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Write about the Complex Project Management.

Causes of Complex Projects

A project is considered to be complex depending upon the size of the project, the budget of the project, the size of the project team, the engagement of the stakeholders, the time allotted for project completion and so on. Hence, in order to complete the project successfully, it becomes necessary to deal with these complexities in a strategic manner. Complex projects impose serious challenges in front of the project manager as compared to the normal projects. Hence, it becomes necessary to take steps and adopt different tools and measures in order to deal with these complexities so that success can be achieved in the end. If these complexities are not dealt with properly, then there are very high chances of project failure (Caietti, 2016). Project managers play a very important role in achieving success of the project. This is so because they take the overall responsibility of the project starting from its initiation phase and till the closure of the project. Hence, the success and failure of the project lies in the hands of project managers. With the adoption of proper planning and assessment, a project manager can reduce the complexities of the project (Haughey, 2018). As a result many tools and techniques have been developed that helps the project managers to deal with such complexities of the project in a strategic manner (Kashyap, 2018). The following essay has thrown light on the major causes because of which a project becomes complex. It has been found that lack of experience of the project manager, improper budget as well as cost estimation, improper risk management, poor administration of the project, failure in dealing with uncertainties are some of the common causes behind the complex nature of the project (Hass, 2017). It has been found that the technical environment as well as organizational environment also plays an important role in the complexity of the project. Along with this, the properties of complex projects have also been identified in the essay. These properties include size of the project, elements of context of the project, interdependence of the project, and variety of the project. These properties will help to identify the nature of the project and also to assess the level of complexity and accordingly, the project manager can plan and design the project to avoid complexities and ensure success of the project. In order to deal with these complexities, project managers can adopt proper tools and techniques that are utilized to plan the project properly. Some of the common tools include PERT and Gantt chart as discussed in the essay. With the help of these tools, the project manager can schedule different tasks of the project in a systematic manner. These tools also help in estimating the required time as well as the required resources in order to undertake the completion of the project. Two case studies of The Channel Tunnel and Deepwater Horizon have been taken to understand how complexities can impact a project. This is followed by the overall discussion of the essay and in the end, concluding remarks have been made depending upon the analysis of the project.

Environments and Properties of Complex Projects

Causes, environments and properties of complex projects

Introduction: The complexity of a project depends upon many different factors. Because of the complex nature of the projects, it has been seen that many times a project fails. Project failures are not always reflected in incomplete projects. Project that is not completed within the stipulated time or budget, but is complete falls under failed projects.

Evidence: Some of the common causes because of which the projects become more complex include inadequate risk management, ill-defined scope of the project, lack of experience of the project managers, failure in identifying the key factors that may make the projects more complex, failure in using required tools and techniques to undertake the project, lack of effective communication, poor project management (Xia and Lee, 2005), lack of effective leadership, improper documentation related to project being undertaken, improper management at different phases of project life cycle, inappropriate time as well as budget estimates, improper planning etc. are some of the main causes of project complexities (Symonds, 2011). These causes are common for different types of projects like projects that require huge time, projects that have great deal of uncertainty, as well as projects that have many interconnections. Project manager plays a very important role in managing the complex projects. The project managers can lead their teams to adopt changes taking place internally as well as in the external environment so that it does not impact the projects negatively. The flow of information plays a critical role in reducing the complexities of the projects. The project managers should know to design a system through which this information flows systematically. This will improve the internal environment of the project. Adapting to change is a very important factor in project management. Hence, it is important to adopt flexibility in the culture of the project (Beer, 1995). According to Schlindwein (2005), there are majorly two main approaches towards project complexities. The first one is the descriptive complexity and the other one is the perceived complexity(Schlindwein and Ison, 2004).The concept of descriptive complexity is supported by Baccarini (1996), who argued that project complexity is experienced majorly because of two reasons and they are either technological complexities or organizational complexities. It has been argued by the author that complex nature of the project depends upon the interdependencies within a specific project and how well it is being managed by integrating different parts of the projects in a strategic manner. The author has said that the projects that includes many parts and are interconnected are difficult to manage and hence, this raises complexities in the project (Baccarini, 2016). In the case of perceived complexity, the complexities are considered as subjective in nature. This means that the project is not understood properly and hence, the complexities are taking place within the project. It is believed by many that the perceived complexity is the main reason behind many complex projects as it has been seen that many times, the project managers or the project team members fail to understand the demands of the project and as a result, end up into indulging into a complex project (Vidal and Marle, 2008).

