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This assessment component will be based on your ability to research, analyse and critically reflect upon the significance of specific Business Information Management topics in modern business.

  1. Many projects within organisations involve information systems. Define and analyse the causes of failures in information systems project management and how to overcome the failures.
  2. Critically evaluate the purpose, need, and challenges for integrated business information Systems.
  3. In regards to the role of vast flows of information for information systems in organisations, analyse the impact of big data to organisational performance.
  4. To identify the relations within attributes (see Table 1), normalize and identify primary and non-primary key attributes in your relations. Produce necessary tables to show the normalization up to third normal form (3NF)
Answer to Question 1

The information and communication technology is associated to an essential part of each organization or business companies. This is also associated to the way the communication occurs among the various entities related to each other. In addition, the use of information systems is also associated in providing quality and value in our lives (Kerzner, 2013). For all the developed and the developing countries, are accepting the innovations in technologies which are causing rapid changes in every emerging fields. The use of information systems is the core operations in any kinds of businesses. The spending amount for adopting this process is considered to be billion dollars which have led to the adoption of information and communication processes in companies and business organizations. However, in spite of the adopted practices in the information sector for development and efficient advancements, their applications are experiencing failures which is the cause for concern among various developing countries as well.

The need for adopting these innovations are increasing in a day a by day interval and the failure rate of their implementation process is also increasing at the same rate (Burke, 2013). The main reason for the failure of IT projects is mainly due to being unable to comply with the three rules for project development. These are the timely delivery, meeting of budget criteria and efficient working of them. These criteria are important and every project must meet them in order to get an industrially approved solutions. There are various reasons for which a project becomes unable to meet these criteria.

The first reason for a project failure is the lack of users getting involved. This reason has been the cause for failure from a long time. Without the involvement of a user, people engaged in a project do not feel committed to the system and thus a project gets failed (Larson & Gray, 2013). For addressing this requirement, the senior management personnel and end-users of a system should show more engagement on the project. This increases the time and the effort required for handling pressures which in turn increases the priorities on these projects thereby increasing the efficiency. Thus, the senior management must support the whole process of project development to make it a clear priority among the personnel responsible for it.

Another reason which accounts for the failures in systematic project development is the long time scale for a project. This causes a long scheduled time table for achieving short asks and thus the availability and efficiency often reduces due to this. The main objective for a project must include shorter time scale which can be used cover the whole aspect of the project in a short time usually by dividing the key components into many (Schwalbe, 2015). Although, this process of agile methodology is a much acceptable solution for project development, they are said to have much disadvantages as well. However, a time scale is always made by the project manager considering a general review of the project and not by careful evaluation. As a result the project that is being delivered usually has short deliverables or do not meet the efficient criteria. In extreme cases, they are also delivered late due to this problem. For addressing such problems, the project manager or the senior management team must watch and review the requirements of a project and allot a time scale effectively so that all the project criteria are met.

Reasons for Project Failure

The third reason for project failures is the lack of requirements or limited access. Due to this problem, many times it is seen that the project developers get no access for the requirements and usually deliver a project which is way off the charts. Additionally, it have also been reported that the project is developed without meeting any set criteria or any definitions (Fleming & Koppelman, 2016). These are a great cause for project failures which greatly affects a system. In extreme cases, a business loses their relationship with their clients and leads to loss of revenue made. To address these requirements, user responsible for the project must specify the clear objectives and the developers must also clear the criteria before proceeding with their task.

The fourth reason responsible for project failures are the scope creep. A scope of a project defines the deliverable of a project which must be present in the outcome of the project. This is the most required deliverable and must be addressed by managers as well. However, due to changes in the scope, project outcomes become very difficult to achieve (Walker, 2015). This is termed as scope creep. For example, in case a company wants to build an information system which will be able to add customer records or view them, the next scope gets changed to the project being able to access customer data and send the data via online communications to the customers themselves, causes changes in the scope and it becomes unable to achieve. This is an example of scope creeps. To address these solutions, the management of the project must be done effectively and the personnel responsible for this must identify clear objectives and set clear timescales to achieve the required changes in criteria.

Another reason for the occurrence of failures in projects is the lack of control for changes in the system. Although, business is changing at a rapid rate, the need for managing the changes is a necessity. Lack of such management leads to grave amount of threats within the system which is another cause for failures in project development. This causes a need for a short duration of time scales and an approach that is phased to meet the necessary requirements (Leach, 2014). The various businesses must identify and analyze the parameters of changes in terms of effects, cost and mitigations which can be referenced in the project management lifecycles.

Lack of User Involvement

The last reason for failures in project management is lack of effective testing during the development phase of software processes. The main reason for a project to fail is due to the presence of peer requirements which cannot be met, poor planning of the tests, lack of users with adequate trainings and less amount of time to complete (Mir & Pinnington, 2014). To address such requirements, the personnel responsible for the project must test the system based on actual user reviews and update accordingly. This captures the feedbacks of the system and in turn helps to address them in the process.

