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Use the title of the article/case study provided as the title of your essay, so that I will know which article you are analysing. Undertake further research about your chosen case, to assist you in analysing and discussing it in your essay.

In your essay, you are required to analyse your chosen article/case study from the perspective of four classical ethical theories including utilitarianism, deontology, virtue and contract. Your essay should present well-reasoned arguments for your assessments and recommendations.

Write an overall conclusion that justifies your recommendations made in your essay.

Background on Technology and Mourning

Technology has a stronger impact on the major aspects of lives for each and every individual. This technology even affects the method of responses to deaths as well as mourning. In the earlier days, people were not involved with technology and hence, when their family members or friends died, they did not memorize then on their social media accounts, or did not include the digitalized assets in their wills or did not post any photo on the respective photo hosting platforms (Raicu, 2018). However, in the modern days, people have started to react to these sad nesses in a unique method. They have involved technology in this purpose and thus artificial intelligence is solely included. The most recent development of this artificial intelligence for the modern society is the significant creation of griefbots. As per an article, the artificial intelligence subsequently allows the data crafting by any individual for convincing the respective text based simulation of that particular individual.These types of simulations eventually respond whenever prompted and hence the tone, idiosyncrasies and cadence of the deceased person is being imitated. The data scientist, Muhammad Ahmad has been working on his own griefbot after the death of his father. He had collected several data of his father like video or audio recordings, letter transcripts, text messages and many more (Raicu, 2018). This information has thus allowed him to properly create a specific messenger program, which could imitate his deceased father. The following report will be outlining a brief discussion on the above mentioned case study in respect to the four classical theories of ethics.

The specific utilitarianism theory could be eventually defined as the first classical theory that depicts that the most appropriate and suitable action is that particular action, which helps to maximize the utility of the situation (Mill, 2016). This typical utility solely is referred to the well-being of any society or any individual, who is involved within the scenario. This is the summation of the pleasures from all activities only after the removal of few problems or issues, which the individuals have faced for the case. This is the perfect version for consequentialism, which states that each and every consequence of any action are completely on the basis of the factor that it is wrong or is it right. This specific ethical theory of the utilitarianism, majorly takes into consideration every interest of the individuals equally (Noddings, 2013). Hence, the theory of utilitarianism is the most significant theory within the four classical theories of ethics. According to utilitarianism theory, any typical situation must have the major amount of utilities for all individuals and hence helping out those individuals to judge the respective situation. In this specific case study of artificial intelligence, deaths and mourning, the data scientist Muhammad Ahmad have tried to help the society by providing his technology of griefbot. He had the major intention to free out those individuals from grief and sorrow, who have recently lost their near and dear ones. Hence, the theory of utilitarianism is solely applied here. The major utility of the recorded text messages, voices or video messages help the individuals for overcoming their grief or sorrow to a greater level (Frank, 2013). This is in turn helping the society and the individuals and thus this particular case study of artificial intelligence, deaths and mourning is termed as ethical in respect of the utilitarianism theory.

Utilitarianism Theory

The next classical ethical theory is the respective deontology theory. This particular theory states that it is the part of normative ethics that significantly judges any activity or situation as per few rules, regulations and standards (Paquette, Sommerfeldt & Kent, 2015). The specific rule for the deontology theory majorly involves judging any action as per the binding of these rules and regulations. According to this deontology theory, any moral obligation might be arising from both the internal source and the external source like the collection of rules and regulations that are strongly inherent to this universe or even the religious laws. The specific set of the cultural as well as personal values are also checked by this theory (Fromm, 2013). There are three important formulations of the deontology theory, which are acting as per the maximum profit by which the specific individual would easily become the part of the universal law, acting in such a manner that the specific individual is always treating humanity on the first priority and is not ignoring the person, who has not treated him well and finally each and every rational being should be properly acted as if that individual were through the maximum checking is done for the legislating member within the universal kingdom of finishing. Any typical person can be termed as ethical if and only if he is acting according to the moral or religious laws and is not breaking the rules under any circumstances. As per the deontology theory, any specific action is much more vital than the various consequences (Peters, 2015). The moral obligation usually arises from the rules set, which is absolutely intrinsic to the universe. The other name for deontology theory is ethical naturalism. The other specific types of the sources that mainly include the collectivity of few personal as well as cultural values and even the religious laws are also included in this specific theory. All of the personal as well as cultural values could also create major conflicts with the various personal desires. The obligation of duty is then properly maintained by the help of deontology theory (Crane & Matten, 2016). In this specific case study of artificial intelligence, deaths and mourning, the typical data scientist, Muhammad Ahmad has created griefbot for providing relief to the individuals, who are suffering from this pain due to the death of their relatives or friends. This is ethically correct since he has tried to help the society from grief.

