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What is Near Field Communication (NFC)?

Discuss About The International Conference Systems Engineering.

Near field communication or NFC is a wireless connectivity that only works in a short rage. In order to use the NFC, the two devices need to put nearer to make it works. It does not need to make it touch each other but only just put it nearer and once it gets connected, all the data will be transferred. It is similar to RFID which stands for Radio Frequency Identification. The RFID is only can be read by the user. The info from the card are send to the user and the user cannot edit the info and returned to the card. It is one way communication whereas for NFC, it is a two way communication between devices. Benefits of the use of NFC are in the aspect of easy to use, security and versatility [1]. For the aspect of easy to use, the user does not need to bring multiple card in their wallet or having hard time to search the card needed in their wallet. The user only have to load all the information of the card into their phone via NFC and make payment or earn reward points directly into their account without need to carry their cards everywhere they go. Next, in the aspect of security, if the person happen to have his or her wallet stolen, the thief would easily get the access to use the card that the person have. However, by having all the information of the card stored in the smartphone, the thief would not be able to use the card because the person can set password in his or her phone. Therefore, the thief need to unlock the password in order to get the access to the card. Moreover, GPS from the smartphone might able to track the position of the thief might be. NFC provide versatility to the user as they are able to pay for parking, pay tolls, open car doors and many other activities that are able to do by using the device. This NFC can be said as an advancement in technology in human daily life [2].

However, there is also a disadvantage to using the NFC technology. It involves the company agreed to use the NFC. If the company does not want to use the NFC technology, the user cannot have the benefit of NFC which make the payment process easier without the need to bring a wallet. Since all of the information are stored in the phone or only one device, this would gain the interest of the hacker to hack the phone as the smartphone are become more and more develop and just like small computer that can behold around and easy to bring to anywhere [3].

Benefits of Using NFC Technology

The application of NFC can be used to ease human’s daily activities. For example, people who jog can buy mineral water without the need to bring some cash. They only need to wear the fitness bracelet that contains NFC and scan it. Then, they can get their mineral water. They can also check their fitness by scanning from the fitness bracelet to the phone that also has NFC. Another example that familiar in Malaysia is Touch-n-Go card. The driver only needs to make contact with the Touch-n-Go box, and it will automatically detect and pay the tolls [4].

NFC technology has enabled users of smartphones and other devices that contain NFC tag to communicate with other enabled devices. NFC has allowed many people to pay for goods and services, play games, and learn new things. For instance, individuals can now swipe their smartphones at the checkout lanes in grocery stores, wave the device over a display at the local museum, or even pump phones with colleagues at work or friends to share the latest videos and games. The majority of people benefitting from near field communication include organizations looking for more secure and faster payment for clients, buyers checking out at a grocery, and students touring a museum [5].

NFC technology often maintains interoperability of different wireless communication techniques such as Bluetooth and several other NFC standards. Compatibility is necessarily the key to the growth of NFC as a generally accepted data communication and payment method. NFC compatible devices must be able to effectively communicate with other wireless technologies as well as display the ability to interact with copious different types or forms of NFC transmissions [6].

Meanwhile, the NFC Forum, founded by Nokia, Phillips, and Sony in 2004, enforces strict standards that every manufacturer must meet or adhere to when designing all NFC compatible devices. NFC technology, unlike other contactless communication technologies, is fast and convenient. This technology is accessible in Asia and Europe. It has also continued to spread in several other parts of the world, including the Americas and the United States [7].

NFC tag in small posters is a typical example of passive devices that not only store information but also communicate with the reader. However, these passive devices seldom read other devices actively. NFC technology would also permit peer-to-peer communication, allowing both devices to send as well as receive information. Many individuals and businesses have significantly benefitted with the advent of NFC technology. A customer can pay for groceries, board a train, store loyalty points, or redeem coupons by integrating paper coupons, credit cards, and subway tickets into one device. This will ensure convenient shopping and faster transaction times for customers [8].

