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Examples of one degree of freedom and real-life applications

Degree of freedom defines the number of independent parameters or variables of a system. In particular fields of science, the term freedom is applied in describing the limits to which physical or other  processes of movement  that are physically processed are possibly done.  This is related to the concept of philosophy in relation to the extent that individuals may be considered to have much freedom as they may be able to exercise physically.

One degree freedom helicopter defines an articulated arm that has, at one end, a motor, which is attached to a propeller that offers more or less voltage function that is supplied to the motor. In the axis of the joint, the voltage is returned by the potentiometer between 0V and 5V, subjected on the angle.

In this report, a control methodology is introduced to ensure the One DOF arm is stabilized around the point of balance, equally in the case where degree is preferred, without a single model, and also in the next trials, a presentation on how the One DOF helicopter is controlled by PI, P and PID controller will be analyzed in the report.

Examples of one degree of freedom and real life application of one degree of freedom

The composite dynamic model and the structure that is non-linear on these aircraft makes the research work more complicated. Unmanned aerial vehicles like helicopters have systems that are nonlinear, thus making it difficult and unstable to model them. Also, there is no procedure that is systematic and generally adaptive in controller design which may be applicable to all nonlinear systems like the UAVs. Thus, the procedures of operation and properties of nonlinear systems usually are converted into a specific and linear system. This linear structure is then examined and the system is regulated through the application of controllers like classical PID, PD, P1, and P. PID controllers are extensively applied because they have got a simple structure. PID is the most desired type of controller in the application of robots (Mishra, 2019, p. 216).

Also, unmanned aerial vehicles have got higher tolerance system as a result of their areas of usage. It is therefore important to match the features and procedures of operation of the nonlinear system with specific and linear system. After the structural analysis, efficiency can be achieved through the application of PD, PI and PID controller.

Three types of design models

V-model means verifying and validating a model. The life cycle of a V-shaped is a successive part of implementation of processes, just like the waterfall model. Every stage must be executed before the beginning of the next stage. It is one of the several models of software development. Product testing is done in parallel with a consistence development phase in V-model (Chakrabarti, 2017, p. 55).

Design Model

The V-model diagram is shown below: 

The V-model diagram

The different phases of this model include:

Requirements start the life cycle of this model. Though, before the development begins, a system test plan is generated. The test plan emphasizes on meeting the specified functionality in the requirements collection 

This emphasizes on the architecture and design of the system. It gives solution of the overview, system, platform product and process/service. Creation of integration test is done in this stage also so that to test the ability of the software system pieces in working together.

This is where the design of the actual software properties is done. It outlines the real logic for each system component. In this phase, class diagram containing all the procedures and relation between classes is covered. Also, component tests are generated in this phase.

This is where all coding occurs. The moment coding has been completed, the execution part proceeds up to the V’s right side where the earlier developed test plan are now applied (Pahl, 212, p. 63).

This defines the V-shape model’s bottom. The developers convert the module design into code. Unit Testing is done by the developers on the code in which they have written. 

When the V-model should be used

  • This model should be applied in medium and small sized projects where there is a clear fix and definition of requirements
  • The V-shaped model should be considered when there is availability of sufficient technical resources with required technical knowledge

Great confidence is needed when choosing this type of a model. Because there are no prototypes generated, there is a very high risk convoluted in meeting the expectations of the customers.

  • Easy and simple to use
  • Activities of testing such as test designing and testing takes place well before coding. In this case, a lot of time is saved. Therefore, higher successful chances over other models like waterfall model can be expected.
  • Active defect tracking. This means that defects are discovered at early phase.
  • Avoids the defects downward flow
  • Performs well for small projects where there is an easy understanding of requirements.
  • Very rigid and inflexible
  • Development of software is done during implementation stage; therefore, no early software prototypes are developed
  • In case of any changes taking place in halfway, then the documents of testing together with requirement documents must be updated(81, 2015, p. 281) . 

This model is also classified under the incremental model. In this case, the development of software is done in rapid, increment cycles. This gives small but increasing releases with every release being built on preceding functionality. Every release is strictly tested to make sure the quality of the software is maintained. This is applied when time is very critical.

