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Salmonella

Gram-negative pathogens of Family Enterobacteriaceae generally include certain types of bacteria such as Salmonella, Shigella and Pathogenic E. coli. These bacteria are most abundantly present in the human intestinal tract and gut flora, which are associated with infections of the urinary tract. The complications associated with certain species of bacteria include urinary tracts infections (UTIs), diarrhea, and other blood-related issues. The species of family Enterobacteriaceae are the common cause of life-threatening complications because of their resistance to antibiotics. Various extrinsic and intrinsic factors involved in affecting microbial growth and microbial survivability include pH, water activity, antimicrobial constituents, relative humidity, temperature. All the microbes need specific growth factors to grow and spread. However, changing those factors (either by reducing or by increasing) any parameter can tend to inhibit microbial growth.

https://www.foodpoisonjournal.com/food-poisoning-information/what-you-need-to-know-about-salmonella-2/

Salmonella is a Gram-negative bacteria of bacillus shape. The genotypic characteristic of bacteria includes the production of O, H, and Vi antigens, which are responsible to cause virulence in hosts. The diseases caused are abdominal pain, diarrhea, and nausea. Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen that can cause typhoid to humans by secreting a toxin called Shiga. Due to the production of toxins in food sources. The vehicles for diseases by Salmonella are animals. Salmonella can grow on Poultry meat products, undercooked meat, and dairy products. For example, the optimum pH for E. coli is 4.5 to 9.0. salmonella bacteria can grow over pH ranging between 4 to 9. Hence, changing the value of pH to extremely high or low than optimal can inhibit microbial growth (Magar, 2021). Prevention methodologies for Salmonella include the provision of hygiene and removing the sick animals from the herd, and treating animals within a sort of time.

https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fshigella%2Fgeneral-information.html psig=AOvVaw006z4t52E11Ae_8IkYn44w&ust=1649216766811000&source=images&cd=vfe ved=2ahUKEwj69c6tgfz2AhWLg2MGHeI5D-sQr4kDegUIARC1AQ

Shigella is diarrhea-causing intestinal bacteria that stain negative on Gram staining method. The virulent antigenic factors include enterotoxins and bacterial plasmids in contaminated food. The mechanism of disease-causing shigellosis includes cytokine-mediated inflammation of the intestine. However, the preventive method of the bacteria is to avoid the fecal-oral transmission of the microbes. Moreover, the antibiotic ampicillin can be used to treat infections (Aslam & Okafor, 2020).

https://familydoctor.org/condition/e-coli-infection/

Pathogenic E. coli phenotypically is Gram-negative bacteria which is of bacillus shape. The bacteria are considered the opportunistic pathogen that acts as the food vehicle and causes a wide range of infections in the human body. The illnesses of E. coli are associated with enteric infections, which is a highly isolated organism in the clinical laboratory. The urinary tract infections caused by e. coli include prostatitis and pyelonephritis.

Shigella

The five recognized groups of E. coli bacteria associated with enteric infections include enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), and enteroggregative (EAEC) serotypes (Guentzel, 1996). The genotypic characteristics of E coli. are associated with causing diseases, including diarrhea, as these microbes tend to form the colonies to exhibit antibiotic resistance against certain drugs (Julian et al., 2015). The virulence factors of E. coli bacteria can be associated in the majority with intestinal infections. However, the treatment can include the precautionary measures of spreading microbial colonies in the food product, using highly processed foods, properly cooked food and avoiding cross-contamination (Heredia & García, 2018).

https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FYersinia_enterocolitica&psig=AOvVaw0-r0j-_avoXbgZ9WDmTwcO&ust=1649216642382000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CAsQjhxqFwoTCNj-yP6B_PYCFQAAAAAdAAAAABAD

Yersinia is the non-spore forming Gram negative rod-shaped aerobic bacteria? The virulence factor of bacteria includes heat stable enterotoxin. The bacteria can be infected through the animal faeces and causes the gastroenteritis, and diarrhoea. Yersinia transmission can occur through contaminants, animal contact and blood products. The microbiological examination of Yersinia can be observed through the symptoms such as fever, abdominal pain and bloody-stools that can appear within a week. Prevention technologies include the properly cooking food, washing utensils, and separating contaminated food from safe/hygiene products (Bennett et al., 2019).

https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fblog.microbiologics.com%2Fenvironmental-isolate-case-file-cronobacter-sakazakii%2F&psig=AOvVaw0hi4m8JySfKeu602c3YT96&ust=1649216554697000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CAsQjhxqFwoTCOjUyuSA_PYCFQAAAAAdAAAAABAD  

Cronobacter is the emerging opportunistic pathogen that generally affects newborn children causing meningitis, diarrhea, urinary tract infection and septicaemia. Virulence factor associated with consuming contaminated infant cereals and rehydrated milk. To avoid contamination, food should be pre-packed and well processed (Parra-Flores et al., 2018).