Disadvantages of Using NFC Technology

In essence, customers will be happier and more satisfied owing to less waiting in the line. Since the customer carries around few physical cards, he or she is less likely to misplace or have it stolen. A significant number of companies are currently using NFC technology and mobile payments. For instance, PayPal and MasterCard offer money transfer via smartphone. As the technology gains its standing and prominence in many countries, more smartphones that are compatible with NFC technology will be available in the market. In the same way, more stores in the United States and across the globe will offer NFC card readers mainly for customer convenience [9].

NFC technology presents a platform for multiple applications like mobile payment, access control, and ticketing. The primary significant feature of NFC is the uncomplicated accession of data by merely touching a device with an NFC capacitated reader. Near Field Communication is ground on the technology of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) that functions at frequency 13.56 MHz, with the quintessential applicable distance linking two NFC devices at 10cm. Contemporary operation model for NFC, empowers customers to connect to a gadget to exchange data, scan devices, pay for a product, set up a transaction and interact by tapping a smart card or smartphone that is NFC equipped against an NFC sensor and finalize the deal. This whole process is protected through cryptographic binding [10].

An NFC platform that is secure contains various components: Baseband or application processor, RF connectivity device, contactless front-end (CLF) modem/controller and a secure element. Baseband is a central processing unit that guarantees the performance specifications are met. The baseband chip is successively ameliorated between periods of 6-12 months when a new technology is introduced. RF connectivity device offers additional wireless connectivity to a handheld and integrates complementary RF modes such as WLAN and Bluetooth (the Secure element is a safety measure microcontroller that is homogeneous to those employed in e-identity applications and smart cards [11].

Trusted computing provides services to govern trust choices by incorporating a Trusted Platform Module into the targeted devices.  Homogeneous to a smart card the TPM integrates cryptographic primitives, but it is however physically attached to its host device. A root for trust lies on the basis that the tamper flexible integrated circuit comprises of implementations for random number generation, public key cryptography, cryptographic hashing and critical generation [12].

Paying with the phone is a new trend, making it to where you do not have to carry your debit and credit cards with you.   Most places have up to date software that makes it easy to pay with your phone. You open apple wallet or various other apps, and instead of the cashier pressing card to swipe it, they’ll press apple pay, you then place your phone over the credit card machine, and in about 10 seconds’ tops, your meal or items have been purchased. No need to worry or not if you forgot your wallet unless they place you happen to go to does not have up to date technology [13].

Application of NFC Technology to Ease Human Daily Activities

Many cell phone providers have electronic wallet capabilities, or at least the main ones do. AT&T, Verizon, and T-Mobile, all have the wallet capabilities. This works just like Apple pay where you can transfer your payment option electronically, near the receiver, and your purchase has been made. While telephone providers allow this, not all of the banks do. Members Trust Federal Credit Union (MTFCU), is one that does not allow this. They feel like the app is not secure enough. Even though “the goal of the new service is to ‘fundamentally transform’ the way people shop and pay for items,” some banks remain skeptical of the safety of our finances [14].

Mobile payment (or mobile money transfer/mobile wallet/mobile money) is a payment service performed via or from a mobile device and operated under strict financial regulation. It enables consumers to pay for various goods and services via mobile phone, instead of paying using credit cards, cash, or cheques. Countries all over the world adopt mobile money transfer in different ways (Teh, Ahmed, Cheong & Yap, 2014). The mobile money transfer market for commodities exceeded $300 billion globally in 2013, excluding contactless money transfers and NFC transactions. Most developing countries have deployed mobile money as an ultimate solution to the unbanked community. This community constitutes about 50 percent of world’s population. According to Financial Access Report 2009, virtually all mobile payment networks and service providers use mobile money transfer mainly for micropayments [15].

Credit card companies, financial institutions, Internet companies, mobile network operators, handset multinationals, and significant telecommunications infrastructure have successfully adopted mobile money transfer and mobile payment solutions. Other companies such as PayPal, Google, and GlobalPay have implemented a cloud-based approach or technique to execute in-store mobile payment. Meanwhile, NFC 2.0 and Near Sound Data Transfer use audio signal-based payment. NFC technology is also useful for making payments via mobile devices particularly for purchases made in transportation services and physical stores [16].

