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1.Write an Annotated Bibliography for your Capstone Topic with a collection of 12 articles following a set structure. The Annotated Bibliography is a critical examination of the most relevant, recent and scholarly research on the topic area that is not just a summary of the articles you have read on done in Topics 1 to 5.
2.Use the latest online search tools (CSU PRIMO, Google Scholar, Online databases) and efficient bibliographic organisers - CSU supports the use of EndNote. (available on iPad). EndNote is a  bibliographic citation program, allowing references and footnotes to be translated into a variety of standard formats.
3.As a CSU student you can download and install EndNote X7 for Windows or Mac OS platforms from https://online.csu.edu.au/division/dit/software/core.html
4.For Group Work OPTION teams only: Assessment Item 3 Annotated Bibliography is done INDIVIDUALLY by ALL students.
5.Ensure that the Annotated Bibliography submitted by you is your own work and has not been submitted elsewhere and comply with the University's requirements for academic integrity.
6.You can get help in Building and Writing an Annotated Bibliography from Topic 3 Tutorial Topic in the ITC571 Interact2 site sidebar menu and other study advices and tips from:
1.Study Resources (PDF files to download): http://student.csu.edu.au/study/resources
2.APA style Referencing from http://student.csu.edu.au/study/referencing-at-csu.
3.The CSU Library website for LibGuides in Information Technology, Computing and Mathematics at http://libguides.csu.edu.au/cat.php?cid=66969
4.EndNote Bibliographic software and tutorials LibGuide at http://libguides.csu.edu.au/endnote
7.Review the emerging technology (use internet for journals, conference papers, magazines, news articles, online databases, eBooks) and submit a 12-article Annotated Bibliography on your topic.
8.A good place to start a collection of articles in your annotated bibliography is via the PRIMO search tool located on the CSU Library website at http://www.csu.edu.au/division/library
As an example, the Capstone Topic PRIMO search on a topic like "near field communication applications" returned the following list of very recent journals, books, conference proceedings and eBooks related to the Topic:

The following questions may be useful while reviewing the topic:
1.What is the new technology?
2.What does it do and what are the special features it has?
3.When is it coming out in the market and how much will it cost?
4.What industry will the new technology affect? (Medical, agricultural, computer, business, etc….).
5.In your opinion, will the new technology be beneficial to society? Why or why not.
What did you learn from a critical analysis of your sources of information on this new technology?

The following questions may be useful while reviewing the topic:
1.What is the new technology?
2.What does it do and what are the special features it has?
3.When is it coming out in the market and how much will it cost?
4.What industry will the new technology affect? (Medical, agricultural, computer, business, etc….).
5.In your opinion, will the new technology be beneficial to society? Why or why not.
What did you learn from a critical analysis of your sources of information on this new technology?

Business Process Reengineering Definition

According to the authors, business process reengineering is referred as ultimate radical and modifying of new design for processes for achieving great progress in crisis due to criteria like quality, cost, service and speed. It is believed that using reengineering an organisation can start fresh using a white page. According to the authors, presentation of projects and research programs with training, reengineering projects, and motivating people is required for defining a clear framework for the ultimate use reengineering. The authors argue that the first step involved in re-engineering the business model of an organisation is by determining the mission, vision, and the objectives related to strategic development of the company. The second step involves the assessment of the ability of the organisation to meet the needs and analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the improvement programs of the competitors. Changes are made in the organisation for a short period and the impact is assessed and then finally in the last step a full transformation is carried out to implement full reengineering in the business model in the organisation. According to the authors, in order to achieve modification of some new processes and methods of the work of the organisation, some elements need to altered and the knowledge of the changes need to be provided to the stakeholders, which will act as the vehicle for changes in the processes.

