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Similarities in Management for Non-profit and For-profit Organizations

Discuss about the Management for Natural Resources and Social Responsibility.

Management of an organization refers to the process of dealing with, controlling and analyzing the activities of the business. The management process controls and initiates all the activities related to the business such as managing human resource, natural resources, social responsibility etc. A non for profit organization refers to the organization which has been formed by a group of people with a purpose to initiate activities of the business but with non-profit goals. The activities of such organization are done with an aim to provide benefits to the community without gaining any personal benefit from it. Whereas a corporate refers to the organization formed to carry the business activities in the market with an aim to generate profits from the business (Armstrong, & Taylor, 2014). “The essay further explains about different management theories which are used by organizations (both not for profit and corporate) to manage their business activities. Also it states that change in goals of the organization does not mean that the managerial theories shall also differ.”

It shall be noted that whether it is a not for profit or profit making organization, the activities conducted in the management are same. Although there is difference in the taxation rates and government jurisdiction but the management practices of nonprofit is same as other corporates.  The organizational structure may be slightly different but the major mandatory activities are to be followed by both types of organization like balancing the books, contribution of stakeholders in the business operations, mission and objectives of the management etc. (Conaty, 2012).

Certain management theories are to assist the management activities of an organization. Further the non for profit organizations also accepts such models and theories with slight change. Further some of the theories which apply to all types of organization are as follows:

Contingency theory of management: it refers to the organizational theory which helps the company to lead and strategic decisions for the better handling of the management. The theory suggests the manager to apply the right leadership decision on the adequate situation in the organization. Further the approach gives an idea in a nutshell that, all organizations shall be flexible to adapt changes in the environment also they shall take corrective measures in response to the change in the market of the company (Benevene, & Cortini, 2010). The three dimensions reviewed under this theory are:

Management Theories for Non-profit and For-profit Organizations

Leader-member relationship- leader shall generally accept and consider the suggestion of the employees; also the decision of leader shall also be followed by subordinates.

Degree of task structure: the structure of the task shall be well organized resulting degree in this dimension.

Leader’s position power: it refers to the powers and authority of leader’s position in the market (Novak, 2010).

(Organizational structure of NPO)

The aforementioned is a structure of a NGO which is similar to any other profit making firm. In a not for profit organization the contingency strategy works well to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization. Every organization will work efficiently only when there is a formal organizational structure. The NPOs also require a formal organizational structure to manage their business activities. The goals of a profit making corporate might differ from that of a NPO but the activities initiated to achieve the goals are same (Lewis, 2017). Like, the origin foundation NGO, initiates to provide maximum satisfaction to the stakeholders of the company with their activities. So the foundation also applies the same management theory to attain success like any other organization applies to achieve success (Ditlev?Simonsen, & Midttun, 2011).

This theory gives a specific view of the structure of the organization along with the distribution of power and authorities for instance in case of Robin Hood Foundations a definite management system of the company formed due to strong organizational approach. So in case of a corporate it is important that the employees shall agree with the terms of their leader and the leader shall also initiate to provide better level of satisfaction to the employee. Similarly, the contingency theory is used in the NPOs to maintain decorum and provide a better organizational structure to the mangers. Thus, it can be said that the goal of the organizations are different but the approach through which the goal is to be achieved is same (Hofmann-Wellenhof, Lichtenegger, & Collins, 2012).

System theory of management: management of an organization includes activities like procurement of raw material, management of human resource, maintain organizational structure, and initiate to attain mission ad vision of organization. The system theory explains that the system of the organization is the most important factor which affects the growth of the organization. The formation of the system is the key factor through which positive change is adapted in the organization. The system of the organization is interdependent with different parts of the organization. Change in one part of the organization affects the whole system of the organization, thus the system shall be formed and controlled inn such way that in case of fluctuations the organization’s core values are no disturbed (José & Cobo, 2017). The theory also suggests a set of dynamic principles long with tools which shall be followed in order to maintain jurisdiction in the organizational culture. In order to attain success the mechanism shall be designed in such a way that it aims to fulfill the values of the organization like in the case of Melinda Gates Foundation the system theory is applied in the management process.

Contingency Theory of Management

Discussing the case of a not for profit organization, such organization also have their different set of standards and goals which are made and amended to comply the objectives. The system theory helps the company to manage the activity in such a way that it provides guidelines to the company which they shall follow and achieve their desired goals (Daft, 2012). The system theory explains that organizations working are closed interconnected with each other, any change in the external factors of the market affect the internal system of the organization as well. Thus, the theory suggest that the business system shall be formal along aligned with well specified goals. Companies like Toyota and ford also used the same system management theory which other foundations used which states that there is no difference in the management of corporations.  

Formal system of management in the business tends to have higher degree of positive aspects to achieve success. However, all types of organizations require a systematic flow of information and power in the organizations (Armstrong, & Taylor, 2014). The theory helps the organization to form a system concerning the attributes of the organization like in sunflower foundation; the management of the foundation is efficient due to formal and systematic flow of work and knowledge. the fact shall be considered that both not for profit an profit making organization require a proper flow of work in the organization, and to maintain peace in the organization and remove hindrance, the company need a proper system for the organization which shall be complied by all. Thus, this process assists all types of organization to manage their business activities (Australian Government, 2017).

Concluding the above statements it shall be concluded that in order to initiate proper flow of organizational culture in the management, the companies need to initiate the management theories in its workings. Also it shall be noted that if the goals and standards of an organization are different then the company shall note apply different management theories; instead, management processes of all organizations are same, but the procedures change depending upon the goal of the organization.

References

Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.

Australian Government, (2017). List of Australian accredited non-government organisations (NGOs)., Viewed on August 25, 2017 from https://dfat.gov.au/aid/who-we-work-with/ngos/Pages/list-of-australian-accredited-non-government-organisations.aspx

Benevene, P., & Cortini, M. (2010). Interaction between structural capital and human capital in Italian NPOs: Leadership, organizational culture and human resource management. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 11(2), 123-139.

Conaty, F. J. (2012). Performance management challenges in hybrid NPO/public sector settings: an Irish case. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 61(3), 290-309.

Daft, R. (2012). Organization theory and design. Nelson Education.

Ditlev?Simonsen, C. D., & Midttun, A. (2011). What motivates managers to pursue corporate responsibility? A survey among key stakeholders. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 18(1), 25-38.

Hofmann-Wellenhof, B., Lichtenegger, H., & Collins, J. (2012). Global positioning system: theory and practice. Springer Science & Business Media.

José R., & Cobo, B., (2017). Management procedures for development NGO that work with headquarters in developing countries. Viewed on August 25, 2017 from https://oa.upm.es/1243/1/PONENCIA_JOSE_RAMON_COBO_BENITA_2008.pdf

Lewis, D. (2017). The management of non-governmental development organizations. Viewed on August 25, 2017 from https://konsillsm.or.id/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Management_of_non_governmental_development_organizations__an_introduction__.pdf

Novak, J. D. (2010). Learning, creating, and using knowledge: Concept maps as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Routledge.

Rice, A. L. (Ed.). (2013). The enterprise and its environment: A system theory of management organization (Vol. 10). Routledge.

Smith, W. K., & Lewis, M. W. (2011). Toward a theory of paradox: A dynamic equilibrium model of organizing. Academy of management Review, 36(2), 381-403.

Vantilborgh, T., Bidee, J., Pepermans, R., Willems, J., Huybrechts, G., & Jegers, M. (2011). A new deal for NPO governance and management: Implications for volunteers using psychological contract theory. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 22(4), 639.

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