NFC is arguably the ticket to the future in which individuals will be able to pay for goods and services using their phones. NFC technology is a viable solution to eventually shield wallets from fraud and theft, especially considering the numerous credit card data violation or breaches in the recent past. Retailers such as Walgreens, Target, and Macys have already put in place NFC-based pay terminals. These contactless pay terminals have improved transition to mobile payments. Apart from iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus, phones that are compatible with Google Wallet can also use NFC-based terminals [17].

Organizations Benefitting from NFC Technology

Finally, the most significant concern surrounding NFC technology and mobile payments is security. However, any intercepting or hacking would be difficult given the complexity associated with the mobile payment. The user would then have to enter a passcode or scan his/her finger as a way of approving the transaction for payments. The secure element (SE), a separate chip, would then help in validating the transaction. SE will play an integral part in relaying the authorization back to NFC modem. At this point, the payment would finish processing just the same way it would in the transaction involving standard credit card swipe [18].

Near Field Connection has taken the convenience factor to a whole new level. From being able to start your car with your phone to locking your house’s security system down, with the push of a button. The convenience of making purchases in stores, without having to pull your wallet out is uncanny. But is the risk worth the reward? [18].

There are many that NFC is useful, a couple of them being in your home and your car. It is no secret that technology is continuously advancing and adapting to our lifestyles. In your home, everything from your Air Conditioner to your Security system can be changed or adjusted from your phone, and some cars allow you to start them with your phone, and control the inside with your phone. This is handy especially in the winter time [19].

There are so many ways to use near field communication in your homes. For your security, you can download the app that goes with your security system, ADT has it, and if you feel like there is a possibility that you forgot to lock down and arm your house when you left, all you must do is open the app, click arm, and be worry-free. With this technology, it saves you time and money from not having to turn around.

NFC can be used to start your engine and can connect to your car in various ways. This is convenient during the winter when the temperature is so low that you shiver even with your jacket and extra shirts and leggings on. Open your app and use NFC to start your car and adjust the temperature. This is helpful for people who get up and go, with your car already on and warmed up for you. NFC makes locking keys in the car less inconvenient. Open the app, and press unlocks [20].

NFC Platform and Secure Components

In carrying out this research, “Investigations were based on in-depth review of existing literature and other secondary information sources to synthesizing the current state of knowledge on the key aspects being investigated. Near Field Communication is a wide area of research, keywords such as Near Field Communication, Mobile Payment, NFC, one-way communication, applications of near field communication.” were used to search in online databases for any useful information on the topic.

The CSU digital library, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost were among the major research databases that were explored for relevant information on Near Field Communication.

In this current era, Electronic Commerce has established itself efficiently. Retailers and organizations related to online business are now accompanying a new way of electronic shopping by incorporating brick and mortar companies. As per the research conducted by ABI, consumers located in America will spend $ 119 billion only by utilizing their cell phones as compared to $ 1.2 billion in 2009. John Jones a retail expert of the international advertisement agency R/GA, says “Mobile is increasingly becoming the way people interact with each other and with information, the more retailers can deliver products, recommendations, and discounts right to the customer, the more likely customers are to come back.” This is the reason for focusing mobile-based services, as they are assumed to be an attractive and profitable business [21].

However, many domains can be categorized, one of them is called a mobile payment system. Researchers are continuously working to enhance mobile experience, consequently adding more services to an affordable handheld device that can be convenient and cost-effective for both business and consumers. Previously, many mobile embedded services are launched. For instance, General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), Skype equipped with Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), Bluetooth communication radio, Infrared communication, Built-in Modems, browsers, online access to bank accounts via the Internet, etc. This shows that the researchers are continually working to provide a one-time solution for the customers. For instance, a handheld device would become a multipurpose tool that may also eliminate security issues, as a single device is easy to manage. In the same context, mobile payment methods are within reach, as new field communication (NFC) is embedded in many mobile chipsets around the globe [22].

