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Legalization of marijuana laws in Canada

Question:

Discuss about the Introduction to Criminology and Criminal Justice for Health Canada.

Canada is a country where recently marihuana or marijuana has been legalized for the medical purposes under the access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulation Act, which has been issued by Health Canada. The marijuana has collected by the cultivation of the hemp plant of the genus Cannabis where the scenes grains and fiber production only used under a license by the health Canada (Hajizadeh, 2016). The government has Canadian federal election 2015 has started a campaign with the people who want to legalize the Cannabis for personal use but majority of the government has voted against the personal consumption according to the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act but it has been legalize for the medicinal purposes under some licensed permission (Rehm, Crépault & Fischer, 2017). The new law also enacted the rules for it provides punishment for the people who convicted of supplying cannabis to minors and impairment while driving motorcycle. However, the official date has been published which is 1st July 2018 from when the legalization of marijuana will be applicable in the all over the country. The act has provided the rules which has power to determine the method of distribution and sale of legal Cannabis use along with the excise tax while distributing the Cannabis. In the past history of Canada, the Cannabis use is illegal due to various criminal charges against middle class citizens about using the Cannabis as drugs but later The cannabis is distributing for the medicinal purposes which has make the legalization of the use of marijuana (Hajizadeh, 2016).

Though it has the legalization in the country it has several effects in human body and it must not used by the young people (Rehm, Crépault & Fischer, 2017). The marijuana is a form of toxic which affect our neurons and regular use of such drugs can change the developing the brains framework. It was not completely harmless and has negative effects in our body. Therefore the Canadian Medical Association has set a limit where they have suggested that the human brain continues to mature until is 25, therefore a person should have completed the age of 21 to use marijuana. Most of the cases the young person becomes attracted by such drugs. The country people also have fear that legalization of marijuana can increases impaired driving from using marijuana along with the alcohol (Lake & Kerr, 2017).

Effects of marijuana on the human body

Marijuana is also known as pot, weed and grass, which are mainly, found from the plant Cannabis sativa and it grows naturally in many countries. Marijuana is using for medicinal purposes from thousands of years and it remains illegal to grow, use and causes in most of the countries including Canada. However, in a recent report has found that in Canada the populations, which aged 15 to 24 years, are reporting to use marijuana more in Canada where males are mostly like to use the Cannabis rather than females (Rehm, Crépault & Fischer, 2017). Therefore the current system in Canada has raises several issues of legalizing and the criminalizing of marijuana. It has affected the political, economic growth. The decriminalization of marijuana is still illegal to use and recognize as a criminal offence but when it will be legalized that means the adults will have rights to use and sale marijuana like tobacco and alcohol (Volkow, et al., 2014). Sometimes the illegal sales also took place. This process may increases the crime by the youth of the country or they may face dangers for the possibility of overdose risk of tragic intoxicated behavior and risk of addiction. It is important for the Canadian government that they must be strict while providing license to the people who are selling and using the marijuana for the medicinal purposes (Hajizadeh, 2016).

The legalization of marijuana in Canada has increased tax revenue, which has been a great economy for Canada government. Therefore the government can collect a huge amount of taxes of legalize drugs (Lake & Kerr, 2017). There is a high demand for marijuana due to the legalization of Canada and in the free market price; the marijuana is estimated to be low without taxation (Rehm, Crépault & Fischer, 2017). Therefore, the government can impose higher taxes on these drugs for maintaining the price at a competitive level with other intoxicated products like alcohol and tobacco (Volkow, et al., 2014). However, the Canadian government can collect a huge amount of tax for the product but it also increases the black market of marijuana in Canada rather than alcohol and tobacco. In a recent report, it has found that Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce world markets has estimated that it could create a 10 million dollar per year in industry and the Canadian Government and collect 50% or more than $10 million as the drug taxes for the legalization of marijuana. Therefore, it would help to generate some other job opportunities for individuals who are connected with educational sessions and Health Promotion initiative to promote safe use of the drugs. Therefore, the legalization of marijuana can lead to a substantial savings in drug incarceration and enforcement cost in Canada (Rehm, Crépault & Fischer, 2017).

