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The Garnaut Review

Discuss about the International Trade and Enterprise for Greenhouse.

Noteworthy, there’s a growing global concern over climatic changes and the emission of greenhouse gasses. Ironically ,China and the United States despite being the largest emitters of greenhouses gases ,their governments hasn’t taken active steps to mitigate the effects of the greenhouses gases on the environment .However ,most Latin America, Africa ,Europe and Middle-Eastern economies have taken interest in regulating carbon emissions(Stokes, Wike and Carle,2015)Arguably ,wealthy and more developed countries are expected to take more responsibility in climate change mitigation and emission of greenhouse gases due to the high concentration percentage they are presumed responsible for.

Further, the devastating effects of climate change due to emission of greenhouses such as high temperatures, rises in sea levels, drought and harsh weather are among the reasons for the concern for climatic change action. Further, climate forcing which is a consequence of climate change due to changes in earth’s energy balance causing excessively warm or cooling effect. Climatic change is likely to lead to natural disasters such as intense storms, hurricane which will destroy human lives and property thus the obsession with controlling greenhouse gases and climate change .The irreplaceable nature of life which could be destroyed by natural disasters due to global warming or climatic change has also created the need to mitigate climatic changes.

Primarily, the Garnaut Review explores the implications of climatic changes on the Australian population. Australia must participate in the global arena to mitigate the effects of climate changes. According to Garnaut, climate change is due to human interference through activity .The Review is outlined into three parts acknowledging the concern for changing climatic conditions, the steps to be undertaken by the government of Australia and the adaptive transformations to be undertaken. Further,Garnaut focuses on quantity of greenhouse gas emissions, worldwide arrangements on emissions, carbon pricing, and political interests and adaptive measures.

In addition, effects of carbon pricing upon agricultural and electricity in climate change efforts has been expounded. Also, temperature, the carbon cycle and other greenhouses gases, methane, nitrous oxide have been is outlined in the review. 

Carbon pricing has been proposed to cut carbon emissions. Furthermore, there’s need for stringent and prompt implementation of mitigation policies for greenhouse gasses emission. Carbon sequestration is also proposed to capture and store carbon based emissions from entering the atmosphere. Noteworthy, carbon sequestration would be an effective means were it affordable and available internationally. However due to the expensive technological equipment and maintenance costs ,it’s a small scale emission control mechanism .Expansion of renewable energy capacities by different countries will greatly reduce carbon emissions due to energy efficiency and environmental friendliness of these renewable sources.

Solutions Presented by Garnaut Review

Overshooting and application of solar radiation deflectors is likely to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate effects of global warming respectively. Also, adoption of clean development and technological mechanisms has proven to reduce carbon emissions. Implementation of low emission technological developments has been advanced in energy and the transport sectors of various economies to reduce carbon emissions through fuel efficiency and incorporation of renewable sources of energy. The use of renewable sources of energy has greatly boosted carbon emissions. Further, there’s encouraged use of organic farming methods and equipment in production in a bid to promote environment friendly practices and reduce environmental pollution.

The implementation of greenhouse gas emission targets has helped reduce the concentration percentage of greenhouse gasses. Profoundly, member states of the European Union have committed to a 20percent emission cut for greenhouse gasses for the year 2020.Further, European Countries have subscribed to 20percent energy consumption of renewable energy in an effort to reduce carbon emission cuts. In addition, there’s a 40percent target for the year 2030 according to the European Union (European Commission, n.d) Moreover, there’s financial and regulatory framework for carbon emission cuts through the Emissions Trading scheme and a 20% budgetary allocation towards climate action.

