.
The use of SPSS tool and use of excel spreadsheet for manually analyzing theme gives an indication that data analysis is rigorous enough to effectively analyze both qualitative and quantitative data. The illustration of the TGP flow chart of process and intervention also makes all the research method clear. This method is considered reliable to get all answers to the research question. The same cross sectional mixed method survey design was also applied by Fleming, Brady & Malone, (2014) to investigate nurse’s competency in drug calculation. However, in case of randomized controlled study, multiple choice test related drug dose calculation was considered to evaluate competency of the nurse (Simonsen et al., 2014).
In the study by Ramjan et al., (2014), the main findings was that association was found between nurse’s numeracy skills performance and the remedial support sessions. Secondly, the evaluation of nurse’s perception regarding tailored intervention revealed that nurses found the online practice quiz useful because of its clinical relevance. On the whole, it can be stated that results presented was relevant to the research question and the table based response for statistical and qualitative numeracy skills performance promoted analysis of the data in much lesser time.
While comparing the above article with other two article related to the same topic, it has been found that the first article gave more extensive numerical data related to scores of nurse in metric conversion, tablet dosage, fluid dosage, drip rate and total drug test scores (Fleming, Brady & Malone, 2014). Although this is advantageous for evaluating the effectiveness of drug test for improving the competency of nurse, however the evaluation of numerous other interventions in Ramjan et al., (2014) has a much wider scope and credibility too. The scope of the study findings by Simonsen et al., (2014) is also narrow as it focused only on classroom learning and e-learning and not other types of teaching intervention.
The discussion section of the study Ramjan et al., (2014) adequately explained how the research has given answer to the research aim. Positive response was given by staff regarding recent teaching intervention for medication calculation. Exposure to simulated scenarios enhanced their competency and confidence on drug calculation. The positive comment regarding hands-on workshop also revealed its effectiveness of visual learning. Therefore, the data obtained from the study was justified by the above explanation.
Ramjan et al., (2014) finally concluded the research by giving the recommendation that intensive and contextualized numeracy teaching and assessment is more favoured by nurse now compared to traditional testing methods. More emphasis was given on contextualizing the teaching and learning process. However, the researcher did not pointed out to any areas of future research. Fleming, Brady & Malone, (2014) also did not identified any future research area, however it gave the recommendation that national guideline on level and assessment of pharmacological content and drug calculation is necessary to improve medication calculation in nurses. The research by Simonsen et al., (2014) concluded that the result did not gave any outcome of practical significance. Hence, the reliability of the study was low and no future areas of research was also stated despite limitation in the study.
Results and Discussion
The strength of the study is the use of simple language and no complicated jargons. It is easy for any reviewer to effectively understand all the concepts related to the study. Secondly, tabular representation of study finding promotes easy analysis of the research outcome.
Ramjan et al., (2014) presented the research data by means of tabular representation. All the tables were systematically arranges with headings and key research variables. However, the flowchart regarding the research process and intervention was little complex and it took time to interpret them.
The strength of the study is that the researcher has used include all types of teaching strategies to understand the effectiveness of research. This has helped to validate the importance visually enhanced hands-on intervention in improving numeracy learning in final year nurses. The other two studies and many other studies have not considered the evolving nature of learning methods while conducting the study (Pierce et al., 2008). The key weakness in the research is the Likert scale was used for the survey, however it has too many options which limited the validity of the study (Artino et al., 2011).
The main weakness of the research by Ramjan et al., (2014) was too many option in Likert scales and this could have been addressed by taking lesser options or using validated survey tools.
The work by Ramjan et al., (2014) is a high quality research article because he has reported about the research process in a very subjective manner.
No personal comments has been made and all justification or arguments raised has been backed up by relevant research articles. Hence, no biasness in viewpoint is seen.
The quality of Ramjan et al., (2014) is also understood from proper reference given for each citation. Link was provided in each citation and this helped in easily navigating to the research article from which the arguments were raised.
The credibility of the author is further understood from their profession designation. For instance, Ramjan is a staff member in the School of Nursing and she is committed to educational research particularly in numeracy. This means she has enough experience in research works related to the teaching strategies in nursing demonstrating the validity of her research work (Doctor Lucie Ramjan 2017).
Artino Jr, A. R., Gehlbach, H., & Durning, S. J. (2011). AM last page: avoiding five common pitfalls of survey design. Academic Medicine, 86(10), 1327.
Doctor Lucie Ramjan. (2017). Westernsydney.edu.au. [online] Available at: https://www.westernsydney.edu.au/staff_profiles/uws_profiles/doctor_lucie_ramjan [Accessed 11 Sep. 2017].
Etikan, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1), 1-4.
Fleming, S., Brady, A. M., & Malone, A. M. (2014). An evaluation of the drug calculation skills of registered nurses. Nurse education in practice, 14(1), 55-61.
Pierce, R. U., Steinle, V. A., Stacey, K. C., & Widjaja, W. (2008). Understanding decimal numbers: a foundation for correct calculations. International journal of nursing education scholarship, 5(1), 1-15.
Ramjan, L. M., Stewart, L., Salamonson, Y., Morris, M. M., Armstrong, L., Sanchez, P., & Flannery, L. (2014). Identifying strategies to assist final semester nursing students to develop numeracy skills: a mixed methods study. Nurse education today, 34(3), 405-412.
Simonsen, B. O., Daehlin, G. K., Johansson, I., & Farup, P. G. (2014). Improvement of drug dose calculations by classroom teaching or e-learning: a randomised controlled trial in nurses. BMJ open, 4(10), e006025.
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