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802.11 Technologies

1. Which ones use MIMO?   And what is MIMO anyway?   Write a paragraph explaining each one, and finally provide a summary table that will aid in comparison between them.

2. Write a report giving a recommendation for each budget, and justifying your recommendations by comparing them with other options within the price limit.  You should also include a summary table highlighting the differences between the three different options that you have recommended. 

3.  Explaining how you would position multiple instances of that router in the warehouse, and what channels you would have each instance operate on, to ensure complete coverage, appropriately low interference, and minimal total cost.

It defines the protocol that permits the reception & transmission of information at upto 54 Mbps at a shorter range. It follows the OFDM (Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing) architecture. The most prominent advantage of the deemed protocol is its high carrier frequency which also reduces its overall range citing disadvantage.

802.11b: It data allows transmission & reception at upto 11 Mbps and follows the CKK (complementary code keying), DSSS (Direct sequence spread spectrum) channel architecture. It is a low frequency carrier which has witnessed a mass adoption due to its benefits and at a low cost. However, it experiences high interference.

802.11g: Following the OFDM based channel architecture the protocol is capable of offering transmission & reception of data at a rate of upto 54 Mbps and also offers double range in comparison to its predecessors (802.11a, 802.11b). It is also one of the most adopted protocols because of high data rate and long range.

802.11n: The deemed technology has adopted MIMO (multiple input multiple output antennas). It is capable of offering at or over 600 Mbps data transmission & reception rate. Since, 2007, the discussed technology has emerged as one of the most prominent choice for the organisations because of the high data transmission rate.

802.11ac: The deemed protocol is the path pavers for the future protocols that offers wider channel options (80 or 160 MHz). it also offers a high data transmission rate of upto 6Gbps and it supports an advanced format of MU MIMO (Multi user multiple input multiple output). Vendors are calling it “Wave 2” devices that supports four spatial streams & 160 MHz channels.

802.11ad: The deemed protocol, defines the most disruptive physical layer of 802.11 network and the operation takes place under the 60 GHz mm (millimetre) wave spectrum. The architecture of the channel followed by the discussed protocol is OFDM and the most prominent challenge offered by the discussed protocol is its range that is limited to upto 10 m only. The transmit power off the technology is very low in comparison to other counterparts.

Recommendations for Routers under $100

802.11af: The deemed protocol is known by multiple other names such as the “Super Wi-Fi” & “White-Fi” and follows a frequency band that can extend from 54 MHz to 790 MHz. The channel architecture for the discussed protocol is based over SC OFDM and capable of offering data transmission range of upto 26.7 Mbps and transmission range of 1 Km.

802.11ah: One of the most widely adopted wifi protocol is the discussed protocol. It is operational in a frequency band of upto 900 MHz and the transmission rate of upto 40 Mbps. The channel architecture is SC OFDM and the range can extend upto 1 Km. It adopted due to extended range and the power consumption of the technology is also very low.

802.11ax: It can be considered as the successor of the 802.11ac and has enhanced the capabilities of the latter. Like its predecessor it works on the OFDM and offers a range of upto 1000 ft. Of all the discussed technology it is the most disruptive of them and the full potential of the protocol is still to be measured in the commercial market.

MIMO: Multiple input multiple output is the technology associated with the antennas in the wireless technological frameworks that uses multiple antennas at the source end & the receiver end as well. It minimises the errors and the data speed as well.

The following table has summarised the nature of the 802.11 technologies and presented it in it:

802.11a

802.11b

802.11g

802.11n

802.11ac

802.11ad

802.11af

802.11ah

802.11ax

Frequency BAND

5 GHz

2.4 GHz

2.4GHz

2.4 GHz, 5 GHz

5 GHz

60 GHz

54-790 MHz

900 MHz

2.4 GHz, 5 GHz

Bandwidth

22 MHz

21 MHz

23 MHz

24 MHz & 40 MHz

20, 40, 80, 80+80, 160 MHz

2.16 MHz

6.7 & 8 MHz

1, 2, 3, 4, 8 & 16 MHz

20, 40, 80, 80+80, 160 MHz

Channel Architecture

OFDM

CCK, DSSS

DSSS, OFDM

OFDM

OFDM

SC, OFDM

SC, OFDM

SC, OFDM

OFDA

Speed

54 Mbps

11 Mbps

54 Mbps

600 Mbps

6.93 Gbps

6.76 Gbps

26.7 Gbps

40 Mbps

1 Gbps

Range

35 m

35m

70 m

70 m

35 m

10 m

>1 Km

1 Km

1000 ft.

