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Brief about Case Study

Critically discuss the role of motivation in project management utilising appropriate theoretical models to identify how project staff can be motivated. Include in your answer a discussion of the way motivation develops and the role of leadership and communication in this process.

The development of technology has been providing scope for the development of the operations and it has also provided simplification of the activities for better improvement (Ahmad et al. 2014). The integration of the technology and proficiency has been helpful for forming the deployment of the improved operations. However, a project is largely dependent on the alignment of the activities and formation of the improved functions. According to Galperin et al. (2014), the leadership plays a crucial role in bringing the project team members and motivating them for improving their services.

The following assignment has been helpful for developing the complete analysis of the leadership and motivation in the project team member. The project team members are assigned for ensuring that the project team are assigned for the project development. However, due to circumstances and issues, the team members would have to form the development of the operations. The report would explain about the leadership and motivation, their types and models, and the application of the motivational model for the issues of the project team management.

The projects require a number of resources (including human) for successful completion of the project. The case study depicts the issues faced due to the problems of project team members. Tom and Harriet are the two project team members that have been causing issues for the smooth operations of the project for the project manager. The analysis has shown that Tom has less work experience, late comer, take off early, chit-chat most of the time, and non-responsive. On the other hand Harriet, in spite of experience, had shown no interest in project and taken leave due to sickness or family issues.

According to Andersen et al. (2015), “Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a group together and motivates it towards goals.” Leadership can be simply considered as the art by which an executive or manager can ensure project success by directing, guiding, and influencing the working habit and behaviour of the team members. The leaders act to ensure that the main motive or goal of the organization would be achieved as required. The project managers have to act as leaders for the project so that they can help in encouraging the project team to work more efficiently and effectively. The managers induce their subordinates for working with zeal and confidence. Leadership provides the potential to influence others and the capacity for influencing the group of people for realizing the goal (Tabrizi, Torkfar and Jamshidian 2014). The leadership is an interpersonal process for guiding and influencing the workers for attainment of the project objectives.

Explanation of Leadership and Motivation

The implication of the leadership would be implied for ensuring that the efficiency of the project is increased cohesively and helpful for achieving the organizational goals. The leaders are prone to initiate action and develop policies for initiating the work (Anra and Yamin 2017). The leaders act as incentive for the working progress of the concern person and motivate the workers by providing them with non-economic and economic benefits for getting the work done. Some of the features of leadership are creation of confidence, guidance to the subordinates, building morale, work environment development, and co-ordination. The leadership skills also include the communication strategy and it would also provide the option for the development of the functions of increasing the proficiency of work.

The motivation is an adjective word which is derived from motive and it means the desires, needs, drives, or wants within the individuals (Syafii, Thoyib and Nimran 2015). The process of stimulating the people for accomplishing the goals due to the actions is in context to the psychological factor. The factors that affect the motivation in humans are desire for money, recognition, success, team work, and job satisfaction. The most important functions of the management is to create a sense of willingness among the project team for performing better. The way toward animating the general population for achieving the objectives because of the activities is in setting to the mental factor. The components that influence the inspiration in people are want for cash, acknowledgment, achievement, collaboration, and occupation fulfilment. The most vital elements of the administration is to make a feeling of ability among the venture group for performing better. The undertaking administrators need to go about as pioneers for the venture with the goal that they can help in urging the task group to work all the more proficiently and adequately (Parker and Welch 2013). The supervisors instigate their subordinates for working with enthusiasm and certainty. Administration gives the possibility to impact others and the limit with respect to affecting the gathering of individuals for understanding the objective.


The motivation is a relational procedure for managing and impacting the team members for achievement of the undertaking targets (Krause 2015). The development of the initiative would be inferred for guaranteeing that the effectiveness of the undertaking is expanded strongly and supportive for accomplishing the authoritative objectives. The pioneers are inclined to start activity and create approaches for starting the work. The pioneers go about as motivator for the working advancement of the worry individual and persuade the team members by furnishing them with non-monetary and financial advantages for completing the work. A portion of the highlights of administration are formation of certainty, direction to the subordinates, building assurance, workplace improvement, and co-appointment. The initiative abilities additionally incorporate the correspondence system and it would likewise give the choice to the improvement of the elements of expanding the capability of work.

