Case Study 1
Mr John Allen is a 62 year old male with a history or hypertension and COPD (emphysema). Both conditions are managed with medication and regular consultations with his GP.
John has presented to the Emergency Department with a three day history of fever, coughing, shortness of breath and a productive cough, he reports his sputum as dark green and thick. He also mentions that he has been suffering from episodes of chest pain on exertion. Recently, whilst walking up a flight of stairs, he felt crushing central chest pain which radiated to his jaw. After resting for a few minutes he found the pain disappeared.
John is a smoker, moderately obese and sits for long periods of time. His diet is poor and his father died, aged 55 of a heart attack.
The Emergency Registrar has also suggested John have a FluVax, due to his current state of health
Answer the following:
1. Briefly outline the main structures of the cardiovascular system
2. Provide a brief overview of the normal function of the cardiovascular system
3. Briefly outline the main structures of the respiratory system
4. How do the cardiovascular and respiratory systems interact?
5. Briefly explain the changes age has upon the respiratory and cardiovascular systems
6. Explain the pathophysiology of angina & emphysema (include common signs & symptoms)
7. Explain the common risk factors shared between angina and emphysema
8. Outline your assessment of John and your immediate actions
9. Name some other health professionals involved in Johns care and their role (medical and allied health)
10. Explain the concept of Artificially Acquired Immunity
Case Study 2
Isabella Pearson is a 30 year old who has presented to her GP with a six week history of feeling jittery and unwell.
She reports her symptoms as follows –
- Weight loss
- Increased appetite
- Loose bowel actions
- Restlessness and an inability to sleep
- Hand tremors
- Heart palpitations
Her GP conducts a thorough head to toe assessment and orders a series of blood tests to aid in their diagnosis, the results are as follows –
TSH level is 1.00mlU/L (normal range 0.5 – 4.2mlU/L)
Free T4 40 pmol/L (normal range 10-20 pmol/L)
Free T3 16 pmol/L (normal range 3.5 – 6.0 pmol/L)
Her blood tests reveal a diagnosis of Hyperthyroidism (Graves Disease)
1. Provide an outline of the main structures of the endocrine system
2. Write a brief overview of the normal function of the endocrine system
3. Describe the pathophysiology of hyperthyroidism (Graves Disease) and risk factors
4. Discuss Isabella’s signs and symptoms and link to pathophysiology
5. Briefly outline the main structures of the digestive system
6. Briefly write a brief overview of the normal function of the digestive system (include metabolism and nutrition)
7. Briefly provide an over view of the man function of the immune system
8. Briefly define the pathophysiology of an autoimmune disease
9. Outline your assessment of Isabella and your immediate actions
10. Name some other health professionals involved in Isabella’s care and their role (medical and allied health)
Case Study 3
Daisy Mae is a 21 year old female who presents to her GP with a long standing history of blurred vision, bilateral numbness in both legs, urinary urgency, poor memory and problems with balance.
Daisy is married, has two young children aged 1 & 2 and she works part time in the family business. Daisy is very active taking care of her family and participates in regular sporting activities. She does not smoke, maintains a healthy diet and has no other relevant past medical history.
Daisy reports an increase in her symptoms since the birth of her youngest child, at times the symptoms improve but she notices at times they affect her activities of daily living. She reports also that she has been experiencing intermittent severe jaw pain, much like a tooth ache.
After a thorough head to toe physical assessment, her treating Doctor orders a series of tests, including an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and lumbar puncture. The results show multiple lesions and scarring on daisy spinal cord, a diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is made. Daisy is promptly referred to a neurologist with speciality in treating patients with MS.
1. Provide a brief overview of the function of the nervous system
2. Describe the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS)
3. Discuss daisy’s signs and symptoms and link to the pathophysiology
4. Outline the main structures of the urinary system
5. Provide a brief overview of the function of our special senses.
6. Explain how the special senses of (smell, taste, vision, equilibrium and hearing) may be affect in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and link to pathophysiology.
7. Define the terms edentulous and dentate
8. Daisy is complaining of a tooth ache, explain how oral health disease may be impacting upon her.
9. Outline you assessment of daisy and your immediate actions
10. Name some other health professionals involved in Daisy’s care and their role (medical and allied health)