Profoundly, market-based approaches have been implemented to reduce the rate of carbon   emissions .Primarily, carbon taxation systems have been introduced in various economies to cut emissions. Usually, higher taxation is likely to reduce the quantity demand and supply according to price elasticity and the law of demand (Kaufman, 2016) Through carbon taxation, the quantity of carbon emitted is low. The effect of taxation on carbon emissions is direct thus its efficiency is guaranteed. Additionally, cap and trade activities have been used to encourage reduction in carbon emissions through low costing system. Traders in carbon-based resources are encouraged to use low carbon-based technologies. Certainty  and stability of carbon prices has made this two methods popular .However ,there's limited government intervention since most stakeholders are private investors(Kaufman,2016)

Predominantly, market based approaches have been adopted to help cut carbon emissions through the establishment of carbon trading arrangements which also offers incentives for sequestration of carbon-based gases (Raymond and Shively, n .d) The idea of carbon trading was proposed by Richard coase who believed that in the event of property rights environment friendly milestones will be undertaken by private stakeholders. Through the financial incentives available for agriculture and electricity based carbon sequestration, the volume of carbon emissions goes down (Raymond and Shively, n. d) Private state holders will be motivated to cut carbon and other greenhouse gases emissions in the face of financial gain.

Alternative Approaches to Carbon Emission Cuts and their Effectiveness

Further, the expansion of renewable capacity is a notable move to cut carbon emissions. Primarily, there’s overdependence in non-renewable forms of energy such as coal and fossil fuels. In addition, introduction of fuel efficiency and transportation standards will help reduce carbon emissions (Union of Concerned Scientists, n .d.)Furthermore, substantial investment into reforestation and limitation caps on carbon production and emissions will significantly reduce the level of carbon emissions in Australia and worldwide .Clean energy use is effective but expensive in terms of technology and equipment thus its inadequacy in completely reducing carbon emission cuts (Union of Concerned Scientists, n .d)

Notably, New Zealand has incorporated the use of emission reduction targets and trading system to help reduce emission of carbon and other greenhouse gases into its atmosphere. Moreover, it has adopted the clean development technology in its key sector industry to reduce the volume of carbon-based emissions (Ministry for the Environment and Energy ,n .d.) Predominantly ,energy based conservation and efficiency techniques have been used to reduce carbon emissions .Primarily ,use of carbon-free and carbon –reduced energy sources has substantially reduced carbon emissions through the use of renewable energy such as solar ,wind and geothermal.

Also, carbon storage and sequestration has been implemented to reduce fast growing rates of carbon emissions (Tribal Energy and Environmental Information, n .d.) Regarding effectiveness, it is considered costly to sequestrarise hence it is less likely to cut emissions on a large scale. The United Nations Report recommends higher emission targets before 2020 to successfully help mitigate the challenges of global climate change. A target of forty giga tonnes of carbon emissions by the year 2025 and 22 gigatonne target for 2050(Milman, 2013) Australia mitigation efforts combined with other global economies carbon cuts emissions will go a long way in reducing overall concentration of greenhouse gasses .In the long run, Carbon emission cuts minimizes the effects of greenhouse gases on global climatic changes. 

Further, there’s the use of emission control policies by the Australian government to control the remittance of carbon based gasses into the atmosphere. As proposed by the Garnaut Review, emission price and target have been implemented by the Australian government. Mandatory expansion of electricity produced by renewable energy sources, placement of emission offsets and use of energy efficiency buildings and appliances has been implemented to boost carbon emission cuts .In addition, emissions standards has been set for fuel emissions and incentives offered to public stakeholders for carbon emission cuts(Nielson ,n.d.)Despite the application of these emission control policies, they haven’t been able to adequately reduce or eradicate substantial concentration of carbon emissions.

In addition, the Australian government has introduced and allocated funds towards reduction of greenhouse gases inclusive of carbon gases. Primarily, the Emission Reduction Fund has availed persuasive financial incentives for stakeholders for environment-friendly based practices inclusive of carbon emission cuts (Department of  the Environment,2014)The fund aims to promote environmental interests to help mitigate the effects of climate change attributed to high emissions of greenhouse gases by private business stakeholders. In the presence of incentives and subsidies in business operations, most stakeholders are more inclined to cooperate with environment-friendly approaches to business as compared to the absence of incentives in the business world. 