Different Types of Leadership Styles and Motivational Models

There are five types of leadership styles that can be used for the given project scenario and they have specific characteristics depending upon the different styles of working environment (Northouse 2015). The culture and goal helps in determining the selection of leadership styles for the project team. Following are the five leadership styles:

Transformational Leadership: The transformational leadership is implied for the deployment of the operations and integration of the profound system development (Cristofaro 2014). The high level management is implied for forming the development of the mass communication for the development of the operations and integration of the system. The transformational leadership is implied when the leaders motivate the employees and production is enhanced for the high visibility and communication.

Autocratic Leadership: The managers of the autocratic leadership style are the sole decision maker of the operations (Budhathoki and Haythornthwaite 2013). The leadership style doesn’t involve any opinion from others. The total authority of the managers is the basic function of this leadership style. The autocratic leadership is formed for ensuring that the power remains concentric at manager. The autocratic leadership is implied for small business enterprises where the overall number of operations is less and the scope of management of the business is limited.

Laissez-Faire Leadership: Laissez-Faire leadership style is independent of the direct supervision forming the independent employee requirement (Vassena et al. 2017). The leadership style does not require any supervision as the employees are highly trained and experienced. The leadership style cannot be implemented always as all the employs are not equally trained and experienced. The employees that require supervision could not get the benefit of development and growth in this leadership style. The large scale industries imply it for ensuring that the operations of the organization are implied on time. The overall number of activities and operations are huge in number and hence it would require the support of the individual employees.

Transactional Leadership: The transactional leadership is applied for certain activities where the managers would provide the reward or penalty to the employee depending upon the activities (Lester 2013). The managers imply this kind of leadership for the achievement of the predetermined goals and option and it is helpful for ensuring that the manager possess the results and review technique for the members who fail to meet the goals. They are also provided with rewards for the achievement of the goals and objectives.

Participative Leadership: Participative Leadership is applied when all the team members of the project are equally responsible for the development of the operation (Cao et al. 2013). The participative leadership is helpful for managing the activities of the large scale industries and it would allow the implication of the shared decision making for the people of the organization. The Participative leadership would allow the support of the team members for the taking of the decisions and implication of the improved operations. The participative leadership is formed for forming the alignment of the decision making process.

There are three major models of motivation followed in the management system for motivating the project team members and allowing the managers for

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: This theory was developed by Maslow and the theory was based on the assumption that there are five needs within a human individual. These needs can be classified in an hierarchical form. The five needs of the Maslow’s hierarchy is explained below,

Physiological needs- The physiological needs of water, air, food, shelter, and clothing is implied for developing the operations of the activities. The physiological needs of human are the basic entity for the project.


Safety needs- The safety needs of the individual are the environmental, physical, and emotional protection and safety and it would involve the deployment of the security and protection to the employees.

Social needs- The social needs are implied for caring, belonging to each other, love, and friendship.

Esteem needs- The esteem needs include the factors of freedom, confidence, self-respect, achievement, and competence as the internal esteem and power, recognition, admiration, attention, and status as the external esteems.

Self-actualization need- The realization of one’s capability and potential for the progress and development is termed as self-actualization. The factor provide the opportunity for the development of the individual with the help of profound self-contentment and growth.

Figure 1: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

(Source: Williams et al. 2015, pp-835)

McGregor Theory X:  McGregor Theory is based on one negative postulates of motivation namely theory X and one positive postulates of motivation namely theory Y (Chu and Kuo 2015). The assumptions of these theories is given below,

Assumption of theory X- The average employee would not work successfully as they do not like work and try to avoid it. It is required for persuading and compelling the employee so that they can work successfully. The close supervision is required for the workers to work successfully. The employees take job security as primary instead of the aspiration and ambition. Employees dislike responsibilities.

Assumption of theory Y- The employees perceive the job relaxing and normal with exercising on the mental and physical efforts. Employees not only require threat and external control for working. The rewarding jobs provide scope for the improvement of the operations and engage in the working schedule.

