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This should present precise information about the design. What type of design was used? (e.g., between/within/mixed) What was the independent variable (IV), and what different levels of it were involved? What was the dependent variable (DV) and how was it measured? Were any methods used of dealing with order effects, such as counterbalancing? Not all research has an independent variable (e.g. correlational designs often only have DVs). 

Research Background

Research indicates that there is enhancement of performance in relation to spatial abilities of individuals after listening to music composed by Mozart. Rauscher, Shaw and Ky (1993) tested the relationship between music and operations related to spatial or mathematical reasoning. According to the researchers, the spatial reasoning tasks of college students are enhanced after listening to 10 minutes of Mozart’s sonata for two pianos in D major, K488.  Music composed by Mozart was selected for testing spatial abilities as the composer started to compose music since he was four years of age. Hence, the researchers anticipated that Mozart was investigating the effect of spatial-temporal firing in his own cortex (Rauscher, Shaw and Ky, 1995).  The researchers found that there is no increase in reasoning whilst listening to repetitive music.  

Contrary to the research done by Rauscher, Shaw and Ky (1995) research done by    Wilson and Brown (1997) established that listening to repetitive music (lacking complexity) enhances spatial reasoning. The research found that the spatial ability enhancement for Mozart’s music is more than that of relaxing music. The research demonstrated that there is a limitation to enhancement of spatial reasoning and the enhancement can take place only under certain circumstances. The researchers reason that not all may benefit from the effects of Mozart’s music.

Thompson, Schellenberg and Husain (2001) investigated the arousal effect of Mozart’s music. Two pieces of music, Mozart and Albinoni were compared for their arousal effects. The composition by Mozart was an energetic and pleasant work while Albinoni’s composition was slow paced and produced a sad feeling.  The spatial ability, mood evaluation and arousals were considered. The research tested the arousal effect of the compositions when the individuals listened to 10 minutes of music.  Research showed that arousal and mood effect of Mozart and Albinoni’s were different. The participant’s in the research showed a positive mood and arousal while listening to Mozart’s as compared negative mood and arousal for Albinoni’s composition. The researchers also anticipated that the performance of certain tasks would be facilitated by listening to positive music.

Jansen and Lehmann (2013) compared the visual-spatial cognition ability of both athletes and non-athletes. The researchers anticipated that when performing mental rotation tasks the motor processes are an important factor. The research indicated that the participants were better at visualizing motor rotation of human figures as compared to cube figures. They argued that the rotation of human bodies is visualised in both spatial as well as motor embodiment.  The relation between mental rotation activities following listening to two different pieces of music was compared. In addition, the level of sports for their effects on sports performance.

Comparison of Mozart and Albinoni on Spatial Abilities

The research focuses on the enhancement of spatial and reasoning ability of the patients. The effect of repeated hearing of Mozart is tested for cortex issue. Albinoni’s composition is assumed as pessimistic whereas Mozart’s music was assumed to be energetic that could bring more success of hearing by energetic approach. Not only that, a mental and visual –spatial ability was performed to check the possible influence on mental rotation.

172 people participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged from 18 to 51 years. Most of the participants were of 19 years. Both male and female participants were selected for the study. There were 144 females in the study.

In the study, the participants were asked to listen to Mozart’s Sonata K448. This work by the composer is a fast paced rhythmic piece. Subsequently the participants were asked to perform a mental rotation task. The average time of the 10 trials of the mental rotation task was taken. Similarly, the participants were asked to listen to Albinoni’s Adagio in G Minor for Organ and strings. The composition is a slow rhythmic paced composition. As with the Mozart’s Sonata, the participants were asked to carry out a mental rotation task and report the time taken for 10 trials.

Finally, the participants were asked to report the sports and physical activity of the participants.  Based on the level of sports activity of the participants they were divided into three groups. Individuals who perform less than ½ hours / week of sports activity were in low category. Individuals carrying out more than 7-8 hours of sports activity / week were classified as high. Others were in the intermediate group.   

Generalised Linear model with repeated measures was used to analyse the results.

Table 1: Descriptive Statistics

SportLevel

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

Mozart

Low

6.6071

1.62569

56

Intermediate

7.1067

1.58177

75

High

7.3659

1.68458

41

Total

7.0058

1.63835

172

Albinoni

Low

7.2500

1.36515

56

Intermediate

7.6667

1.26633

75

High

7.8780

1.39991

41

Total

7.5814

1.34612

172

The average time taken by participants who listened to Mozart was less than those who listened to Albinoni. Moreover, the participants who had a low sports level took less time in the same group. The people whose sports level is intermediate (56), listen more Mozart and Albinoni music followed by low sports level people (41). High sports level people are least in frequency of 41 to listen music.  