Social impacts of legalizing marijuana

According to the social impacts due to the high demand of marijuana in Canada can help to expansion on the black market where the illegal drug dealers can sell the marijuana without any accountability (Hajizadeh, 2016). When the legalization of marijuana has established in Canada it helps to reduce the cost and the economical growth in the black market share. It has related with the illegal drug dealers and other relative criminal activities. When the illegal drug dealers’ sale and use in Canadian black market, it increases the criminal offences. Due to the use of marijuana the social problem will be increases and the marijuana will effect as unsafe products in the environment and the illegal distribution of such drug only being level for such criminal activities. Therefore, for the youth in the Canada the illegal market of marijuana is highly risk and dangerous issues (Lake & Kerr, 2017).

The use of marijuana has dangerous impacts in the human body. Regular use of such toxicities can affect human brain but along with the bad effects. Marijuana is used for medicinal purposes (Hajizadeh, 2016). It has various benefits as if the use of marijuana can lower the risk in neuropathic pain, inflammatory bowel diseases, and helps to manage symptoms of chemotherapy and treatment resident epilepsy in children. The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Organisation has recently published a report where they mentioned about the healthy benefits of the use of marijuana along with the risks, which are decreasing the brain development among youth. The progression to use of other illicit Drugs depression or anxiety, injury, risk of death from motor vehicle collision, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, schizophrenia and addiction problem (Rehm, Crépault & Fischer, 2017). The casual effects of regular use of marijuana can become the reason of disorders, schizophrenia, lung cancer and traffic injuries. There are several disabilities has also found due to the regular use of marijuana where the highest rated of risk in the motor vehicle accidents which is most common side effects income order along with other countries (Volkow, et al., 2014).

 The legalization of marijuana can helpful and benefited for the government to collect highest paid of taxes. It also helps to government to develop in the country. However, due to the legalizati1on of such toxicities product also increases criminal activities in all over the country. The illegal market of drugs has already increasing in Canada and after the legalization of marijuana (Lake & Kerr, 2017); it increases the high rated criminal offence for the society. Canada government should prepare some appropriate rules and policies to keep the drug out of the hands of the minors. They must increase awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug and to prevent impair driving and collision between the motor and vehicles. the Canada is not only the first country who attempts to in provision of marijuana but the Portugal, Uruguay and United States have also realize the use of marijuana where they also applied several provision policies and strategic models for the legalization of marijuana (Volkow, et al., 2014). However, several States have legalized the use it helps Canada to found new laws and rules to prevent such criminal offences and other harmful effects (Rehm, Crépault & Fischer, 2017). However, the legalization of marijuana is one of the unique opportunities to know about the effect of legalizing marijuana on the national scale (Lake & Kerr, 2017).

Reference

Ammerman, S., Ryan, S., Adelman, W. P., & Committee on Substance Abuse. (2015). The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update. Pediatrics, 135(3), e769-e785.

Haines-Saah, R. J., Johnson, J. L., Repta, R., Ostry, A., Young, M. L., Shoveller, J., ... & Ratner, P. A. (2014). The privileged normalization of marijuana use–an analysis of Canadian newspaper reporting, 1997–2007. Critical public health, 24(1), 47-61.

Hajizadeh, M. (2016). Legalizing and regulating marijuana in Canada: review of potential economic, social, and health impacts. International journal of health policy and management, 5(8), 453.

Lake, S., & Kerr, T. (2017). The Challenges of Projecting the Public Health Impacts of Marijuana Legalization in Canada: Comment on" Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts". International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 6(5), 285.

MacKay, R., & Phillips, K. (2016). The legal regulation of marijuana in Canada and selected other countries. Library of Parliament= Bibliothèque du Parlement.

Minaker, L. M., Bonham, A., Elton-Marshall, T., Leos-Toro, C., Wild, T. C., & Hammond, D. (2017). Under the influence: examination of prevalence and correlates of alcohol and marijuana consumption in relation to youth driving and passenger behaviours in Canada. A cross-sectional study. CMAJ open, 5(2), E386-E394.

Rehm, J., Crépault, J. F., & Fischer, B. (2017). The Devil Is in the Details! On Regulating Cannabis Use in Canada Based on Public Health Criteria: Comment on" Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts". International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 6(3), 173.

Volkow, N. D., Baler, R. D., Compton, W. M., & Weiss, S. R. (2014). Adverse health effects of marijuana use. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(23), 2219-2227.

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