An information system which is integrated in business operations is termed as the Integrated Business Information System (IBIS). A business information system is defined by a group of components which are interconnected among each other to serve the processes of any businesses. These processes are basically the input, processing, output, storage and processing operations which is mainly used for the conversion of data into information related products which can then be used for planning, analysis, implementation and outcome addressing (Peppard & Ward, 2016). The major components of this system are the people associated, hardware, software, communications among them and the data. The people are those personnel who are the clients and the developers of the system. Similarly, the hardware and the software are the major devices like computers, printers or other necessary devices as well as the computer programs which help in normal operations. The communication among these components is usually done by utilizing networks or other wireless devices while the data is the information that is to be stored in the systems.

The integrated business information systems have been the most effective method for business operations due to their adoptions of personal computers. This has led to the increased efficiency of business operations along with the increase in speed and accuracy. However, there are various disadvantages to this system mainly due to the lack of decision making process and lack of further innovations to be applied in existing systems.

The main purpose for the acceptance of the IBIS standard is the addressing of four factors. They are the flexibility, simplicity, interoperatibility and modifiability (Pearlson, Saunders & Galletta, 2016). The term flexibility denotes the allotment of free access to change from a wide range of applications for database related purposes. The various applications that support the integrated process are the MySQL, SQL Server, Access or ORACLE. Simplicity is another feature of the IBIS which generally implies that the use of this method does not require much implementation. In addition, an organization or company do not need to hire employees for tending to the applications and can be accessed immediately after purchasing. The next purpose of the integrated business information system is the ability for interoperations. This involves the ability to be able to use for other operations. For this purpose, the system can be imported in other formats so that this can be used in other files or programs as well. Lastly, the options for modifications can be easily adopted by the use of IBIS systems.

Long Time Scale

The major challenges of an integrated system are the security issues in their operations. These present a need for the system to protect the data against loss or breach (Valacich & Schneider, 2015). In addition, the cost is another factor which accounts for challenges to the system. The most common threats are the accidents, sabotages, disasters, theft and hacking. Accidents involve the damages that exist inside information systems. This involves inaccuracy in data entries, lack of efficiency in operations, failure to comply with company standards or failure to regularly backup the data. These problems can lead to major damages to the system leading to loss in business. Failure to address such issues can also damage the relations among the businesses and their clients.

Sabotages are the next challenges that are faced by business processes in operations. These are the deliberate attempts for sabotaging and the accidental attacks. The deliberate attempts are done usually by someone with a grudge against the system (Galliers & Leidner, 2014). One attempt of such attacks includes the disruption of services by using back door attacks. Another type of sabotaging attacks is the logic bombs which can be done to affect a system. The accidental attacks are mainly due to lack of efficiency in operations or the lack of training.

Disasters are a threat to the information systems which can prove to be fatal. These are the natural ones and the artificial ones. Natural disasters can be done by natural phenomena whereas the man-made attacks are mainly due to activities like power-cut. Similarly, theft is another challenge to the system that affects the system infrastructure. This method can be divided into different categories namely the physical theft and the data theft. Data theft implies the stealing of information by copying from the original files while the physical theft involves stealing of company materials (Venkatesh, Brown & Bala, 2013). Moreover, the breaches are the last point of concern for a security issue. This involves hacking in the system and stealing the information from the company or organization concerned. This is mainly done by attacking the system with viruses or malicious tools which can be used to harm the components and get access.

Lastly, the requirements for cost are the last challenge that is faced by the implementation of the IBIS processes (Jones, 2014). This involves upgrading the current infrastructure to support the other necessary integrations which definitely costs more to the organizations or companies implementing them.

Lack of Requirements or Limited Access

The use of big data has been a widely accepted term in terms of organizational performance. It is mainly used to use the ability of prediction algorithms in business processes thereby gaining more insights in the operations. This section discusses about the major impacts the use of big data have led to in the organizations or companies accepting them (John Walker, 2014). The first major impact of big data is the changes of the various industries. Their use has been extensively adopted for addressing in the business objectives. This has led the various industries get a view of the analytical data from the vast amount of data sets and applies accordingly in their businesses.

Another great impact in terms of businesses is the opening of a new revenue stream in the industry. Organizations with great big data information are associated with selling their data in the form of advertisement which in turn increases the revenue made from these aspects (Provost & Fawcett, 2013). In turn, the advertising industries also gain various upgrades due to efficiency in advertisements as the clients will now be able to target a greater audience set and can also target globally.