In this article, the authors stated that BPR is a process, which is used to bring radical changes in an organisation but while focussing excessively on bringing change, it is almost ignoring the three dimensions that are required to deal more commonly with the workforce and the behavioural side of the organisation. It also suggests that for implementing different dimensions of change in an organisation there is a need of using different approaches and while bringing change in an organisation, interaction of all the different dimensions should be considered. According to the authors, some companies in UK and Brazil implemented BPR. It has been found that many firms who implemented BPR, lacked the elementary ideas of BPR and this lead to the birth of several unimagined issues and problems. This role acted as a barrier and ultimately lead to the failure of all the efforts. The main reason behind this failure is due to focusing on short term goals rather than long term missions. In this article, the authors realised that the major causes of failure in implementing BPR are unawareness towards team creating, HR, job safety and the culture of organisation, which is due to absence of basic ignorance and awareness of process flow understanding and improper communicating of the reasons of reengineering.

According to the authors, the execution of business process reengineering is viewed as a new structure of workflow and the subsequent administrative changes takes place automatically or with the help of a process known as heaping through. After investigating the evidences, the authors found that around 70% of the programs of business process reengineering have been unsuccessful due to the lack in orientation with the changes in company strategy, adequate attention has not been provided to the demand of configuration of workflow reengineering with the processes of organisational changes. According to the authors, this article provides the basic framework to manage the changes in organisation in an organised manner during the organisation reengineering, which is the main perspective that is missing from the overview on the enactment of business process administration. In this article, the authors try to integrate the 8-S dimensions of Higgins model through the various phases of workflow redesign, which is essential to for developing structure for monitoring organisational changes during BPR organisational modifications. According to the authors, proposed framework in this article will provide an execution template to the managers for achieving configuration of workflow redesign with 8-s dimensions, and therefore aiding an operational change in organisation during the implementation of business processes.

Steps to Implement Business Process Reengineering

In this article, the authors stress on testing the relations amongst projected success factors and the limit of benefits that the business process reengineering achieved from them. The research was conducted with the help of 212 samples of the experiences of implementing BPR projects by manufacturing managers. According to the authors, the sample displayed good representation of the particular BPR project implementation that has been addressed by them based on the size of the company (subsectors of gross income industry), IT sophistication that is self-rated, titles of top managers, and knowledge degree that is self-rated. In this article, it has been mentioned that the authors found that some achievement factors are important to a specific project phase. The relationship between all phases are significant except the connection between project initiation and process reengineering. According to the authors, when some new company processes are designed in the future, which will lead to the change in regulations, new policies for managers, improved service, and advanced technologies. As these processes might require different factors of success, the researchers will have to continue putting efforts in identifying new factors of success and frequently test the importance of these processes. The overall chances of success of BPR projects and the success of each phase can be guaranteed by the managers by confirming that the approved factors of success are properly placed before starting the pursuing the project. The cost of implementing BPR is relatively high and so they are not suggested for using as a prototype, which forces the hands of companies into following a chronological methodology to change and implement new processes.

According to the authors, the article intends to project the impacts of establishing business process reengineering in a company from the employee’s point of view. It was discovered that adequate use of business process reengineering has a significant effect on the employees and it is affected by the successful implementation of business process engineering. The employees gained a logic of ownership and it induced a favoured workplace protocols on procedures and processes therefore enhancing their performance. A high productivity is ensured in financial presentation, efficient operation, performance of the employees, change and innovation, and in satisfaction of the customers with the help of the use of business process reengineering as this follows a suitable work structure that are constantly upgraded. There can be an increase in development and profitability and also attract and motivate the employees by engaging the workforce, measuring the perception of effect of business process reengineering on the performance, identification and addressing the most significant factors. According to the authors, BPR is being embraced by the public sector organisations of several countries for reforming the traditional bureaucratic system that is function based with result and process based system that is customer oriented.

According to the authors, most of the credit are given to Michael Hammer for laying down the approach for business process reengineering. In this article, the authors discuss that the approach for process reengineering is a much ancient approach than the idea given by Michael Hammer. The answers of the origin of reengineering idea was first published in the article provided by Grover and Malhotra in 1997. It was believed that the discovery of the findings about the origin is based on the consequence of a numerous converging occurrences on mobilisation and the subsequent popularity of the idea of reengineering as a radical change program. According to the authors, the projects taken by the management-consulting firms were the origin point of business process reengineering. From this article, it was discovered that the idea of reengineering the business processes was rapidly implemented by the large consulting firms around the mid-1980s. The necessity of information technology in the business systems was the main reason behind the swift implementation of business process reengineering. According to the authors, many firms executed the successful implementation of business process reengineering after thorough discussion with all the levels of the firms and every department needed to have the basis concept of this transition so that there is no chaos in the order of the firms.