Herzberg – Hygiene Factors: Herzberg has classified the motivation in his two factor theory of motivation and the theory points that some factors of job provide satisfaction while some prevents dissatisfaction (Alshmemri, Shahwan-Akl and Maude 2017). Hygiene factors are those activity factors which are basic for presence of inspiration at working environment. These don't prompt positive fulfilment for long haul. However, in the event that these components are truant/if these variables are non-existent at working environment; at that point they prompt disappointment. As indicated by Herzberg, the Hygiene factors can't be viewed as motivations. The motivational components yield positive fulfilment. These elements are inborn to work. These components inspire the representatives for an unrivalled execution. These variables are called motivators. These are factors engaged with playing out the activity (Ali 2013). Representatives discover these variables naturally fulfilling. The inspirations symbolized the mental needs that were seen as an extra advantage.

Figure 2: Herzberg – Hygiene Factors of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

(Source: Williams et al. 2015, pp-831)

The analysis has shown that Tom has less work experience, late comer, take off early, chit-chat most of the time, and non-responsive. On the other hand Harriet, in spite of experience, had shown no interest in project and taken leave due to sickness or family issues. The project managers would have to apply Maslow’s hierarchy of needs for ensuring that they work to attain the objective of the project. As indicated by Maslow, people are propelled by unsatisfied necessities (Strachan et al. 2015). As each of these requirements is essentially fulfilled, it drives and powers the following need to develop. Maslow gathered the five needs into two classes - Higher-arrange needs and Lower-arrange needs. The physiological and the security needs constituted the lower-arrange needs. These lower-arrange needs are chiefly fulfilled remotely. The social, regard, and self-realization needs constituted the higher-arrange needs. These higher-arrange needs are for the most part fulfilled inside, i.e., inside a person. The benefit of applying the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs on Tom and Harriet are,

To the extent the physiological needs are concerned, the project manager should give them suitable compensations to buy the fundamental necessities of life. Breaks and outing openings ought to be given to them.

To the extent the wellbeing needs are concerned, the project manager ought to give them professional stability, sheltered and clean workplace and retirement benefits in order to hold them.

To the extent social needs are concerned, the project manager ought to empower cooperation and sort out get-togethers.

To the extent self-completion needs are concerned, the project manager can give Tom and Harriet testing occupations in which the representatives' aptitudes and skills are completely used.

The development of leadership style would be inferred for guaranteeing that the proficiency of the undertaking is expanded strongly and supportive for accomplishing the authoritative objectives. The pioneers are inclined to start activity and create approaches for starting the work (Budhathoki and Haythornthwaite 2013). The pioneers go about as impetus for the working advancement of the worry individual and spur the specialists by giving them non-monetary and financial advantages for completing the work. A portion of the highlights of authority are formation of certainty, direction to the subordinates, building resolve, workplace advancement, and co-appointment. The initiative aptitudes additionally incorporate the correspondence procedure and it would likewise give the choice to the improvement of the elements of expanding the capability of work.

The pioneer’s demonstration to guarantee that the primary thought process or objective of the association would be accomplished as required. The undertaking chiefs need to go about as pioneers for the venture with the goal that they can help in urging the task group to work all the more productively and viably (Northouse 2015). The administrators initiate their subordinates for working with enthusiasm and certainty. Administration gives the possibility to impact others and the limit with respect to affecting the gathering of individuals for understanding the objective. The authority is a relational procedure for controlling and affecting the specialists for achievement of the venture goals.

The components that influence the motivation in people are desire for cash, acknowledgment, achievement, cooperation, and employment fulfilment. The most imperative elements of the administration are to make a feeling of eagerness among the task group for performing better (Anra and Yamin 2017). The route toward vitalizing the overall public for accomplishing the goals in view of the exercises is in setting to the mental factor. The parts that impact the motivation in individuals are need for money, affirmation, accomplishment, joint effort, and occupation satisfaction. The most fundamental components of the organization is to influence a sentiment capacity among the dare to gather for performing better. The endeavor managers need to go about as pioneers for the wander with the objective that they can help in asking the assignment gathering to work more capably and satisfactorily. The managers incite their subordinates for working with excitement and assurance. Organization gives the likelihood to affect others and the utmost as for influencing the get-together of people for understanding the target.

