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XYZ operates 10 car parks in the centre of city. The City administration has a requirement for a new and innovative system to control its car parks.Describe the new system should therefore be capable to handle the day-to-day operation of each car park, which include:
Generate tickets (i.e. ordinary, season)
Accept tickets
Handle payment
Control boom gates
Record problems in a log book
Manage security

Development of the project of XYZ Car parking system

A prototype is the previous approximation of any resulting system or product. The prototyping model has been the SDM or “System Development Method”, where a prototype is created (Karstens et al., 2014).

It has been needed to validate system design of “XYZ car parking system” using the interaction diagrams like sequence diagrams or communication diagrams. It should be done for at least two sub-system of this development.

The report has identified every possible use cases of the sub-systems “access to car park” and “payment handling”. Communication diagrams have been developed using these use cases.

As the requirement determination of sub-system of the of the analysis phase is going on, the system analyst must collect data regarding the current methodologies and the business processes relating to the suggested information system. Moreover, they must study the latest information system, and conduct surveys and gather documentation. This sub-process helps the analysts to create a fundamental set of the system necessities (Nijssen et al., 2014). This process could be augmented by prototypes as it alters the basic intangible specifications to a tangible and restricted working model of the expected information system. The feedback of the users obtained from the developing of the physical system which is touchable by the user’s responses some facts. These facts state that the analyst could employ the modification of the current requirements along with latest developments.

The prototyping must be deployed as the users have been able to participate actively in their project. The developers must either acquire the given training and prototyping experience. The users who have been involved in this project must possess experience of prototyping and aware of the purpose of prototyping (Ruddell et al., 2014). The prototypes should become the final system’s portion as the developers gain access to the supporting tools of prototypes.

For the development process at first the following use-case could be determined. It shows the development of the management process of prototype providing functionalities to manage the projects (Demir & Krajewski, 2013). Functionality has been initiated by the project manager and the system has initiated communication with project database in delivering the functionality.

The following use case extends the relationship from the classes of extension use cases to the classes of base use cases. These are used to indicate that the base one might be augmented through the extension classes. This indicates that the inclusion use case would augment the base use case when the extension condition gets satisfied (Lenz, 2016). The extension point has been defined by the base use case. The fact that the extension condition is satisfied to insert the extension case into base case is defined by the extension case. The extension case’s insertion includes the extension of base case to the extension point, testing of the condition of extension. It also involves the executing and insertion of the extension cases as the condition gets satisfied. Then it contributes with the extension of the base case.

Subsystem 1: Access to car park

The following use case shows that the project manager might update the projects utilizing the management system of prototype development. While the updating of the project is going on, the project manager could manage jobs as he selects the option of the tasks (Dhokia et al., 2015). He should further manage resources as he selects the option of the resource.

The following three samples show the use case diagram of the Parking control system. Here, the process of working of the car parking project is shown, at the construction and projection of the parking by XYZ car parking and for automating the current parking. One barrier and one card reader is placed in the entrance of the car parking. The driver has to input his numbered card within the card reader. This helps in checking the card number has been known to the system. As the card gets recognized, the reader sends signals to raise the obstacle and the vehicle to enter into the car park.

The guard has association with the registering of new cars, new vendors and assigning parking slots for the vehicles. The system administrator on the other hand registers new employees, registering new departments and assigning departmental slots.

The display has the direct association with the space availability. The driver is associated with car arriving and leaving. The car leaving includes the easy access control and the sensor for space availability. The building manager is associated with the system configuration, generating report and updating the member database.

As the requirement determination of sub-system of the of the analysis phase is going on, the system analyst must collect data regarding the current methodologies and the business processes relating to the suggested information system. Moreover, they must study the latest information system, and conduct surveys and gather documentation. This sub-process helps the analysts to create a fundamental set of the system necessities (Nijssen et al., 2014). This process could be augmented by prototypes as it alters the basic intangible specifications to a tangible and restricted working model of the expected information system. The feedback of the users obtained from the developing of the physical system which is touchable by the user’s responses some facts. These facts state that the analyst could employ the modification of the current requirements along with latest developments.

The prototyping must be deployed as the users have been able to participate actively in their project. The developers must either acquire the given training and prototyping experience. The users who have been involved in this project must possess experience of prototyping and aware of the purpose of prototyping (Ruddell et al., 2014). The prototypes should become the final system’s portion as the developers gain access to the supporting tools of prototypes.

Subsystem 2: Payment handling

For the development process at first the following use-case could be determined. It shows the development of the management process of prototype providing functionalities to manage the projects (Demir & Krajewski, 2013). Functionality has been initiated by the project manager and the system has initiated communication with project database in delivering the functionality.