Tools and Techniques to Aid Project Managers

There is no consensus among the experts when it comes to the properties of complex projects. It is being argued that complexity can be understood from different perspectives and on the basis of different projects (Kumar and Thomson, 2001). Though, it has been mentioned by Edmond (1999), that the properties of complex projects can be understood as the difficulty being faced by the project manager in understanding the language or the demands of the project, despite of the fact that, all the necessary information is provided and all the interrelations has been clarified(Edmonds, 2009). Hence, from this it can be said that the project complexity highly depends on how the project system has been modelled by the project manager. It is argued by Marle (2002), that complexities within a project can be positive as well as negative properties. The property is said to be negative when it is not being understood or is not being able to control by the project manager. The properties of the complex projects can be said to be positive when an external emergency arises which acts as an opportunity for the project. No doubt, that it will increase the complexity of the project but, if it is able to benefit the project, then it will be considered as positive complexities (Marle, 2002). As discussed by Vidal and Marle (2008), there are four major characteristics of complex projects namely size of the project, elements of context of the project, interdependence of the project, and variety of the project. The two types of complexities that are organizational complexity and technological complexities can be identified on the basis these four characteristics of project complexities.

Conclusion: Hence, it can be concluded that in order to achieve success in the project, it is important to identify the properties of the complex projects as well as the main causes because of which, a project becomes complex and at times fails. There are no specific defined properties of complex projects as it differs from project to project. Hence, it becomes necessary to first understand the project, as this is proved to be one of the major causes behind complex projects. Understanding what a project demands and then communicating the relevant information are some of the important things that should be taken into consideration in order to avoid complexities of the project. If the project manager achieves success in identifying the causes as well as the properties of complex projects, then there is high probability the projects can be completed smoothly. A project complexity framework should be developed that will help the project managers to differentiate easily between such projects on the basis of their properties and on the basis of this necessary steps can be taken and project planning can be undertaken. Project management plays a very important role in the success of the project. Identification of all these factors will help develop better project management strategies in the end reducing the complexities of the project.

Case Studies: The Channel Tunnel and Deepwater Horizon

Tools and techniques to aid a project manager to manage complex projects

Introduction: The project becomes complex because of many different reasons as listed above. The methods and strategies used by the project managers help to a great extent to reduce the complexities of the project.

Evidence: Project complexities as discussed by Baccarini (1996) include two components that are organizational complexities and technological complexities. Terry Williams went ahead and identified one more component on which the project complexity depends and that is uncertainty of the projects. Uncertainty component includes uncertainty in goals as well as methods used by the project managers to undertake a project. Because of this uncertainty of the projects, the negative impact can be seen on the structure of the project. Another reasons identified by William behind the project complexity includes the relationship being shared between the product complexity and project uncertainty. Apart from this, other reason for complex projects is the lengthy nature of the project that are more time consuming, that becomes more complex for the project managers to manage (Williams, 2002). Managing a project is a very difficult task and hence, it becomes necessary to adopt proper tools and techniques that will help to manage the project easily. Project can be divided in to four key phases and on the basis of this techniques can be used to undertake the project in a successful manner, by reducing the complexities of the project. Technique that can be used at the initiation phase includes establishment of project initiation team, establishing good relationship with the customers, developing project initiation plan, generating procedures to undertake the project throughout the life cycle (Maserang, 2002). At the planning stage of the project, the techniques that can be used by the project manager includes, describing the scope of the project, dividing the whole project into parts on the basis of the tasks, undertaking resource estimation, developing communication strategies, as well as undertaking risk assessment, estimating the budget, developing work statement, etc. At the implementation stage of the project, the techniques that can be adopted by project managers to avoid complexities of the project includes, executing the baseline project plan developed at the planning stage of the project, undertaking monitoring activities according to the baseline project plan, managing any changes during the implementation of the project, maintaining proper project workbook, as well as continuously communicating the current status of the project(Williams, 2008). The project manager should not stop to take efforts after the implementation. The closure stage of the project also requires necessary techniques that should be adopted by the project manager like notifying the interested parties about the completion of the project, undertaking post project reviews in order to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the project, in the end ensuring that all the contractual terms has been fulfilled (Bisk, 2018). The adoption of these techniques will help the project manager to reduce the complexities of the project. This is so because with the help of these techniques, the project manager will be able to understand the project more clearly and will be able to identify the complexities of the project at a very early stage and can plan according to that(Project Management Institute, 1997).

Conclusion

Some of the tools that can be adopted by the project manager in order to manage time consuming projects as well as projects with many parts and interconnections are listed below:

This technique is used in order to compute the tasks and display it in the form of charts that that contain all the tasks that needs to be performed within stipulated time (Wrike, 2018). This technique helps to portray large interconnected projects in a much simpler manner by identifying that what needs to be done and in which order. This method identifies specific activities and milestones of the project and after that it determines the correct sequence in which the activities need to be performed. This is reflected with the help of graphical diagram, and then, the estimation of time required is undertaken depending upon the individual activities (Rouse, 2018). Hence, it is considered that this method is best used for projects that are interconnected as well as is time consuming in nature.