Family Vibrionaceae involves the bacteria Vibrio and Aeromonas, which are of comma-shaped Gram-negative and facultative anaerobic bacteria. The bacteria can cause cholera, vibriosis, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and diseases due to the consumption of oysters present in contaminated fresh or saltwater. The family of Vibrionaceae consists of approximately 50 disease-causing species. The general growth of the bacteria occurs at a temperature ranging from 18 to 36 degrees Celsius. Virulence factors of the bacteria include the production of endotoxins and enterotoxins (James 2014).

https://www.creative-biolabs.com/vaccine/aeromonas-hydrophila-vaccines.htm  

Aeromonas: The species of Aeromonas are rarely associated with diarrheal diseases and prominently found in the fresh water, mostly hosts the organisms that are cold blooded. Aeromonas are highly motile, show haemolysis patterns on blood agar media, but resisted by increasing the concentration of salt in media. Many of the strains also secrete enterotoxins to cause diseases and grow effectively at pH ranging from 6.4 to 8.0.

https://microbeonline.com/vibrio-cholerae-laboratory-diagnosis-confirmation/

Vibrio cholerae transmit through the sanitary water system and are sensitive to acid because of normal pH range of 8.5 to 9.5. however, the species of vibrio are halotolerant, which means, these bacteria can grow on high NaCl concentration (6% NaCl). The fermentation product of vibrio is sucrose and mannose, on which they grow in lab.

Pathogenic E. Coli

Campylobacter and Arcobacter bacteria belong to Arcobacteraceae family, which stain pink on Gram staining and possess a spiral shape. The bacterial infections are associated with food poisoning, diarrhea, and gastroenteritis because of eating uncooked or partially cooked food. These bacteria use adhesin and fimbriae molecules to get attached to the host cell surface to proliferate and promote colony formation to cause infections. The intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting bacterial activities include temperature, pH, and water activity. However, the alteration in the factors can cause the restriction of microbial growth.

https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fbadgut.org%2Finformation-centre%2Fhealth-nutrition%2Fcampylobacter%2F&psig=AOvVaw3JAHu417nhPJDB5DB4Y6oF&ust=1649216160431000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CAsQjhxqFwoTCJDDm7v_-_YCFQAAAAAdAAAAABAD

Campylobacter is the slow growing bacteria with the considerable genetic and ecologic diversity. The bacteria are the habitant of gastrointestinal tracts, where bacteria cause most common diseases febrile systemic disease, periodontal disease. The minimum required pH range for Campylobacter is 6.5–7.5, and the temperature at which these bacteria can effectively grow ranges from 37 to 45-degree Celsius (Singh et al., 2015).

https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencephoto.com%2Fmedia%2F710033%2Fview%2Farcobacter-septicus-bacteria-sem&psig=AOvVaw3IY2taIT35SjAVcGqebpvO&ust=1649216190948000&source=images&cd=vfe&ved=0CAsQjhxqFwoTCNCCt6T_-_YCFQAAAAAdAAAAABAD   

Arcobacter are also the slow growing pathogenic bacteria causing diseases in humans. The most common diseases caused by Arcobacter are gastroenteritis and septicemia. The common growth temperature of Arcobacter range is 32-37 degree Celsius. However, the common pH range for Arcobacter is 5 to 9

https://safefoodalliance.com/food-safety/listeria-spp-vs-listeria-monocytogenes/

Listeria monocytogenes is the Gram-positive non-spore-forming bacteria that cause intracellular infections because of foodborne illnesses. The causative pathogenesis is associated with the food-producing industries. The illness caused by Listeria is meningitis, septicaemia, endocarditis and primary bacteraemia. Occurrence of the contamination can occur by drinking impure water, contaminated hands from surface soil and slaughterhouse waste. The food vehicles involved in causing Listeria-associated illness are cheese, meat and meat products, including pig meat (Heredia & García, 2018).

Meat and Meat Products

https://www.cdc.gov/hai/organisms/staph.html

Staphylococcus aureus is a non-spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria of spherical shape that generally can be found grape-shaped. The virulence factors of the bacteria include the formation of colonization to promote the bacterial growth over the surface of the food that invades the host cells. Infections such as Cellulitis, scalded skin and boils cause food poisoning that prevents food contamination and incorporates personal hygienic practices (Sanford & Gallo, 2013).