The Australia government is committed to the 5percent least global reduction limit by the year 2020 thus an implementation of the Garnaut review recommendation(Fraser,2014)Moreover ,The Australian government is constantly reviewing climate change policies to suit current global changes .Noteworthy, Australia has made budgetary allocation towards climate change. However, there’s need for more mitigation efforts by Australia and other global players in enforcing carbon emission cuts and overall emission cuts for all greenhouses gases such as methane, nitrous oxide to reduce the effects of these gases on the global climate. Greenhouse gases are a likely trigger for harsh weather, intense storms, hurricanes, abnormal rise in sea levels and other negative consequences on human life and property. 

References

Department of Environment, Australia. (2014)Reducing Australia s Emissions.[Online]Available at https://www.environment.gov.au/climate-change/emissions-reduction-fund/publications/reducing-australias-emissions[Accessed 25 March 2017]

European Commission.(n .d.)EU Climate Action .European Commission.[Online]Available at https://ec.europa.eu/clima/citizens/eu_en[Accessed 25 May 2017]

Fraser, B.(2014)Reducing Australia s Greenhouse Gas Emissions-Targets and Progress Review .Final Report. Climate Authority.[Online]Available at https://www.climatechangeauthority.gov.au/files/files/Target-Progress-Review/Targets%20and%20Progress%20Review%20Final%20Report.pdf

Garnaut, R. (2011) The Garnaut Review 2011.Garnaut Review.Org.[Online] Available at  https://www.garnautreview.org.au/update-2011/garnaut-review-2011/garnaut-review-2011.pdf[Accessed 25 May 2017]

Kaufman, N. (2016) Carbon Tax vs. Cap-and-Trade: What’s a Better Policy to Cut Emissions? World Resources Institute.[Online]Available at https://www.wri.org/blog/2016/03/carbon-tax-vs-cap-and-trade-what%E2%80%99s-better-policy-cut-emissions[Accessed 25 May 2017]

Ministry for the Environment.(n .d)Reducing New Zealand s Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Ministry for the Environment.[Online]Available at https://www.mfe.govt.nz/climate-change/reducing-greenhouse-gas-emissions[Accessed 25 May 2017]

Nielson, L.(n .d.)Emission Control Policies .Parliament of Australia.[Online]Available at https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/BriefingBook43p/emissioncontrol[Accessed 25 May 2017]

Raymond, L and Shively, G.(2008)Market Based Approaches to CO2 Emissions .Choices Magazine.Org.[Online]Available at https://www.choicesmagazine.org/2008-1/articles/2008-101.htm[Accessed 25 May 2017]

Stokes, Wike, R., and Carle, J. (2015) Global Concern About Climate Change, Broad Support for Limiting Emissions. Pew Global.Org. [Online]Available at https://www.pewglobal.org/2015/11/05/global-concern-about-climate-change-broad-support-for-limiting-emissions/[Accessed 25 May 2017]

Tribal Energy and Environmental Information.(n .d)Ways to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions .Indian Affairs.Gov.[Online]Available at https://teeic.indianaffairs.gov/er/carbon/carboninfo/reduce/index.html[Accessed 25 May 2017]

Oliver, M.(2013)Carbon Emissions Must Be Cut ‘Significantly’ by 2020,Says UN Report. United Nations University.[Online]Available at https://ourworld.unu.edu/en/carbon-emissions-must-be-cut-significantly-by-2020-says-un-report

Union of Concerned Scientists .Smart Solutions to Reduce Emissions. Union of Concerned Scientists.[Online]Available at https://www.ucsusa.org/our-work/global-warming/solutions/global-warming-solutions-reduce-emissions#.WSbZHZKGPMx[Accessed 25 May 2017]

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