The major policy report provides you an opportunity to demonstrate knowledge and skills in policy analysis, policy development and policy advocacy, although the relative balance between each element might vary depending on the topic. In this assignment you will need to demonstrate an understanding of the following areas:
- familiarity with major state, national and international institutions and arrangements that influence and shape the selected policy;
- familiarity with the contemporary policy environment within which this field of health policy is located; and
- familiarity with the evidence, leading arguments, and main political forces associated with this particular policy.
You will choose a policy issue of interest to you, and identify an institutional/a stakeholder’s perspective from which you will be undertaking the exercise. Ideally, you will:
- define the problem, quantify − be specific about problem’s scope and magnitude, affected group(s), and specify the nature of the problem;
- examine the historical development of the policy issue;
- analyse the factors which have influenced the course of policy development and implementation (including the institutions and the actors);
- consider the strengths and weaknesses (or benefits and costs) of current and/or proposed policy positions; and
- propose realistic policy improvements based on evidence and analysis.
Identifying the Main Problems Related to Tobacco
Excessive smoking and Tobacco control has always been a principal focus of the public health policy issues of Australia. The objective of this study is to cover all the aspects of tobacco consumption regulations, implementations of the plans following the references acquired from historical developments of the policies with identification of the benefits and drawbacks .Data obtained from statistical and survey reports and incorporation of those during exercising the faculties of the policies have proposed an realistic, robust and effective version of the model. The regulation model that is adapted and implemented here has been thoroughly scrutinized in the context of the country and targeted the grass-root mindset of the consumers. Motivating the authorities to promote the prescribing module in order to reduce the quotient of premature mortality and similar health hazards caused by this obsessive tendency is also included as a paramount concern of this study.
There are huge problem related to tobacco at the time of excessive intake by the people. This can cause a huge influence in all the countries. In order to minimize this problem, a proper policy plans implementation helps to reduce the intake of tobacco (Callaghan et al. 2014). There are several problems related to the tobacco that are influenced in the society, thus causing harmful effects in the society. In this essay, the focus has been made on the country that is Australia. Nowadays, there is a huge influence of tobacco consuming and this affects in the society of the person while are not consuming. This can cause a severe harmful effect related to the health of a healthy person. The main problems that are commonly raises related to tobacco consuming. The excess intake of the tobacco can cause death of around 5 million deaths. Moreover, the teenagers are highly influenced about the tobacco consuming (Lussier, Derevensky, Gupta & Vitaro, 2014). The rate of consuming of the tobacco is rising at a rapid pace causing severe ill effects. World Health Organization (WHO) has made an estimation of about 500,000 people is prone to tobacco consuming. As a result of this there is a high rise of health problem among the teenagers. This is the most preventable risk that needs to be recovered for the betterment and development of the society. This is causing a worldwide premature death. Tobacco causes huge problems in the areas of health including lungs, heart and liver. Smoking is the leading problems causing health effects such as lung cancer, heart diseases, respiratory problem, blindness etc that cause severe problem among the people. This helps in increasing the high risk of the diseases among human beings (Kerr, Lawrence, Darbyshire, Middleton & Fitzsimmons, 2013). The smoking also causes a bad effect in the groups or the community at the time of intake of tobacco and related products.
In many country, have made several preventive measures to stop the consumption of tobacco. In order to eradicate the problem, Government of Australia needs to strictly implement tobacco policy to reduce the harmful effects from tobacco. Moreover, proper tax might be implemented for the products related to tobacco (Cheetham et al. 2014). A social programming campaign helps to reduce the tobacco consuming that will help people as well the society about the harmful effects of all the products related to tobacco. Tobacco contains a high amount of harmful chemicals that cause harmful diseases such as cancer. Moreover, tobacco contains a high amount of nicotine that is a high addictive drug. This can cause a huge problem in the physical and mental disorder of the people. Moreover, this causes a harmful effect in the health of the person at the time of excess intake of tobacco. The excess tobacco consuming can cause a huge problem in the mouth of the person. The social awareness program helps the people to reduce the consumption of the tobacco. However, this also causes ill effects in the family while intake of tobacco. The society needs to be aware about the ill effects of the tobacco (Bowling, 2014). Moreover, this also helps in the development of the country while reducing the intake of products related to tobacco.
