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Fuel Consumption and Emissions in Locomotive Operations

Discuss about the Fuel, Fuel Consumption and Electrification for Swirl.

In the reference paper deals the fuel consumptions result and dissipate emission tests which is donned on 2000 horsepower Electro-Motive Division of General Motors Corporation GP38-2 locomotive functioning on four various fuels. In any test fuels, Swirl was verified in operational problems. Locomotive engine can produce 1% to 2% with full power when biodiesel blends was operating. In October 2000, a test center named as Swirl Locomotive Exhaust Emissions was conducting Locomotive tests. 

This reference paper deals with the fuel consumption and exhaust emission can be tested with the help of locomotive test. This locomotive test can be done by using biodiesel fuel blends. With the help of this work we can measure fuel consumption using flow mass meter. Four types of fuels can be tested with the help of baseline test. This study shows that the locomotive engine when operates on biodiesel blends can produce 2 percentage of rated power.  

This work does not satisfy reliability and long term durability. In the fuel test results there is a lack in PM response that contributes to most of the emission from test result obtained by southwest research institute tells that no operational problems were observed.   

In this reference paper says about the Canadian railways. They are doing better to get their Greenhouse gas reduction targets by their management of fuel and their policies. From 64772.83 kt was down into 6367.68 kt in Canada for all Railway operations in Greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions helps to maintaining the traffic as moderate. 

This report deals with the reduction of greenhouse gas with the help of fuel management technologies and fuel efficient locomotives. In this work fuel the reduction of fuel consumption data is analyzed that shows the fuel consumption is reduced by 1.6 percentage. This work also shows the roadmap to reduce railway emission by reducing greenhouse gas emission.

This work entitle that with the help of Locomotive Emission Monitoring 2013 shows that by 2015 Canadian railway can meet their greenhouse gas reduction target. The green gas house is reduced to 1.6 percentage. Although the implementation of locomotive emission monitoring program, the Canada government and Canadian railways takes other efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in various sectors.  

This reference paper explains the operation and equipment of a system and the system is used for convert EMD diesel locomotive engine into operate with the help of natural gas. The natural gas is act as a major energy source. Electronic controls, actuators and sensors for system variable can be developed by retrofit system. The required controls are rate and control of diesel pilot. 

Natural Gas as a Major Energy Source

This paper deals with the usage of natural gas as a major source of energy to reduce fuel consumption. Hence it is used to convert electromotive diesel locomotive engine to engine that uses natural gas. With the help of this natural gas emission control is achieved.  

In this work hardware and concepts of the project has proved to be operational and functional. The natural gas is used to reduce fuel consumption is analyzed. Retrofit system is used to control locomotive engine dual fuel is described. 

Schreiner, K, von Bischopinck, R Harrison, J & Mayer J 2000, Consideration on exhaust emission optimization of diesel engines for rail traction, Railway Energy Efficiency Conference, Paris, France 10-11 May 2000 Accessed February 2007, 

In this reference paper, Reliable source like Diesel engines is explained. Transport is depends upon diesel engines. Low emission values for rail transport is not an easy task compared to ship and road transport. The rail transport has cost low, time low and environmental aspects compared to ship and road transport. 

This works deals with the reduction of exhaust emission from the locomotives that works under diesel. Exhaust emission can be reduced by designing a specific engine for rail traction. The power and energy is coupled with the help of landscape. Various engine testing principles are used to reduce emission from the diesel engines. 

In this work combustion engines are designed to meet the traditional requirements such as investment cost, reliability and fuel economy. Emission control is achieved by keeping certain parameter in mind such as market size did not allow the creation of optimized engineers. 

In this paper, Multi-task machine is used for identifying fuel consumption per hectare for tilled land. Time and total count of tractor machine is a major deal for the fuel consumption. Dry cultivated, multi-task machinery and traditionally irrigated farms are the types of irrigation systems. Movement of tractors, soil results in soil compactness. 

This paper deals with the three tillage methods that is used for fuel consumption. The tillage methods includes maximum tillage that uses consumption of fuel per hectare of tilled land, no tillage can be achieved by direct drill planter and multitask machine is used for reduced tillage. Measurements like number of tractors and time taken for the trips. 

Three tillage methods have been compared and studied. The crop yield per hectare is studied. The results of three tillage methods such as reduced tillage, no tillage and maximum tillage is compared for fuel compared. In addition to fuel consumption, factors like irrigation method and land conditions that affects the crop yield per hectare.  

Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Canadian Railways

In this paper, environmental evaluation and emission calculation was used in microscopic emission model. There are two types of inputs. They are probe vehicles and microscopic traffic simulation models. Real activities data are used an input for the reconstructed vehicle trajectories. The main work for vehicle is rebuild trajectory. Comprehensive modal emission and next generation training dataset are used to study calculation and analyzing of emission output. 

The emission from the vehicle can be estimated with the help of microscopic emission models. The input for these models are probe vehicles and microscopic simulation traffic models. Detectors can be used to detect the vehicle speed and these can be used to estimate vehicle fuel emission and consumption. 