Whole performing the parking infringement, the road side logger has association with the registered car arrivals and departures. The city engineer has association with the obtaining of operational statistics. The parking officer has associations with the entry of ticket details, parking ticket printing and transferring parking ticket. The council fines payment system only has association with the transferring of ticket details.

The unregistered user goes to the home page. From there he tries to sign up. If he gets successful, the process is complete. However, if he is unsuccessful, he asked to “try again”. For the registered user, the same process goes. However, after being successful, he enters to the registered home. From there he can “make booking” or “cancel booking”. In both the cases if he is successful the process ends. However, if it is unsuccessful, the user is asked to “try again”.

1: Full sign off; 2: Car present; 3: Card number; 4:Card number; 5: Card ok, 6: Raise; 7: Car not present; 8: Decrement space; 9: Card returned

Conclusion:

The “access to car park” and “payment handling” could be blurred together with the insights and learning from the above “communication diagrams”. The use cases above have focused on the system’s users not the system itself. In this way the needs of real system has been brought under light quickly. Every use case above has described the methods in which the system is to be utilized. It would help in finding the obstacles in the system. The identification of exceptions up to a successful outcome quickly would save huge time by seeking subtle requirements.

References:

Clodoveo, M. L., Moramarco, V., Paduano, A., Sacchi, R., Di Palmo, T., Crupi, P., ... & Amirante, R. (2017). Engineering design and prototype development of a full scale ultrasound system for virgin olive oil by means of numerical and experimental analysis. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry.

Demir, I., & Krajewski, W. F. (2013). Towards an integrated flood information system: centralized data access, analysis, and visualization. Environmental Modelling & Software, 50, 77-84.

Dhokia, V., Zhang, X., Nassehi, A., Newman, S. T., Negre, J., Plakhotnik, D., & Lauwers, B. (2015). Development of a data model and a prototype information sharing platform for DEMAT machine tools. International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 28(4), 364-378.

Jakobsson, P. J. S. (2015). Cloud-Based Alerting System for IP-Telephony: A prototype development.

Karstens, C. D., Smith, T. M., Kuhlman, K. M., Clark, A. J., Ling, C., Stumpf, G. J., & Rothfusz, L. P. (2014). P2. 2 Prototype Tool Development for Creating Probabilistic Hazard Information for Severe Convective Phenomena.

Lee, T., Iio, J., & Ogawa, C. (2016). MAD4SA: a prototype of document management system for small-scale archives. International Journal of Space-Based and Situated Computing, 6(2), 102-112.

Leitão, P., Colombo, A. W., & Karnouskos, S. (2016). Industrial automation based on cyber-physical systems technologies: Prototype implementations and challenges. Computers in Industry, 81, 11-25.

Lenz, R. J. (2016, March). Design and prototype of an information system for regional eco. In Environmental Software Systems: IFIP TC5 WG5. 11 International Symposium on Environmental Software Systems (ISESS’97), 28 April–2 May 1997, British Columbia, Canada (p. 57). Springer.

Mahoney, D., Burleson, W., Rowe, J., Mahoney, E., & Hale, T. (2016). Prototype Development of a Responsive Emotive Sensing System (DRESS): System Operations Testing Outcomes. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18(12).

Majchrzak, A., Beath, C. M., Lim, R., & Chin, W. (2014). Managing client dialogues during information systems design to facilitate client learning.

Nijssen, B., Shukla, S., Lin, C., Gao, H., Zhou, T., Sheffield, J., ... & Lettenmaier, D. P. (2014). A prototype global drought information system based on multiple land surface models. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 15(4), 1661-1676.

Rajagopal, D., & Thilakavalli, K. (2015). Efficient Text Mining Prototype for Big Data. International Journal of Data Mining And Emerging Technologies, 5(1), 38-41.

Ruddell, B. L., Zaslavsky, I., Valentine, D., Beran, B., Piasecki, M., Fu, Q., & Kumar, P. (2014). Sustainable long term scientific data publication: lessons learned from a prototype Observatory Information System for the Illinois River Basin. Environmental Modelling & Software, 54, 73-87.

SLIP B - Jibran Khan. (2017). Groups.inf.ed.ac.uk. Retrieved 21 May 2017, from https://groups.inf.ed.ac.uk/teaching/slipb12-13/jibran-khan.html

Timcho, T., Zink, G., Kellom, B., Lordo, R., Hartman, L., McKee, K., ... & Mishilani, R. (2016). Prototype Development and Demonstration for Integrated Dynamic Transit Operations-Final Report (No. FHWA-JPO-16-276).

UML Diagram of Parking. (2017). https://www.conceptdraw.com. Retrieved 23 May 2017, from https://www.conceptdraw.com/How-To-Guide/uml-diagram-of-parking

Understanding Use Case Modeling. (2017). Methodsandtools.com. Retrieved 21 May 2017, from https://www.methodsandtools.com/archive/usecase.html.

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