This technology will revolutionize the way of utilizing services that are provided on the cell phone. Consumers can use their cell phone for mobile payments, ticketing and bus fares, etc. moreover, NFC also facilitates cell phones for the device to device communication, retrieving signals from other chipsets and sensors. For instance, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and card emulations. Overall, NFC is considered to be an effective communicator for proximity interactions between any two or more devices. Likewise, NFC comprises contactless smartcard and the cell phone. One significant advantage of using a contactless smart card from the traditional intelligent cards made of plastic embedded with a magnetic strip or security chip is that the card reader becomes faulty. The reason for becoming faulty is the dust and grease that can degrade the capability of the reader. Moreover, the cost is the second factor, i.e. there is no requirement to produce a physical smart card. Furthermore, the contactless smart card is more convenient, as it travels with the consumer due to its integration in the cell phone [23].

Trusted Computing in NFC Technology

As NFC uses a short range of communication, i.e. approx. 1.5 inches, it is safe and secure for conducting an online transaction with such a small distance. No one can disrupt of hack in between the two communication nodes, i.e. the contactless smart card and the responder. Moreover, an organization named as Molo Rewards has recently introduced a program that is utilizing NFC technology. Consumers can download different coupons by swiping their cell phones at the point of purchase. Moreover, NFC supported phones are now widely available in many countries; the organization has started to integrate RFID tags on the back cover or casing of the cell phone. Furthermore, the organization has mentioned these lines on their website “Want to send a coupon to a consumer who purchased a box of cereal on the 21st of December at 11 am EST. MoLo Rewards can provide you with the capability to do just that.” [24].Retailers will receive an advantage for tracking the coupon details including the usability of the coupons along with the customers, who downloaded it.

NFC has also contributed to the healthcare sector, as NFC enabled tags to facilitate medical professionals to monitor and control treatment of a patient.  Moreover, NFC also provides tracking of proper visits of nurses and doctors, to ensure that the patient gets medical attention and treatment on time. In an event named as NFC forum that was held last year, a program that facilitates and administer patient therapy in areas where there are few resources won a price of 5000 Euros. The plan was deployed in Pakistan, where each child was equipped with a bracelet on which RFID tag was embedded. Likewise, whenever the child visits the participating health care organization. Moreover, data about clinic and laboratory were collected and transmitted to a secured server in real time [25]

Saving time and labor, these new shifts in communication technology have helped the mankind in every possible way. However, it has set new trends in this world as well. Processes, which used to take weeks and months, are now just a click and touch away. Near Field Communication generally known as NFC is a kind of application or a standardized setting in the smart phones and all other similar devices such as tablets, iPads etc. The basic purpose of NFC is to set up a radio communication between smart phones or others devices by bringing them in touch with each other or at least in close immediacy depending on the requirements of the device. Once the connection has been established, a lot of tasks can be performed through it, such as contactless transactions, exchange of data / information, or a setup of multifaceted communications e.g. Wi-Fi.  The communication can also be established between a NFC device and a powered off NFC chip (tag) [26].

Paying with the Phone using NFC Technology

With the growing technology, the payment methods are also made easy and simplified. All kinds of payments from utility to the bank and other financial payments are now on your fingertips. Mobile payment is a term which is used for the payments of different things through the smart phones. It is also known as mobile money, mobile money transfer or mobile wallet. It was a long time back when people used to carry bundles of cash and brief cases with them in order to make payments. With this technology this technique has almost diminished. At present a majority of people prefer paying through their mobiles for a variety of services. Instead of paying cash or cheque, they use their phones.

These new technologies have captured almost every country and have set new trends for the payments and transfer methods. According to the financial survey, the combined amount of mobile payments which were made by 2013 has reached $600 Billion globally. This amount is almost the double of what it was in the February of 2011 stating that the adoption toward the technology is increasing enormously.  With the rise in smart electronic devices and the smart and catchy internet deals and the revival of Internet IPO it is believed that 2011 was the most transformative year in terms of technology [28].