The motivation is a social system for overseeing and affecting the colleagues for accomplishment of the endeavour targets (Tabrizi, Torkfar and Jamshidian 2014). The advancement of the activity would be gathered for ensuring that the viability of the endeavour is extended unequivocally and strong for finishing the definitive targets. The pioneers are slated to begin movement and make approaches for beginning the work. The pioneers go about as inspiration for the working headway of the stress individual and influence the colleagues by outfitting them with non-money related and monetary points of interest for finishing the work

Conclusion

It can be concluded from the study that the leadership and motivation a crucial role in development and achievement of the project goals and objectives. The analysis of case study had shown that Tom had less work experience, late comer, take off early, chit-chat most of the time, and non-responsive. On the other hand Harriet, in spite of experience, had shown no interest in project and taken leave due to sickness or family issues. The project managers had applied Maslow’s hierarchy of needs for ensuring that they work to attain the objective of the project. The application of the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs on Tom and Harriet had resulted in forming suitable compensations to buy the fundamental necessities of life, breaks and outing openings, give them professional stability, sheltered and clean workplace and retirement benefits, empower cooperation and sort out get-togethers, acknowledge and compensate them on finishing and surpassing their objectives.

References

Ahmad, F., Abbas, T., Latif, S. and Rasheed, A., 2014. Impact of transformational leadership on employee motivation in telecommunication sector. Journal of management policies and practices, 2(2), pp.11-25.

Ali, N., 2013. Motivation-Hygiene Theory: Applicability on Teachers. Journal of Managerial Sciences, 7(1).

Alshmemri, M., Shahwan-Akl, L. and Maude, P., 2017. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory. Life Science Journal, 14(5).

Andersen, L.B., Bjørnholt, B., Bro, L.L. and Holm-Petersen, C., 2015. Open Conference Systems Leadership, motivation and span of control: A qualitative multi-level study of transformational leadership and public service motivation in organizations with different numbers of employees per leader.

Anra, Y. and Yamin, M., 2017. Relationships between Lecturer Performance, Organizational Culture, Leadership, and Achievement Motivation. ???????, 11(2 (eng)).

Budhathoki, N.R. and Haythornthwaite, C., 2013. Motivation for open collaboration: Crowd and community models and the case of OpenStreetMap. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(5), pp.548-575.

Cao, H., Jiang, J., Oh, L.B., Li, H., Liao, X. and Chen, Z., 2013. A Maslow's hierarchy of needs analysis of social networking services continuance. Journal of Service Management, 24(2), pp.170-190.

Chu, H.C. and Kuo, T.Y., 2015. Testing Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory in Educational Settings in Taiwan. The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, 11(1), pp.54-65.

Cristofaro, S., 2014. Competing motivation models and diachrony: what evidence for what motivations?. Competing motivations in grammar and usage, pp.282-298.

Davis, K., 1973. The case for and against business assumption of social responsibilities. Academy of Management journal, 16(2), pp.312-322.

Galperin, B.L., Lituchy, T., Acquaah, M., Bewaji, T. and Ford, D., 2014. Effective Leadership and Motivation in the African Diaspora (LEAD): The Case of the United States and Canada. AFRICA ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT, p.262.

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Lester, D., 2013. Measuring Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Psychological Reports, 113(1), pp.15-17.

Northouse, P.G., 2015. Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage publications.

Parker, M. and Welch, E.W., 2013. Professional networks, science ability, and gender determinants of three types of leadership in academic science and engineering. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(2), pp.332-348.

Strachan, D.L., Källander, K., Nakirunda, M., Ndima, S., Muiambo, A. and Hill, Z., 2015. Using theory and formative research to design interventions to improve community health worker motivation, retention and performance in Mozambique and Uganda. Human resources for health, 13(1), p.25.

Syafii, L.I., Thoyib, A. and Nimran, U., 2015. The Role of Corporate Culture and Employee Motivation as a Mediating Variable of Leadership Style Related with the Employee Performance (Studies in Perum Perhutani). Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 211, pp.1142-1147.

Tabrizi, M., Torkfar, A. and Jamshidian, L., 2014. Investigating the relationship between Leadership styles of coaches and motivation to participate in women’s sports team of Bandar Abbas.

Vassena, E., Deraeve, J. and Alexander, W.H., 2017. Predicting motivation: computational models of PFC can explain neural coding of motivation and effort-based decision-making in health and disease. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 29(10), pp.1633-1645.

Williams, L., Rasmussen, S., Kleczkowski, A., Maharaj, S. and Cairns, N., 2015. Protection motivation theory and social distancing behaviour in response to a simulated infectious disease epidemic. Psychology, health & medicine, 20(7), pp.832-837.

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