Where agile model is applied

  • In case there is need for new changes that should be implemented. The freedom agile provides to change is of great importance. Implementation of new changes can be done at a reduced cost due to the new increments frequency that are generated
  • For the new feature to be implemented, the developers require to lose just the work done in a few days or just even a few hours, so that it is rolled back and implemented
  • In agile model, unlike other models such as waterfall model, there is very little planning needed to begin the project. It is assumed by the agile model that the needs of the end users are always making changes in the world of IT and generally the dynamics in business.
  • Discussion of changes and its features can be newly applied or removed on the basis of feedback. Effectively, this provides the consumer with the complete system they need or want.
  • Both stakeholders and system developers alike, they find more freedom of options and time than in the case where the development of the software was done in a way that is more inflexible and sequential. Having choices enables them to get away with essential decisions until better or more data or even the whole hosting programs are in place, which means that the project can still proceed forward with no fear of getting into a standstill (Selvara, 2021, p. 203)
  • Customers are satisfied through fast and continuous useful software delivery
  • There is an emphasis of customers and deliveries instead of tolls and processes
  • There is a constant interaction between testers, customers and developers
  • Frequency delivery of working software, which is delivered within weeks, instead of months
  • There best means of communication is a face to face communication
  • There is a daily and close cooperation between developers and business people
  • Constant attention to god design and mechanical excellence
  • Frequently adapts to changes of circumstances
  • In requirements, even late changes can be accommodated

In cases of particular software deliverables such as the ones that are larger, it is not easy to measure the needed effort at the start of developing the life cycle of software

There are no highlights on the necessary documentation and even designing

In case the representative of the customer is not clear on the final outcome they expect, it is easy for the project to be overtaken

 Only programmers who are senior enough have the capability to take the kind of the required decisions during the process of development. Therefore, the model has got no space for new starting programmers, unless one has got a combination of other sources of experience (United States. Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering, United States. Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, Shock and Vibration Information Center, 2016, p. 27) 

Three types of design models

The spiral model is the same as the incremental model with much of its importance emphasized on risk analysis. The spiral model includes four stages which include Planning, Risk Analysis, Engineering and Evaluation. Repeatedly, a software project is taken through these stages in reiterations (referred to as the Spirals in this model). Starting in the planning stage, baseline spiral, the gathering of requirements is done and also risk is assessment is carried out. Every succeeding spirals shapes on the baseline spiral.

Planning Phase:  The gathering of requirements is done during this phase. Requirements include SRS and BRS. 

Risk Analysis: In this phase, a process is carried out to find out the risk and interchange solutions.  A prototype is generated at the end of this phase. If any risk is realized during this stage, then it is suggested to have alternate solutions and implement them. .

Engineering Phase: In this stage, development of software is done, with also testing at the end of the stage. Therefore, it is development and testing that is done in this stage.

Evaluation phase: This stage allows customer evaluation of the output of the project output to date before the continuation of the project to the next spiral (Selvara, 2021, p. 53).

Advantages of Spiral model:

  • High risk examination amount, therefore, risk avoidance is improved.
  • Good for projects that are mission critical and large in size.
  • At a later date, Functionality can be included.
  • In the life cycle of the software, the production of software is done.

Disadvantages of Spiral model:

  • It is expensive to apply.
  • Risk analysis needs expertise that is highly specific.
  • The success of the project’s success highly depends on the risk analysis stage.
  • It does not function well in projects that are small in size.

 When to use Spiral model:

  • When it is important to evaluate risks and costs.
  • When users are not sure what they need.
  • When complex requirements are in place.
  • When working on a new line of product.
  • When important changes are projected (Mishra, 2019, p. 88).

V-design model has been selected for this report project. This is mainly because it can be applied for small and medium sized projects where there is a clear definition and fixation of requirements. Additionally, it has a ample environment technically in terms of resources. There is also availability of technical expertise. Additionally, the model has a good structure and any initial collections can be made. It is also a good design model for group works.

This model is presumed to be an extension of the waterfall model. For instance, instead of making downward movement in the model in a linear way, the bending of the process steps is done upwards after the coding phase. This is to ensure that the V shape is typically formed. This model shows the relationships between every phase of development life cycle that is related testing phase (Selvara, 2021, p. 342). 

A Gantt chart defines a visualization which assists to schedule, manage and monitor particular resources and tasks in a project. It includes a list of bars and tasks portraying the progress of every task. It is the most largely applied chart while managing a project.


Advanced Design and Manufacture to Gain a Competitive Edge. London : Springer Science & Business Media.

Chakrabarti, A. (2017). Engineering Design Synthesis: Understanding, Approaches and Tools. London: Springer Science & Business Media.

Mishra, S. (2019). Applications of Computing, Automation and Wireless Systems in Electrical Engineering. Texas : Springer.

Pahl, G. (212). Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach. London: Springer Science & Business Media.

Selvara, H. (2021). Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Systems Engineering. London : Springer Nature.

United States. Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering, United States. Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, Shock and Vibration Information Center. (2016). The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. London : Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering.

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