Analyzing the Historical Development of Policy Issues
Government of Australia needs to implement new policy schemes related to the issues of tobacco. This policy schemes might be related to the tobacco that helps the consumer to take less amount of products related to tobacco (Dunn, 2015). The Australian Government has tied up with the World Health Organization to reduce the control of tobacco. Moreover, smoking might be prohibited at the indoor public areas, public transport as well as in the outdoor places. Australian government has implemented several policies to reduce the tobacco consuming among the people in the society. Moreover, Government has implemented different policies or laws to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco (Gilpin, 2016). These policies are federal law and policy; state and local policy; tobacco marketing policy and tobacco laws and regulations. The most important and effective policy schemes includes with the ‘tobacco laws and regulations’. By implementing this policy schemes helps to reduce the intake of the harmful effects of tobacco. There is a huge historical development at the time of introducing the policy schemes of tobacco laws and regulations (de Andreotti, 2014). Previously several programs and policy in the tobacco laws and regulation have been introduced to reduce the excess amount of tobacco consumption. At the earlier times, people consumed tobacco at a least amount in the form of cigar, pipes. At that time, Government have not introduced with the different policy and rules to minimize the intake of tobacco. In the present stages, people are consuming tobacco at a rapid pace among different ages in the society. Moreover, this is causing an increased number of health diseases (Ottersen et al. 2014). The manufacturing company of tobacco has implemented a huge amount of money at the time of branding their products to reach in the hands of many customers. The companies are least aware about the ill-effects of smoking.
Moreover, World Health Organization (WHO) has introduced a framework about controlling the tobacco from the year of 1992. This framework has controlled the excess tobacco consumption among the people. This helps in improving the historical development to control the harmful effects of tobacco. In the public health, tobacco has created a huge influence in the marketing, research and trade. Moreover, in the tobacco has created a huge development at the time for the branding of the tobacco. In the history there is a less consumption of tobacco among the people. In the year of 1960, a wide movement raises up to control the tobacco consumption. This has raise by a proper framework to mitigate the excess tobacco intake. There are certain movements held up to properly control the control with the help of Government (Moravcsik, 2013). In the current generation, people are consuming an excess amount of tobacco such as smoking. These have spread rapidly among the youth and also in the society. As compared from the previous year the rate of tobacco consumption has increased in the present year. In the tobacco laws and regulations policy, there are various regulation and abiding laws to impose the excess tobacco consumption.
Discussing the Factors that Have Influenced Development in the Policy Schemes
It is very important to impose the exact policy implementation for carrying out the policy schemes among the people. In this case, the tobacco rules and regulation policies are carried out to get the exact implementation of the policies schemes (Blaikie, Cannon, Davis & Wisner, 2014). The policy implementation is mainly done to carry out the entire process of the set policy. This is mainly done to focus for the properly carrying out the policy. The effective policy implementation helps to carry out policy to recognize the set objectives and goals. There is a huge importance of the exact policy implementation to reduce the tobacco consuming. The proper policy implementations helps in making the exact decision related to the problem that is reducing the tobacco in the society (Phillips, 2015). There are certain set parameters to calculate the policy implementation properly. This includes with many activity that helps in adopting new policy plans. Moreover, the proper planning helps to make the exact implementation of policy based on public health policy.
Policy development helps the Government to engage new planning or revise the public health policy plan. Moreover, in this policy for the tobacco laws and regulations, Government has to develop new planning to improve the condition of tobacco (Lambin et al. 2014). In order to improve the policy development, new innovation planning helps to improve the working and fall a good effect for the people. Australian Government needs to make new planning to develop the policy schemes for the betterment of the society.
There are certain factors to carry out the implementations and development of the policy schemes for improving the public health policy. These factors are political, social-economic, national planning and multifactor interventions. This factor helps to improve the development of the policy schemes. In the issues for reducing the harm that comes from the tobacco has made a greater impact in the society (Sierzchula, Bakker, Maat & van Wee, 2014). Moreover, the society needs to be more aware of the harmful effects of the tobacco. The stakeholders including consumers, manufactures of the tobacco are equally liable of the harmful effects of the smoking. However, the development of the policy schemes helps in the creating awareness among the people as well as in the society. This helps to develop the country and helps the country to minimize the health problem. This makes a bad effect for the groups and society for the excess consumption of tobacco (Newman & Newman, 2017). Moreover, this ill effect makes a problem to the society by implementing in the institution of youth. This youth might be socially aware about the ill effects of the tobacco and the rising health problem. The social campaign helps the people to carry out the harmful effects of the tobacco. The exact policy development and the implementation make to improve the new strategy to reduce the consumption of the tobacco in the society.
This helps the society and the country to improve more at the time of development of the society.
Australian Government have implemented regulations which are more restrictive than the Commonwealth national Tobacco Advertising Prohibition Act 1992.The Australian act has restrictive measures of advertisement and display of tobacco products (Plevin, Delucchi & Creutzig, 2014). Products which are related tobacco or implement the smoking of tobacco are restricted from being sold in the market. A tobacco product cannot be given as a sample to promote any other product. Clothes and other products with a tobacco logo are also restricted from being sold in the market. The minister of health also has the power to declare that a smoking product is banned if the product attracts children that is if the products contain any element of sweetness flavor which matches with any products which children consume in order to restrict children from consuming such products (Hausman, McPherson & Satz, 2016). There had been a banning of display of the products related to tobacco. The government department has lead to national coordination and sharing across initiatives and provinces. Campaign on mass media has been carried out in the provinces against the use of tobacco and restrictions. The government has lead to a comprehensive approach towards the control of tobacco in order to reduce tobacco use (Sovacool, 2014). The government has provided funds to the stake holders to initiate tobacco controlling program to regional level.
