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1. Evaluate the U.S. war effort in the Spanish-American War. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. war effort? Did the U.S. as an imperial force create a lasting legacy on U.S. society? 

2.Explain the particular problems the U.S. Army experienced and describe how successful the civilian and military operations were between 1899 and the U.S. involvement in WWI. 

3.During the Spanish-American War explain both the causes and effects of this particular conflict and outline the major military operations of the war. Describe how the war impacted the United States and its development. 

Strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. war effort

Treaty of Paris resulted in renunciation of all the claims of Spain to Cuba, Guam and Puerto Rico and finally to United States. Along with this, sovereignty finally reached to United States through Phillippines. US newspapers covered the repressive measures exposed by Spain for ceasing the rebellion (Shi & Tindall, 2016). In response to this, America exposed sympathetic approach towards Cuban rebels. As a result of this, US intervened into the matters of Spain. This intervention increased largely, however, the historicians failed to explain the American battleship in the harbours of Havana. USS Maine was entrusted with the charge of protecting the citizens from the anti-riots occurring in Havana.

US Congress sought resolutions, which declared Cuba’s right to independence. This was in terms of withdrawing the armed forces from the island. President William McKinley was authorised for secure the withdrawal, which renounced the annexure design for Cuba. Commander George Dewey led the US naval squadron into manila bay. In this, 7 American seamen were wounded. By August, Manila was occupied by US troops (Smith, 2014). Under the US reconnaissance, the Pascal Cervera operations were conducted in Santiago harbour.

US sponsored the guns used in the American Spanish war. United States emerged victorious from the war. As a result of the war, United States got the possession of international politics, covering the affairs of Europe and the rest of the world. America’s acquisition of Spain’s Pacific possession resulted in Phillippine revolution, which ultimately turned the relationship between America and Phillippines into hostile one. Political pressures from the democratic party compelled McKinley to indulge into the war, which intended to avoid.

United States issued a warning to Spain, demanding surrender control from Cuba. Ignorance on behalf of Spain made United States maintain continuity in conquering activities (Rice, 2016). The American agitators were aware of the decisive power of the US naval forces. In such a scenario, allowance to the expeditionary forces proves detrimental, as there were insurgent strikes nationwide. US bore the cession of Philippines, which costed $20 million. Here, the infrastructure was that of Spain.

Strategic approach towards the war assisted United States in gaining widespread glory. The major drive behind this was the vision towards conquering the territories of Spain. However, only 5 of the US wars gained formal declaration by the US Congress. In 1823, American president, James Monroe initiated the Monroe doctrine, which stated that US would not tolerate governmental intervention into the colonial holdings in the independent states.

United States took control over Cuba and turned it into a slave territory. After the American Civil War and Cuba’s Ten Years’ War, businesspersons of US planned to conquer the Chinese sugar markets. 90% of the Cuba’s exports went to United States (Hook & Spanier, 2018). All these made United States economically stable. On the other hand, Cuba lost all of its powers. The American-Spanish war crippled Cuba, compelling it to think of developing more policies for securing the country and the properties.

American intervention into the Spain and Cuba reflects the hostile relationships. This produced to be detrimental in terms of the US alliance, which was needed for upgrading the standards and quality of political, social and economic parameters. Viewing it from other perspective, US overpowered Cuba and Spain (Katznelson & Shefter, 2018).

Impact of U.S. as an imperial force on society

United States army find their etymological origin in 1775. The main responsibility of the army was to fight and counter argue battles. Mention needs to be made of the American Revolutionary war of 1775, when the colonial revolutions lacked trained and efficient armies. Earlier, the armies relied on militia, which was composed of part time civilian soldiers (Welch, 2016). In 1898, the complexities arose for United States in the form of American Spanish war. In this, US formed alliance with Cubans, the rebels. The following year compelled United States Army to encounter the Second Samoan Civil War. This war stranded the Germany, United States and United Kingdom in an island, where none of the powers had control over Samoa.

Mention can be made of the incident, where the American and British naval forces landed in Nicargua for protecting the interests of the people at San Juan del Norte. A few days later, US army indulged in alliance with Bluefields, which resulted in the insurrection of Gen Juan P. Reyes (Rosenstone, 2018).

Rapid growth of large scale industries gave rise to economic and social problems. The social reformers took the charge of informing the public about the issues. The altering conditions of home adversely affected the conditions for military establishment (Katznelson & Shefter, 2018). During the war with Spain, US American army underwent reforms. Although US did not participate in the major conflicts, the services proved beneficial in assisting the administrations for enriching overseas possessions. Intensification of the additional rivalries compelled US Armies to seek for additional protection. However, alliance with the major powers proved beneficial. As per the arguments of Diaz and Diaz, (2016), the increasing form of networks and agreements was a cornerstone in maintaining the balance within the stately affairs. However, unprecedented arm race added vulnerability into this balance. The major drive behind this was the development of deadly weapons, dwindling the security of the citizens. The tactics of the superpowers compelled US armies to think of recruiting more armies.