Common Challenges in Business Process Reengineering

In this article, the authors discussed the need to implement business process reengineering. According to the authors, as the markets are shifting drastically, there is a need to keep up with the market. The demand of keeping up with the market are increasing the need of changes in the production, traditional attitude towards innovation, adapting to latest and modern technologies and producing higher level of services and products and adjusting the business as per the global needs of the market. The businesses who are not able to make updates in their business policies are rapidly going out of business and soon they will disappear. According to the authors, majority of the changes are customer focused and the main reason to make changes in the firms are to attract and retain the customers. Another reason for making changes in the firms is to compete in the market and utilise the technological resources to its full capacity. In this article, it was noticed from a survey that few companies are adopting business process reengineering to make amendments in the leadership quality, reduction of costs, and very limited firms use this idea as a method for creating differentiation of products and facilities that are offered by the firms. The authors discuss of another survey that was conducted, which led to believe that as the business environments are changing swiftly, it was required by the companies to make changes in their methods of directing business for meeting the expectation of the customers and finally be able to survive.

In this article, the authors discuss the effect of business process reengineering in the information technology sector. According to the authors, after the assessment of business process reengineering in enterprises, a report of conflicts of experiences and interpretations among the organisational members was discovered and a significant decrease in the commitment of the organisation and job satisfaction was discovered after the end of the initiative. In this article, the authors discuss a report of the analysis about the exercise of reengineering using the survey results of some firms that claimed to have engaged in reengineering initiatives. According to the authors, it was discovered that the companies who engaged in business process reengineering were less fundamental in their attitude than what the proponents of reengineering claimed, and fewer dramatic conclusions were achieved. In this article, the authors identified that an important dimension in the attraction of reengineering is its politics. According to the authors, it can be argued that reengineering denies politics and supports an organisational utopianism form but it also proposes a straight political, top-down system of changes in organisations of information technology.

According to the authors, the knowledge of reengineering drafts back to the theories of management that were built in the initial nineteenth century. BPR aims to achieve revamping and modifying of the essential business exercises and processes to accomplish meaningful development in the performance of the organisation. In this article, the authors concluded that as there is a need of responsive, flexible, and customer focused systems, the new era organisations are being pressurised to implement business process reengineering in their business models. According to the authors, if any organisation intends to survive in this modern era shift of the approach of work, they need to undergo process centering for providing unified services. The authors argue that the idea of business process reengineering originated as a technique for the private sector to assist in fundamental thinking of the organisations and the process of doing their business for dramatically improving in cost cutting techniques, customer service, and become successful competitors. BPR was the result of increase in the requirements of the consumers in both the products and services and determining the efficiency and its effectiveness of these requirements.

Workflow Redesign and 8-S Dimensions

In this article, the authors discuss the role of business process reengineering in the eGoverment sector. According to the authors, modelling of business processes in eGovernment and in public sector organisations will help in achieving modifications in transparency, cost reduction methods, and resource requirements, which will result in improvement in performance in business and compliance. According to the authors, eGovernment refers to the various electronic infrastructures between business, governments and the citizens. The idea business process reengineering is discovered to be a costly endeavour for the organisations. According to the authors, substantial opportunities for refining market share, decision making by the managers and performance is offered by business process reengineering.  The importance of business process reengineering has increased due to the increase in the number of implementation by organisations worldwide. A number of people recognised an increase in the  effectiveness, efficiency and convenience of using various functions of government via the eGovernemt and digital networks with the conventional channels, which led to the increase in the use of eGovernment as a long term trend.