The government has eventually reduced the funding to the stakeholders which has resulted in negative impact on the initiative. There is a lack of coordination among the government officials Funding has not been made to the projects which are towards promotion of tobacco reduction practices (Bardach & Patashnik, 2015). The government has posing a delay in the implementation of the awareness programs which should be taken care of and paid attention to. The government has not been looking in to the matter related the duplication of tobacco licenses. There are a lot of illegal manufacturers in this trade who are posing a threat to the tobacco industry as well as to the society and government a well. There is a in delay in the right paperwork from the government. The funding of the government has also been diverted to the sectors where there is a misuse of those funds. The government on posing such barriers leads to the reduction in the supply of tobacco the price levels increased. There is a rise in the smuggling, thefts and illegal sales from avoiding tax duties. Illegal supply of tobacco has lead to the investigation to this matter (Patton, Sawicki & Clark, 2015). Right measures are not taken by the government to put a check on illegal trading of tobacco and tobacco related or influencing products in the market. There is a lack of marketing checks on the products related to the sale of tobacco in the nation. The government should put a check on the loopholes that are creating a threat to the policy and to the nation as well.
Stakeholders were surveyed for obtaining suggestions regarding tobacco policy scheme. Many improvements that were suggested by the stakeholders include appropriate funding that will involve stability (Böhmer, Guo & Obermayer, 2016). The suggestion also involves a rise in the level of cooperation as well as coordination of everyone’s efforts. Other different efforts were also suggested which will involve simplification of the requirements of application and reporting, an increase in the level of restrictions of illicit goods and carriage trade within a country or from outside the country. Another important improvement suggested involves a return to old methods, like involving press and media in the process (Jenkins, 2014). All the improvements that were suggested will contribute to the strengths and benefits of the policy scheme, which will further aid to the achievement of mutual goals and planning.
Some improvements that were suggested by the stakeholders are illustrated below:
Simplification of application and reporting process- Some stakeholder suggested that the process of funding should be simplified so that the process involves more ease and happens quicker. Along with this, the paperwork involved could be minimized so there will be less burden of it.
Increased level of coordination and cooperation- The stakeholders suggested that there should be enough clarity about the fact that how government can work mutually with the tobacco companies with efficiency, so that both of their objectives could me met (Xu, Ji, Li & Zhang, 2016). Different streams of funding can be introduced or different fund flows can be introduced to those provinces who are implementing those strategies.
Longer funding term involving adequacy and stability- frequent funding research and program can be run. Also, timelines regarding the funding decisions should be met. All these improvements suggested will aid to the longer fund terms which will also involve more adequacy and stability. The provision of multiyear findings could be setup so that there is reduction in proposals and development times (Sarkki et al. 2015). Funding to different projects should be made for more than one year because the previous time period is too short to evaluate the impacts. Also, there should be proper and enough funding level. Focus could be increased on illegal trade- above all the improvements suggested above, the main priority of controlling strategy should be on illicit transfers of tobacco from outside the country as well as within the country. The justification involved here is that any new tax, regulation or a law that is introduced are undervalued by this illicit trade of tobacco.
Consideration of structural hurdles- there are different hurdles which involves the structure, and these hurdles demand consideration from the makers of the policy. Proposed legislations could be passed through committees of different legislation. Generally, it is the health committees that consider these legislative proposals (James, Glazebrook & Lin, 2016). Their respective power and responsibilities is the main feature in this policy reforming process. Evidence based policies should be implemented- there should be more application of those policies which are based on evidences because these policy reforms affects a major portion of the population. Otherwise, there will be more effects of health risks which are related to tobacco.
In the light of this study, it can be established that legitimate and trustworthy data on the context of excessive tobacco use are imperative to devise and evaluate the prevention policies. This study has proposed the availability of a cost-effective worldwide monitoring system in the successive years, and can cater as a datum for surveillance and evaluation of the global and domestic tobacco control attempts. Efforts have been made in the study to optimize the efficiency of the module by conducting a comparative investigation based on historic and current data. This study was designed to mitigate the ability of countries to prevent the hazards by recognizing and embracing the benefits and flaws of the model and systematically transform itself for further application and deeper understanding of the problems. The greater concern of this study is to gather the necessary information, which is essential to formulate prevention programs and promoting measures.
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