One of the striking features is that United States remained aloof from the complex network of alliances. However, the task of modernizing the armies maintained a consistency, with the main focus on defense (Rosenstone, 2018). Acquiring more bases for the compelled Roosevelt to dispatch an American fleet, which enhanced the awareness of the public towards the issues. However, US failed to perceive the threats, which were taking shape in Japan regarding communications between the western pacific and Philippines.

In terms of artillery and ammunition, US army lacked in comparison to the European armies. Along with this, Renshaw, (2016) is of the view that the army failed to grasp the basic ways and means for operating the latest field weapons. The replacement in the black gun powder received much criticisms from Spain. The combustion engine failed to attract the armies. The design of the engine altered the warfare situation, pressurizing the armies to think of alternative warfare mechanisms. This proved strenuous in terms of recruiting skilled workforce (Diaz & Diaz, 2016).

Military operations between 1899 and WWI

One of the major causes of the Spanish American War is the explosives, which took the form of battle, The Maine in Havana Harbour in 1898. As a matter of specification, Stabb,  (2017) opines that United States declared war against Spain on April 21, 1898. One of the other reasons for the war was America’s support for the ongoing struggle with Cuba and Filipinos. This was against the Spanish rule. It was during 1800 that Cuba declared war against Spain, claiming their independence. The growing American imperialism ignited a spark to the war. Sinking of the Maine battleship was one of the other causes of the Spanish-American war. Historicians claimed that this war was like a war between US and England (Renshaw, 2016). As a result of this war, the rural population of Cuba encountered confinement within the garrison towns. Along with this, the striking result was disease, starvation and exposure, which took the toll of thousands.

American imperialism gained momentum in the Spanish-American war. There was a belief that the territorial expansion was inevitable and divinely ordained. Policies were developed for persuading the citizens for striving towards enhancing imperial dominance. The politicians considered the help of media for reaching to the citizens. Through this, hopes brewed up regarding the development of sympathetic feelings towards Cubans. Intervention of United States in this war proved beneficial for Cubans in terms of upgrading their position.

The battleship of Maine at Havana slightly improved the situation. February 15, 1898 was the period when Maine encountered destruction through underwater explosion (Stabb, 2017). Mention can be made of the anchor, which killed 266 officers and men. Collapse of Maine increased the tensions, compelling the United States army to take the charge.

Reference can be made of American desires to protect their investments in Cuba. The American Spanish war intensified the public anger. This was through the means of Yellow Journalism. Approaching Olympia assisted United States to prepare fire in the ships. This policy bestowed sympathy on Americans in the form of financial and arms. One of the main effects is Cuba’s independence. Striking facts is the death of men, setting the grounds for the legends to take charge.

Spanish American war proved to be inexpensive in terms of resources and life. For Spain, the war was disastrous, however, it ultimately led to renaissance from the parameters of intellectual and materialism (Coffman, 2014). Two decades of progress helped United States to prosper in the fields of agriculture, minerals, industry and transportation. Along with this, it also led to the development of thinkers and writers in Europe.

References

Coffman, E. M. (2014). The War to End All Wars: The American Military Experience in World War I. University Press of Kentucky.

Cress, L. D. (2017). Citizens in Arms: The Army and Militia in American Society to the War of 1812. UNC Press Books.

Diaz, J. J. P., & Diaz, J. O. P. (2016). The Impact on Cayey, Puerto Rico of the Spanish American War: The Evolution of a Place Called Henry Barracks. Advances in Historical Studies, 5(04), 183.

Hook, S. W., & Spanier, J. (2018). American foreign policy since World War II. Cq Press.

Katznelson, I., & Shefter, M. (Eds.). (2018). Shaped by war and trade: International influences on American political development (Vol. 79). Princeton University Press.

Renshaw, L. (2016). Exhuming loss: Memory, materiality and mass graves of the Spanish Civil War. Routledge.

Rice, D. T. (2016). Cast in Deathless Bronze: Andrew Rowan, the Spanish-American War, and the Origins of American Empire. West Virginia University Press.

Rosenstone, R. (2018). Crusade of the Left: The Lincoln Battalion in the Spanish Civil War. Routledge.

Shi, D. E., & Tindall, G. B. (2016). America: A narrative history. WW Norton & Company.

Smith, J. (2014). The Spanish-American War 1895-1902: Conflict in the Caribbean and the Pacific. Routledge.

Stabb, M. S. (2017). In Quest of Identity: Patterns in the Spanish American Essay of Ideas, 1890-1960. UNC Press Books.

Welch Jr, R. E. (2016). Response to Imperialism: The United States and the Philippine-American War, 1899-1902. UNC Press Books.

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