Talking about the societal trends regarding NFC and mobile marketing then according to an article published by CNN 2012 has been claimed as the year of NFC and mobile marketing. It was also claimed that the mobile payments and NFC will expand and blossom more in 2013. This defines that the adoption of the trend is growing largely in the world and people are becoming more inclined towards the technology. New methods and techniques are continuously evolving by the technology makers this year following the boom and success of NFC and mobile payments. People in developed countries are more likely to be influenced of the technology while it is proliferating in underdeveloped and third world countries with time [29].People in the developed countries are found addicted to NFC and mobile payments and hardly keeps cash with them. They call it the era of plastic money which has been made possible only with the help of NFC and mobile technology. The rapid growth of this trend is because of the ease, simplicity and quickness of the technology. a person just have to wave his / her NFC enabled smart phone or device near any credit card reader located in a store, market, bank or anywhere and the amount will automatically deduct from your credit card. It has let the credit card replaced by your phone and has made the payment method effortless [30].

Mobile Payment and Mobile Money Transfer

The impact of NFC and mobile payment technology on society is very huge and notable. More and more companies are transforming and altering their technologies and payments method as per NFC and mobile payments. Since, it is believed that the closest device which one have all the time is a cell phone therefore, all standards and techniques are designed which rotates around it. It is considered as the best close range connectivity gadget for NFC and mobile payment. This will have both positive and negative impacts on society. Where on one hand, it is helping people to save time, labor and makes it easy for them; on the other hand, it is making it difficult for those elements which are not capable of possessing a cell phone or at least a smart phone [31].

It is believed that all the payments method will be transformed by 2015 which will have a strong drawback for a majority of people round the globe. Many of them will find difficulty to pay their bills as there might be no other technique left. Those who are not literate or are not familiar with the smart phone apps and techniques will have problems to use NFC and other mobile payment methods. The chances of theft will also increase as it will become easy for the thieves to transfer amounts into their accounts with just a click from other phones or devices [32].

If we specifically talk about the impact on the existing culture of payment techniques, then again it is badly affected by these new technologies. The traditional payment methods are quite in danger and have a serious threat from NFC and mobile payments. The cultural setting is moreover being disturbed as it is misbalancing the society by creating a boundary between the rich and the poor. It is obvious that the poor would not possess a smart phone or a credit card and therefore if all the traditional payment methods are diminished then it will be quite difficult for such individuals to survive. They would have no other option other than adopting the trend.

It is undoubtedly said that the social and culture trends affect the behaviors, needs and significantly the paying patterns of consumers by every mean. If the social and cultural environment is triggered for any change or trend than it may affect the demand and supply curve for the payment methods from the developer’s point of view and from a consumer’s perspective as well? The society has been affected through its own acceptance of the technology. For the sake of leisure and easy lifestyle societies are adopting the trend more and more. Societies are becoming more self-oriented and the need for labor is getting decreased day by day.

Companies that Have Adopted NFC Technology

While mobile commerce is increasingly becoming more popular in today’s economy, mobile money is yet to become embraced by the world. Trendy people around the world use mobile devices to communicate via voice and texting, accessing internet and shopping online on a daily basis. It is the revolutionary change as mobile shopping penetrates the market, mobile commerce will follow suit [33].

Although Consumers are showing little interest in mobile wallets, large organizations, including Google, Visa, PayPal, and AT&T have also tried to break into the mobile payments market, some with more success than others. Many of these groups have placed their bets on mobile wallet platforms, which have failed to find support from a wide range of consumers.  Companies are changing their services and products based on the wants and needs of mobile consumers, but these consumers have responded poorly to new platforms that are either too complicated or just not enjoyable to use.

Research has suggested that price of the mobile wallet device and or application is essential to creating the appeal to consumers. Initially high priced mobile devices affected the volume of sales, especially for Android markets.  But studies suggest that I-phone demand remains steady or slightly increases. When the prices are lowered, evidence suggests that volume sales and improved mobile devices are purchased.  By including mobile wallet applications in the preloaded applications for these devices, usage will increase for mobile commerce [34].