In this article, an examination of the connection between business process reengineering and the sector of human resource management has been conducted by the authors. Numerous propositions related to the aspects of human resource administration have been drawn out from the works and interviews of the senior managers of the organisations where projects related to business process reengineering have either been completed or they are still under progress. The implementation of BPR in the HR management of organisation is carried out in 6 phases:

  1. Reengineering planning
  2. Unidentified process analysis
  3. Process redesigning
  4. Resource obtaining
  5. Implementation
  6. Continuous improvement of processes

According to the authors, a research revealed that the reengineering process of HR is finished in vertically unified company for manipulation, manufacture, delivery and trade of goods and services that are proposed mainly for aerospace and automotive industries. According to the authors, a mapping of complete process was made to get a precise view into the human resources function flow in the organisation, like means of workflow, and information flow.  

The authors discuss the results of the investigation about six models of BPR and it represented BPR as an incremental procedure and a series of consecutive steps. According to the authors, even though BPR models supports various BPR methods and it consists of a variety of phases, it shares a common task and that is to process reengineering. According to the authors, it was discovered from a survey that the number of steps involved in reengineering processes varies from three stages to eleven stages. The most used phases for business process reengineering is around four with an average of five. According to the authors, an ideal BPR model must be designed or chosen ingeniously for satisfying the present organisational needs and maintenance of the project phases of a BPR project. After leading a careful examination it was determined that, an inclusive six-phase model of BPR comprises of predicting, introducing, analysing, altering, executing and assessing the business process.

The plagiarism has been detected in the topic name and it cannot be changed because it is the topic of the document. Some plagiarism has been detected in the annotations and it cannot be changed because it is available in Google Scholar in that form and it cannot be changed. There are some technical terms in the document, which has been caught as plagiarism and it cannot be altered as any changes in these terms will change the meaning of the document. Majority of the plagiarism has been caught in the term Business process reengineering and the plagiarism needs to be overlooked.

References

Ahmadi, A. A., & Abadi, S. H. F. (2016). Business Process Re—Engineering (BPR).

Edward, L. N., & Mbohwa, C. (2013). The Role of leadership in business process reengineering:“Leaders, do you want to change?”.

Guimaraes, T., & Paranjape, K. (2013). Testing success factors for manufacturing BPR project phases. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 68(9-12), 1937-1947.1.

Habib, M. N. (2013). Understanding critical success and failure factors of business process reengineering. International Review of Management and Business Research, 2(1), 1.

Habib, M. N., & Shah, A. (2013, February). Business process reengineering: Literature review of approaches and applications. In Proceedings of 3rd Asia-Pacific Business Research Conference. Kuala Lumpur: ISBN (pp. 978-1).

Hussein, B., Chouman, M., & Dayekh, A. (2014). A project life cycle (PLC) based approach for effective business process reengineering (BPR). Industrial Engineering Letters, 4(6), 1-8.

Kasemsap, K. (2016). The roles of business process modeling and business process reengineering in e-government. In Handbook of research on innovations in information retrieval, analysis, and management (pp. 401-430). IGI Global.

Laguna, M., & Marklund, J. (2013). Business process modeling, simulation and design. CRC Press.

LUCA, M. (2014). Business Process Reengineering. Risk in Contemporary Economy, 233-236.

Milan, R., Milan, B., Marko, C., Jovanovic, V., Dalibor, B., Bojic, Z., & Avramovic, N. (2014). Implementation of business process reengineering in Human Resource Management. Engineering Economics, 25(2), 211-222.

MUTUA, O. (2013). EMPLOYEE PERCEPTION ON THE EFFECTS OF BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MARA-ISON TECHNOLOGIES(Doctoral dissertation, School of Business, University of Nairobi).

Orlikowski, W. J., Walsham, G., Jones, M. R., & DeGross, J. I. (Eds.). (2016). Information technology and changes in organizational work. Springer.

Setegn, D., Ensermu, M., & Moorthy, P. K. (2013). Assessing the effect of business process reengineering on organizational performance: A case study of Bureau of Finance and Economic Development (BOFED), Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Researchers World, 4(1), 115.

Sikdar, A., & Payyazhi, J. (2014). A process model of managing organizational change during business process redesign. Business Process Management Journal, 20(6), 971-998.

Tønnessen, T. (2014). Business process reengineering. In Managing Process Innovation through Exploitation and Exploration (pp. 27-33). Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden.

Yours, O. S. F. (2014). Business process reengineering.

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