Table 2: Tests of Within-Subjects Effects

Measure:   MEASURE_1 

Source

Type III Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Partial Eta Squared

MusicType

Sphericity Assumed

26.461

1

26.461

19.046

.000

.101

Greenhouse-Geisser

26.461

1.000

26.461

19.046

.000

.101

Huynh-Feldt

26.461

1.000

26.461

19.046

.000

.101

Lower-bound

26.461

1.000

26.461

19.046

.000

.101

MusicType * SportLevel

Sphericity Assumed

.218

2

.109

.079

.925

.001

Greenhouse-Geisser

.218

2.000

.109

.079

.925

.001

Huynh-Feldt

.218

2.000

.109

.079

.925

.001

Lower-bound

.218

2.000

.109

.079

.925

.001

Error(MusicType)

Sphericity Assumed

234.791

169

1.389

Greenhouse-Geisser

234.791

169.000

1.389

Huynh-Feldt

234.791

169.000

1.389

Lower-bound

234.791

169.000

1.389

The test shows that the type of music has a significant effect on spatial abilities (F = 19.046, Sig p-value = 0.000) at 95% confidence interval. However, there is no significant interaction between spatial abilities and sports level (F = 0.079, Sig p-value = 0.925).  We accept the null hypothesis of significant association between types of music and spatial abilities and reject the null hypothesis of significant association between combined effect of music type and sports level with the spatial abilities.

Arousal Effect of Mozart and Albinoni

Table 3: Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Measure:   MEASURE_1 

Transformed Variable:   Average 

Source

Type III Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Partial Eta Squared

Intercept

17316.806

1

17316.806

5752.047

.000

.971

SportLevel

25.064

2

12.532

4.163

.017

.047

Error

508.782

169

3.011

The main effect on spatial abilities is due to the participant’s level of sports (F = 4.163, sig p-value = 0.017<0.05).  The effect is significant.

The difference in sports levels was investigated.

Table 4: Pairwise Comparisons

Measure:   MEASURE_1 

(I) SportLevel

(J) SportLevel

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.b

95% Confidence Interval for Differenceb

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Low

Intermediate

-.458

.217

.108

-.982

.066

High

-.693*

.252

.020

-1.303

-.084

Intermediate

Low

.458

.217

.108

-.066

.982

High

-.235

.238

.975

-.811

.341

High

Low

.693*

.252

.020

.084

1.303

Intermediate

.235

.238

.975

-.341

.811

Based on estimated marginal means

*. The mean difference is significant at the

b. Adjustment for multiple comparisons: Bonferroni.

Table 4 shows that there are statistically significant differences between participants of low and high sports level (Sig p-value= 0.020). However, there are statistically no significant differences between sports level of participants of low and intermediate (Sig p-value= 0.108), and intermediate and how (Sig p-value= 0.975). All the significances are calculated considering α =0.05.

In addition, the difference in spatial ability due to music was also tested.

Table 5: Pairwise Comparisons

Measure:   MEASURE_1 

(I) MusicType

(J) MusicType

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.b

95% Confidence Interval for Differenceb

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

1

2

-.572*

.131

.000

-.830

-.313

2

1

.572*

.131

.000

.313

.830

Based on estimated marginal means

*. The mean difference is significant at the

b. Adjustment for multiple comparisons: Bonferroni.

Table 5 shows that there are statistically significant differences in spatial ability of the participants based on type of music (Sig p-value= 0.000<0.05) at 95% confidence interval.

The analysis of the data showed that the average time taken to perform spatial activities was better when they listened to Mozart’s sonata as against when they listened to Albinoni’s Adagio. Moreover, it was also seen that participants who had low level of sports activity performed better as compared to those who partook high level of activity in the same type of music.

The results confirmed that the spatial ability of the participants was different for Mozart's and Albinoni's work. Thus, the results proved that participants who listened to Mozart's work were better at performing spatial tasks as against those who listened to Albinoni's Adagio.

The results also showed that there is no change in the spatial ability of the participants with the interaction of music type and sports level. However, the absence of statistically significant differences in the interaction was due to the sports level of the individuals.

The tests proved that the spatial ability of those who carried out low level of sports activity were better than those who performed high level of sports activity. Moreover, the spatial ability of participants having low and intermediate level of activities was similar. Further, the spatial ability of participants having intermediate and high level of activities was similar.

The result refers the same outcomes as reported by Rauscher, Shaw and Ky (1993) and Jansen and Lehmann (2013). The results relating visual-spatial cognition ability supports the previous conclusions and decisions made by the authors. The analysis based on sports level and music type reflects the similar interpretation such as Jensen and Lehmann (2013). 

Reference

Rauscher, F. H., Shaw, G. L., & Ky, C. N. (1993). Music and spatial task performance. Nature, 365(6447), 611-611.

Rauscher, F. H., Shaw, G. L., & Ky, K. N. (1995). Listening to Mozart enhances spatial-temporal reasoning: towards a neurophysiological basis. Neuroscience letters, 185(1), 44-47.

Wilson, T. L., & Brown, T. L. (1997). Reexamination of the effect of Mozart's music on spatial-task performance. The Journal of Psychology, 131(4), 365-370.

Thompson, W. F., Schellenberg, E. G., & Husain, G. (2001). Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect. Psychological science, 12(3), 248-251.

Jansen, P., & Lehmann, J. (2013). Mental rotation performance in soccer players and gymnasts in an object-based mental rotation task. Advances in cognitive Psychology, 9(2), 92.

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