1NF

Customer Name

Product

Customer Age

Quantity  

Joe Smith

uPhone 6

22

1

Joe Smith

Amazing Echoes

22

2

Karl Stewart

Amazing Echoes

24

1

Lucy Stern

uPhone 6

26

1

Lucy Stern

Amazing Echoes

26

1

Lucy Stern

Rhythm Capsule

26

2

Customer Name

Product

Manufacture

Manufacturer Location

Price

Joe Smith

uPhone 6

Apples

Cork, Ireland

£700

Joe Smith

Amazing Echoes

Amazing

Slough, UK

£90

Karl Stewart

Amazing Echoes

Amazing

Slough, UK

£90

Lucy Stern

uPhone 6

Apples

Cork, Ireland

£700

Lucy Stern

Amazing Echoes

Amazing

Slough, UK

£90

Lucy Stern

Rhythm Capsule

Rhythm

Norwich, UK

£160

2NF

Product

Manufacture

uPhone 6

Apples

Amazing Echoes

Amazing

Amazing Echoes

Amazing

uPhone 6

Apples

Amazing Echoes

Amazing

Rhythm Capsule

Rhythm

Customer Name

Quantity  

Unit Price

Joe Smith

1

£700

Joe Smith

2

£90

Karl Stewart

1

£90

Lucy Stern

1

£700

Lucy Stern

1

£90

Lucy Stern

2

£160

Product

Manufacture

Manufacturer Location

uPhone 6

Apples

Cork, Ireland

Amazing Echoes

Amazing

Slough, UK

uPhone 6

Apples

Cork, Ireland

Rhythm Capsule

Rhythm

Norwich, UK

3NF

Customer Name

Quantity  

Joe Smith

1

Joe Smith

2

Karl Stewart

1

Lucy Stern

1

Lucy Stern

1

Lucy Stern

2

Product

Manufacture

Manufacturer Location

Price

uPhone 6

Apples

Cork, Ireland

£700

Amazing Echoes

Amazing

Slough, UK

£90

Amazing Echoes

Amazing

Slough, UK

£90

uPhone 6

Apples

Cork, Ireland

£700

Amazing Echoes

Amazing

Slough, UK

£90

Rhythm Capsule

Rhythm

Norwich, UK

£160

Product

Price

uPhone 6

£700

Amazing Echoes

£90

Rhythm Capsule

£160

Manufacture

Manufacturer Location

Apples

Cork, Ireland

Amazing

Slough, UK

Rhythm

Norwich, UK

References:

Burke, R. (2013). Project management: planning and control techniques. New Jersey, USA.

Fleming, Q. W., & Koppelman, J. M. (2016, December). Earned value project management. Project Management Institute.

Galliers, R. D., & Leidner, D. E. (Eds.). (2014). Strategic information management: challenges and strategies in managing information systems. Routledge.

Hashem, I. A. T., Yaqoob, I., Anuar, N. B., Mokhtar, S., Gani, A., & Khan, S. U. (2015). The rise of “big data” on cloud computing: Review and open research issues. Information Systems, 47, 98-115.

John Walker, S. (2014). Big data: A revolution that will transform how we live, work, and think.

Jones, C. B. (2014). Geographical information systems and computer cartography. Routledge.

Kerzner, H. (2013). Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.

Larson, E. W., & Gray, C. (2013). Project Management: The Managerial Process with MS Project. McGraw-Hill.

Leach, L. P. (2014). Critical chain project management. Artech House.

Marz, N., & Warren, J. (2015). Big Data: Principles and best practices of scalable realtime data systems. Manning Publications Co..

Mir, F. A., & Pinnington, A. H. (2014). Exploring the value of project management: linking project management performance and project success. International journal of project management, 32(2), 202-217.

Pearlson, K. E., Saunders, C. S., & Galletta, D. F. (2016). Managing and Using Information Systems, Binder Ready Version: A Strategic Approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Peppard, J., & Ward, J. (2016). The strategic management of information systems: Building a digital strategy. John Wiley & Sons.

Provost, F., & Fawcett, T. (2013). Data science and its relationship to big data and data-driven decision making. Big Data, 1(1), 51-59.

Schwalbe, K. (2015). Information technology project management. Cengage Learning.

Stair, R., & Reynolds, G. (2013). Principles of information systems. Cengage Learning.

Valacich, J., & Schneider, C. (2015). Information Systems Today: Managing in a Digital World Plus MyMISLab with Pearson eText--Access Card Package. Prentice Hall Press.

Venkatesh, V., Brown, S. A., & Bala, H. (2013). Bridging the qualitative-quantitative divide: Guidelines for conducting mixed methods research in information systems. MIS quarterly, 37(1).

Verzuh, E. (2015). The fast forward MBA in project management. John Wiley & Sons.

Walker, A. (2015). Project management in construction. John Wiley & Sons.

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