Gram positive (Spore forming pathogens): Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus

Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus are the anaerobic spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria that are associated with food spoilage, food poisoning, diarrheal, and stomach cramps.

https://www.foodsafetynews.com/2020/03/cheese-sauce-linked-to-clostridium-perfringens-outbreak/

The spore forming gram positive and rod shaped bacteria, Clostridium perfringens causes foodborne illness through contaminated food. The foods affected by the bacteria are the poultry and meat products affecting the intestines of the hosts. Four types of toxins (alpha, beta, epsilon and iota) called enterotoxins are the virulence toxins of the bacteria that cause the infections.

Yersinia

https://www.ecolab.com/expertise-and-innovation/resources/microbial-risks/b-cereus 

Bacillus cereus is beta haemolytic spore forming bacteria causing gastrointestinal illness. In order to reduce the growth of Bacillus cereus, the pH can be lower than 5 and temperature than 8 degrees Celsius. Providing the heating treatment to the microbial load present over the food sources can inhibit bacterial growth (Dréan et al., 2015).

https://www.medical-actu.com/en/lesson/bacteriology/clostridium-botulinum/  

Is Gram-positive bacteria causing food spoilage and food poisoning. The bacterial growth ranges from pH 4.9 to 9.3. the toxin produced by bacteria is botulinum. Botulinum is a lethal substance that even can block the nervous functions and cause muscular paralysis.

The types of hepatitis virus are the common cause of foodborne illnesses. Two types of foodborne hepatitis viruses have been identified; namely, A and E. Both types of viruses cause illness on the human body through the faecal-oral route or by ingesting contaminated foods. The diagnosis of the virus can be made through the blood samples and stools before initiating the prevention and treatments. Better sanitation activities and using boiled/chlorinated water can inactivate the virus to make the water safe for drinking (Pintó et al., 2021).

https://www.prevention.com/health/health-conditions/a38321575/what-is-hepatitis-a/

Hepatitis A is the single standard virus of 7.5 kb in length and possesses the +RNA. Hepatitis A enters the liver through the bloodstream to cause infections. The viruses cause illness on the human body through the faecal-oral route or certain types of sexual contacts.

https://medlineplus.gov/hepatitisc.html  

The infections from Hepatitis C can persist longer and cause chronic illnesses. Disease transmission of viruses occurs by ingesting contaminated foods and contact with blood from an infected person that ultimately cause illness on the human body.

References

Aslam, A., & Okafor, C. N., (2020). Shigella. StatPearls

Bennett, J. E., Dolin, R., & Blaser, M. J., (2019). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Dréan, P., McAuley, C. M., Moore, S. C., Fegan, N., & Fox, E. M., (2015). Characterization of the spore-forming Bacillus cereus sensu lato group and Clostridium perfringens bacteria isolated from the Australian dairy farm environment. BMC Microbiology, 15(1), 1-10.

Guentzel, M. N., (1996). Escherichia, klebsiella, enterobacter, serratia, citrobacter, and proteus. Medical Microbiology. 4th edition.

Heredia, N., & García, S., (2018). Animals as sources of foodborne pathogens: A review. Animal Nutrition, 4(3), 250-255.

James D. Cherry., (2014). Vibrionaceae. Encyclopedia of Food Safety. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/vibrionaceae

Julian, T. R., Islam, M. A., Pickering, A. J., Roy, S., Fuhrmeister, E. R., Ercumen, A., & Schwab, K. J., (2015). Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Escherichia coli isolates from feces, hands, and soils in rural Bangladesh via the Colilert Quanti-Tray System. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81(5), 1735-1743.

Parra-Flores, J., Cerda-Leal, F., Contreras, A., Valenzuela-Riffo, N., Rodríguez, A., & Aguirre, J., (2018). Cronobacter sakazakii and microbiological parameters in dairy formulas associated with a food alert in Chile. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9, 1708

Pintó, R. M., Pérez-Rodríguez, F. J., Costafreda, M. I., Chavarria-Miró, G., Guix, S., Ribes, E., & Bosch, A., (2021). Pathogenicity and virulence of hepatitis A virus. Virulence, 12(1), 1174-1185.

Sanford, J. A., & Gallo, R. L. (2013). Functions of the skin microbiota in health and disease. In Seminars in Immunology, 25(5), pp. 370-377).

Magar, S. T., (2021). Factors affecting the growth of microorganisms in food. Food Microbiology. https://microbenotes.com/factors-affecting-the-growth-of-microorganisms-in-food/

Singh, N., Goel, G., & Raghav, M., (2015). Insights into virulence factors determining the pathogenicity of Cronobacter sakazakii. Virulence, 6(5), 433-440.

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[Accessed 03 March 2024].

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