Gantt charts are used as a project management tool for improving the efficiency of the project processes (Sinnaps, 2018). This tool is used in order to sequence the different activities of the project in the order of its completion along with the time and resources required. This is considered as one of the most efficient project management tool. With the help of Gantt Charts, proper planning as well as coordinating of different activities can be undertaken along with the monitoring of task. This helps in keeping a check between the actual performance and the estimated performance of the project (Rouse, 2018).

The techniques that can be used by a project manager to manage projects that are highly uncertain are slightly different from that mentioned above. This is so because uncertainties bring risks as well as opportunities attached to the project (Ssempebwa, 2014). Hence, the project manager should undertake risk management and opportunity management activities in order to reduce the negative uncertainties and exploit the positive uncertainties respectively. The project manager should first identify the uncertainty, after this, proper assessment should be undertaken of the uncertainty followed by the response actions that should be undertaken depending upon the nature of uncertainty. In order to deal with the uncertainties of the project, proper response control measures should be adopted (Moavenzadeh, 2009).

Conclusion: So, it can be inferred that with the proper guidance and the right selection of tools and techniques depending upon the nature of the project, the project complexities can be reduced. This is so because these tools and technique helps in the identification of the complexities of the project as well as also helps in proper planning that can be undertaken to avoid these complexities. Different techniques can be undertaken for different stages of the project life cycle and tools can be adopted to identify the required time, budget and resources.

Degree and nature of the projects cases discussed in the unit in the context of theories and ideas related to complex projects

Introduction: It has been seen that complexities are usually found in mega projects majorly because of the nature of the projects as well as the characteristics of that project.

Evidence: It has been stated by Brockmann (2007), that the complexity of a project majorly depends on four factors and they are the tasks included in the project, the social complex attached to it as well as the cultural complexities and the overall complexity of the project. In order to achieve success, it is important to consider all the four complexities attached to a project (Brockmann and Grimscheid, 2007). Following are some of the examples of such complex projects that are considered to be complex on the basis of their nature and degree of work.  

Channel Tunnel is an example of one of the largest construction project that has been undertaken in UK. This project was completed in more than five years and employed nearly 13000 workers in order to fulfil the objectives of the project. The project was very complex as required to build a twin rail tunnel running below the English Channel in order to connect England with France. Eurotunnel (ET) a bi-national company was the owner as well as the operator of the project and the company assigned the construction contract to Transmanche Link (TML) for the designing, constructing as well as testing the tunnel (Srivastav, 2018). The project was designed and planned accordingly and was broken into several parts to achieve the ultimate objective of the project. But, despite of this fact, the project failed to complete on time as well as within the stipulated budget also hampering the quality of the objectives of the project. The main reason behind this failure was the wrong approach towards management of the project as well as flaws in the designing of the project. It was found that the project did not received ample time at the initiation phase of the project and due to time constraint was not able to present a dedicated design of the project (Barron, 2015). At the time of the execution of the project, it was found that many design related problems were raised, which were not initially estimated and as a result, the cost estimates were fluctuated. Because of this, cost overrun was experienced in this project as the actual cost of the project was double the initial estimates of the project (Veditz, 1993). Apart from this, poor communication between the British and French teams was also considered as one of the main reasons for increasing the degree of complexities of the project (Moore, 2010). So, it can be said that because of poor management, poor planning and poor designing as well as poor financing of the project, this project became very complex for the project managers to complete. 

In the year 2010, Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion was undertaken which is also considered as one of the largest marine oil spill in the history of the United States in the Gulf of Mexico (Pallardy, 2010). The rig was owned and operated by one of the offshore oil drilling company named Transocean, who got this rig on lease from the BP who was the world’s sixth largest oil company at the time of the incident (Meigs, 2016). After the explosion, the US Department of the Interior asked to establish a committee which included National Academy of Engineering as well as the National Research Council to look into the matter and report on the cause of the disaster. The main reason that was published included lack of proper technical assistance and improper handling of the equipments at the rig. Apart from this, the main cause which was identified by the committee included that the rig lacked in proper risk management. The committee also revealed that the organization had not planned properly to manage any uncertainties at the site. Also, they lacked in identification of the dangers that were related to activities associated with deepwater drilling (InFocus, 2011). It was also mentioned in the report that the organization failed to check and reduce a number of technical as well as operational breakdowns that took place at the rig before this incident (Workboat, 2014). It was found that no corrective measures were taken by BP or the service contractors on these breakdowns. The report suggests that the rig lacked in sufficient checks and balances related to the safety. It was found that the company kept on abandoning the operations despite of the fact that the tests had revealed that the cement used as temporary seal was not sufficient to prevent the gases from leaking (InFocus, 2011). Hence, it can be said that this project failed because they lacked to identify the uncertainties related to the drilling project and they also lacked in proper risk management. Another important reason behind the failure of the project was the improper attitude of the management of the rig and their careless attitude towards the technical and operational breakdowns at the rig. This incident could have been avoided if proper controlling and monitoring would have been taken at the project.