Vehicle emission models are effective to estimate fuel consumption is analyzed. An improved model is described to calculate vehicle acceleration data and vehicle speed to estimate fuel consumption is studied. Vehicle emission at both link and lane level is analyzed and calculated. 

When designing overhead contact lines, electrification of railway is the trickiest topic. The railway electrification's mechanical design is highlighted in an article.  This paper explains the toughest design of the already available railway lines. 

This work describes the alternating current electrification in high speed lines. Electrification of the railway system tells us the charging of the system. 

The trickiest topic is described. An electrification of railway is explained. The overhead contact line in railway is designed. The railway electrification mechanical design is calculated. The toughest design of the railway line is described. This paper describes the electrification of the railway system. The strong dependence of railway electrification mechanical design is studied with the help of overhead contact lines.

In diesel combustion, to reduce fuel consumption was performed by engine operating conditions. Algorithms of micro genetic was used here. Three-dimensional CFD modeling was used in chemistry solver. Against pressure, KIVA code is used. It includes 50% of split injection and reduced spray.

In this work fuel consumption is reduced by optimizing operating conditions of the engines for stoichiometric combustion diesel. In this micro genetic algorithms, reduced n-heptane mechanism, KIVA code and chemokine chemistry solver were used for combustion and ignition process.

The fuel consumption for engine operating conditions are performed. The algorithms for micro genetic was studied. CFD modeling in chemistry is solved. KIVA code is performed. The split injection and spray reduction is verified.

Nwachukwu, M. and Mba, H. (2012). Analysis of consumption pattern of highway transportation fuel in Nigeria. OPEC Energy Review, 36(1), pp.25-34. The fuel scarcity in Nigeria is main reason of highway transportation. This is one the most problematic challenged in Nigeria. Compare to other part of fuel consumption highway transportation fuel consumption is large need. Various techniques are tested for research hypothesis. The consumption of highway transportation fuel is maximum compare to other parts.

This study deals with the consumption pattern of fuel in highway transportation in Nigeria. But the consumption pattern do not vary much when compared to other parts of country. In this four major cities like keno, Abuja, Lagos and Enugu were chosen and the consumption pattern is analyzed. The outcomes helps in elimination of scarcity of fuel in Nigeria city.

The fuel scarcity in Nigeria is explained. The main challenge for Nigerian people can be described. The Comparison of Other part of country and highway transportation is done. The techniques for research hypothesis is analyzed. The maximum fuel consumption in highway is explained.

In the propelled automobile the average consumption of fuel into forward motion is 10-20%. The remaining energy is heat and it is not fully banned. Assume a person can fill fuel to tank 1-2 gal. Then then remaining 8-9 gal is on the ground.

This work deals with internal combustion engine is 10-19% efficient at convert the energy in gasoline form to forward motion. Then the remaining energy is dissipated as heat which leads to wastage of 90% of fuel.

The population of an automobile is explained. The consumption of fuel amount is also described. The remaining energy of heat is calculated. The calculation of filling the fuel into the tank is done. The remaining fuel is which place is also verified.

Uzun, A. (2012). A parametric study for specific fuel consumption of an intercooled diesel engine using a neural network. Fuel, 93, pp.189-199. 

In combustion reaction the oxygen amount is used which is helped to increase output and decrease consumption of fuel. For all engine, thermal efficiency and fuel is important. Intercooler is used to decrease temperature intake in engine. 

This paper describes to reduce fuel consumption with the help of turbocharging. It is the process in which the oxygen amount is increased thereby decreases the fuel consumption. Then for the investigation parametric study is executed. 

The combustion reaction is explained. The oxygen amount is used for increase output is calculated. The output incrimination is analyzed. The thermal efficiency is studied. The importance of fuel is analyzed. Intercoolers described. The engine taking decreasing temperature is calculated with the help of intercooler.

Zervas, E. (2011). Impact of altitude on fuel consumption of a gasoline passenger car. Fuel, 90(6), pp.2340-2342. 

This paper deals with the gasoline car fuel consumption. In general new passenger car engines are at tuned sea level. But most of the operation is performed at higher attitudes other than sea level. 

The air density calculation for fuel consumption is calculated. The explanation of higher level and lower level with the help of throttle opening is done. The aerodynamics of higher level and declaration times can change the fuel consumption is explained. 

Alternative fuel is used as ethanol. Compare with gasoline, ethanol fuel have greater octave number. Ethanol fuel have greater combustion velocity to increase combustion efficiency and energy loss. The starting investigation is leveraging effect of ethanol. 

This works describes the usage of ethanol fuel which possesses latent heat vaporization and greater octane number that allow increased thermal efficiency and higher compression. Gasoline fuel can be advantaged by ethanol fuel with the help of injecting ethanol and gasoline port.

Ethanol fuel is analyzed very well. Comparison of gasoline and ethanol fuel is done. The greater combustion velocity of Ethanol is very helpful for getting more equivalent result. The effect of ethanol is also covered.

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