It is imperative that people weigh the potential benefits of NFC technology against the potential risks of embracing it fully for day-to-day activities or transactions. The primary advantages of NFC relate to its convenience, versatility, and safety. One of the significant benefits of using NFC technology is that most of the NFC devices are cloud-connected. All connected smartphones (NFC-enabled phones) can always be provisioned with various dedicated apps. These dedicated apps give the application enormous benefits, including access control, dedicated readers, and payment readers.

Additionally, NFC technology enables users to have phone numbers, pictures and several other relevant details about those paying their bills via NFC-enabled phones. Also, companies or institutions can successfully adapt NFC for all sorts of situations and circumstances, including bank cards, transit passes, reward systems, and movie passes. Ideally, NFC is applicable for a wide range of uses and industries because this technology allows users (especially holders of smartphones and tablets) to successfully manipulate through the development of software [35].

NFC is also more convenient and safe particularly for customers who make huge purchases from retailers. Unlike a standard card, connected credentials can as well be provisioned over the air. Although Bluetooth can also aid the process of transferring data between two devices, NFC uses comparatively less power. It can be a major headache trying to pair two Bluetooth devices as the search might take a considerable amount of time. Besides, the device to be paired must be discoverable and correct passcode entered. Incidentally, battery life is increasingly gaining importance in the contemporary world considering that smartphones may ultimately replace wallets [35].

Despite the numerous benefits associated with NFC, this technology also has a fair share of its shortcomings. The main disadvantages or limitations of NFC have to do with security, costs, and company agreements on NFC usage. For instance, phone hacking or computer hacking is a significant risk to NFC. Since mobile phones continue to develop, they become some handheld computers, ultimately becoming prone to viruses. Hackers, on the other hand, are curious about the contents of a smartphone thus would want to gain access to it because this device contains a lot of vital data/information. For instance, hackers would want to know the phone user’s credit card information, social security information, and bill payments, among others. Accordingly, most governments would probably spend up to ten years before they finally warm up for Near Field Communication.

Lastly, NFC is too expensive thus smaller companies would be reluctant to invest in it. Also, it is always difficult for business organizations to measure or evaluate the additional gains/profit with NFC technology. Furthermore, retailers have to make critical decisions in relation to the use of NFC devices as a form of mobile payment, especially when opting to incorporate NFC-enabled devices. Similarly, companies have to make crucial (and sometimes costly) decisions with regard to hardware and software development. Lastly, many organizations will have to change how they run their affairs considering that they will have to hire additional customer service and NFC technicians to handle the “tap & go” transactions [35].


I think that within twenty years NFC will change the way we live in many ways, like contactless payments. NFC has a short range of about 1 ½ inches which is a good reason to use it for secure transactions, such as contactless credit or debit transactions. Simply wave your NFC device in front of an NFC scanner and your payment is done. But not only that, it can find all your NFC based coupons and customer loyalty cards and automatically apply them to your purchase. Imagine not needing to fumble through your purse or wallet to find all your cards and coupons. They will all be in one easy to access place. NFC devices will be helpful in health care. It will be able to store your medical records. It could provide what medical treatments a patient should receive and which doctors and nurses have checked in with a patient. All of this could be kept on a NFC tag bracelet for each patient to wear around their wrist. Near Field Communication is a new revolutionary technology that needs awareness in people. As not many countries are adopting NFC compliant devices that may eliminate use of physical plastic based credit cards, debit cards etc. The reason is probably the economy. Countries with stable economy are welcomed for use of an NFC compliant device. As per the standards, the technology has defined its own protocols and communication procedures. Moreover, these protocols are only meant to use with NFC compliant devices. As per security, the technology plays a significant role for eliminating the requirement of carrying a credit card or smart card that may be lost. Moreover, due to a very short distance, none can breach in between the transactions performed by the two devices. However, as the technology widespread worldwide, there may be some issues that may emerge in terms of threats and cybercrimes.


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