Deontology Theory

The next important theory of the four classic ethical theories is virtue theory. This is the basic approach that mainly focuses over the specific attribute of any person and it demonstrates that this character is the major element for the ethical thinking (Van Hooft, 2014). Virtue theory is normative theory, which emphasizes over the characters or minds of those persons. These virtues such as honesty and generosity are considered as the most significant elements to understand this trait and character of that particular person. This virtue theory eventually states that all individuals must not have a tendency to be honest and generous or even being specified regarding the moral and legal individual values. This is the positive attribute, which helps the situation or the possessor to become better situation or better human (Niebuhr, 2013). Thus, the society is benefitted here. In this specific case study of Muhammad Ahmed, the positive trait is that he had wanted to provide technological benefit by removing the grief and sorrow with griefbot. Hence, this is ethical according to virtue theory.

This is final theory of classical ethics theories, which states that about a contract within two persons. This type of agreement is created between two persons, who are living within one society (Mizzoni, 2017). The various behavioral and moralized rules or regulations are well established by this type of contract. Ethics has a major impact on the modern technology. Since, the technology comprises of various processes and principles of science applications, there has to be a major involvement of ethics within this particular scientific boon. These applications are hence considered as extremely useful and should be served for providing major benefits to the society (Durkheim, 2013). Thus, in this case study of AI and deaths, Muhammad Ahmad has created an ethical contract within society and the other individuals. Hence, this specific case study is absolutely ethical in terms of contract theory.

Conclusion

Therefore, it could be concluded that the ethics could be easily defined as the moralized philosophy, which involves the proper defending, recommendations and systematization of correct and incorrect concepts. There are various questions related to the human morality and all of these are well resolved with the help of ethics. The most significant concepts that are defined with ethics are vice or virtue, right or wrong, good or bad, justice or crime. The ethics of technology helps to address the various ethical questions that are specific to the technological phenomenon. This particular ethics is termed as techno ethics. The four classical theories of ethics help to justify any specific situation that whether it is right or wrong. The entire process of decision making becomes extremely easier with the presence of these four classical theories of ethics. The above report has focused on the case study of artificial intelligence in deaths of individuals. This report has properly outlined the article of Muhammad Ahmad and the contribution he has provided to the society. Artificial intelligence has found a new technology, known as griefbot, which can imitate the voices and tones of the deceased individuals. The four distinct classical theories have been used for justifying this case study.

References

Crane, A., & Matten, D. (2016). Business ethics: Managing corporate citizenship and sustainability in the age of globalization. Oxford University Press.

Durkheim, E. (2013). Professional ethics and civic morals. Routledge.

Frank, A. W. (2013). The wounded storyteller: Body, illness, and ethics. University of Chicago Press.

Fromm, E. (2013). Man for himself: An inquiry into the psychology of ethics. Routledge.

Mill, J. S. (2016). Utilitarianism. In Seven Masterpieces of Philosophy (pp. 337-383). Routledge.

Mizzoni, J. (2017). Ethics: the basics. John Wiley & Sons.

Niebuhr, R. (2013). Moral man and immoral society: A study in ethics and politics. Westminster John Knox Press.

Noddings, N. (2013). Caring: A relational approach to ethics and moral education. Univ of California Press.

Paquette, M., Sommerfeldt, E. J., & Kent, M. L. (2015). Do the ends justify the means? Dialogue, development communication, and deontological ethics. Public Relations Review, 41(1), 30-39.

Peters, R. S. (2015). Ethics and Education (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.

Raicu, I. (2018). AI, Death, and Mourning. Retrieved from https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/internet-ethics/resources/ai-death-and-mourning/ 

Van Hooft, S. (2014). Understanding virtue ethics. Routledge.

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