Conclusion: On the basis of the above case study, it can be said that each and every factor of a project plays a very important role in project completion. Hence, it is very important to consider all the factors in project management in order to avoid the complexities in the project like cost overrun, time overrun, as well as improper management as seen in the case of Channel Tunnel. Also, it is very important for the project manager to design as well as plan the project by keeping in mind about the uncertainties of the project so that, at the time of emergency situation, proper action can be undertaken in order to avoid any mishap as seen in the case of Deepwater Horizon that how it failed to prepare for uncertainties and the outcome of that. Therefore, it can be said that it is very important to undertake project management with utmost care as a single fault can lead to massive disaster if not dealt at the right time and in right manner (Aston, 2017). 

On the basis of the findings, it can be said that complex projects are result of flaws by the project managers either in planning or designing of the project management. On the basis of the above analysis, it can be said that the complexities of the projects can be reduced if the project manager has the right abilities and approach towards this. The first thing that can be done by the project manager is to identify the nature of the project and on the basis of this the project manager can identify the causes that can result in making projects more complex. Some of the causes as mentioned above includes improper administration and management of the project process, lack of experience of the project manager, ineffective communication and leadership skills, wrong selection of the project management tools and techniques, etc. From the findings, it has been found out that majorly two approaches have been studied by the subject experts and that is descriptive complexity approach and perceived complexity approach giving more emphasis to the perceived complexity approach (Schlindwein and Ison, 2004). Perceived complexity states that project becomes complex as the project manager does not have the right knowledge or information and lack in understanding the project (Vidal and Marle, 2008). In relation to the properties of the complex project, four major characteristics has been identified that size of the project, elements of the content, interdependence and variety of the project should be analysed and on the basis of this, decisions should be taken. The right knowledge of all these facts helps in selecting the right tools and techniques of project management in order to deal with the complexities of the project. With the help of project management tools, the three main constraints of the project that is cost, time and quality are evaluated and estimated accurately and hence, the chances of cost overrun and time overrun are avoided. PERT and Gantt chart are discussed above as project management tools that can be used by the project managers in order to estimate the time, budget as well as resources required to complete the project successfully. It has been found that with the help of these techniques, the project managers are able to track their project progress and also are able to check that whether they are on track or not according to initial planning and estimation (Rouse, 2018). The two case studies mentioned above has helped to understand that how lack of planning can lead to devastating effects. In the case of Channel Tunnel, improper planning and management resulted in cost and time overrun because of which it was highly criticized (Srivastav, 2018). In the case of Deepwater Horizon, the project manager failed in assessing the uncertainties that were attached to that project and also ignored many management works because of which such incident took place (InFocus, 2011). Hence, it can be said that project manager and management skills plays a very important role in the success of the project. 

Conclusion

Managing as well as modelling of complex projects is one of the important tasks of the project managers. It can be said that the complexity of a project is identified on the basis of the uncertainties in goals as well as methods of the project management. Apart from this, structural complexity also plays an important role in the failure of the project. It can be said that these days, the nature of the project are becoming more complex. This is so because the needs and demands of the clients and on the other hand, the expectations of the project managers are becoming more dynamic. Apart from this, time constraint is playing a major role in increasing the complexity of the project. Time and budget are the two most important constraints in front of the project manager and it has been seen that in most of the cases either cost overrun or time overrun is experienced in complex mega projects. The best way to avoid these complexities is by adopting proper project management practices and assessing the projects very closely. Adopting new paradigms in project management is the need of the hour as the projects are become more complex and to achieve success, it is important to change according to the changing demands and expectations (Williams, 1999). System dynamics models have continued to being used by the project managers in order to deal with the complex projects. It has been proved that system dynamics helps to strategically manage the complex projects. With the help of system dynamics, better project management can be undertaken starting from the initiation phase of the project till the closure of the project. Adopting proper models can help in assessing the accurate time as well as the budget in which the project can be undertaken. The project managers should take examples of past projects of similar nature in order to analyse the steps that can be undertaken in order to avoid the complexities that were experienced in the past projects. This way the project managers can identify and manage risks in a more strategic manner (Lyneis, Cooper and Els, 2001). In the end, it can be concluded that it is important to identify the necessary causes and characteristics of projects that are complex in nature so that on the basis of this appropriate tools and techniques can be used by the project managers to reduce the complexities arising in the project life cycle. 

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