Transmit Power

100 mW

100 mW

100 mW

100 mW

160 mW

10 mW

100 mW

100 mW

160 mW

MIMO

NA

NA

NA

Yes

MU MIMO

NA

Yes

NA

Yes

TABLE 1: COMPARISION TABLE OF THE 802.11 TECHNOLOGIES

(Source: Created by the Author)

TP-Link Wireless Router AC1900 Smart WiFi Dual-Band Gigabitis the router which comes under price of $100. It supports 802.11 standard. The main features of this router is that 450+1300 Mbps speeds and can be connected with more than 12 devices. The system requirement for supporting this router is Windows 7,8,10, Windows vista, Windows XP., MAC and Linux operating system. The browser which is compatible for this router are Internet Explorer 5.0, Firefox 2.0, Safari 1.4, or Google Chrome 11.0 browsers. The 1 GHz dual core processor can handle multiple devices easily. The home network can be controlled using the voice command through this router. Nighthawk App in the router can manage the internet access and can run a speed test. This can be done by the connected mobile device. The capacity of this router is AC1750. It can be easily set up and is suitable for using both in the residential and industrial purpose. The router of this model provides maximum speed for the browsing along with that it also ensures the security of the online activities. The device has 2 years warranty. The LAN port available in the device is 4. In case, with the comparison of this device with other similar devices it has been found out that some of the devices are not of 802.11 standard. On the other hand in some cases, some of router devices has no LAN port and the price is also comparatively high. In this case, this device is recommended as the best option for the router priced under  $100.

Recommendations for Routers under $250

Asus Wireless AC3100 Gigabit Router (RT-AC3100) is the router that comes within the price $250.The wireless compatibility of the device is 802.11 a/b/g/n. This router uses the dual band and the latest 802.11ac technology which helps to generate the throughput of 3176 Mbps along with extensive coverage. The router uses MUMIMO technology that helps to make the connection between the multiple compatible clients at maximum speed. The detection of the vulnerability can be done by the AiProtection which is powered by Trend Micro. The detection of the vulnerability protects the sensitive data. The router can provide the consistent bandwidth and this can be done by the dynamic switching between the devices. Comparison of this device has been done with the other devices which have almost the same price range. Comparison indicates that the data transfer rate is highest in this router model. However, this model along with the other compared models within this range does not have the LAN ports. Comparison based on the other attributes and the features, it can be said that Asus Wireless AC3100 Gigabit Router (RT-AC3100) is the best available option for the router of price $250.


NETGEAR Nighthawk X10 AD7200 802.11ac/ad Quad-Stream WiFi Router, 1.7GHz Quad-core Processor is the router that comes within the price range $500. The price can be varied in the different online e-commerce. The capacity of this router is AD7200. The router supports 802.11ac Quad Stream Wave2 Wifi and provides up to 4600=1733=800 Mbps wireless speed. The router is compatible with Microsoft Windowss 7,8,10, Vista,Xp and 2000. It is also compatible with the MAC and Unix and Linux operating system. The browser supported in this type of router is Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0, Firefox 2.0, Safari 1.4, Google Chrome 11.0 browsers. The router uses Plex Media which helps to connect the external USB to the Nighthawk X10 router. The use of the 1.7GHz Quad core processor allows the faster processing from the home router and the streaming and surfing. The route allows the dynamic QoS which ca give the priority of the bandwidth based on the application. This device has been compared with the other similar devices within the same price range. The other devices support the 802.11 standard. However, there are differences in the features between this router and the other routing devices.  The data transfer rate in NETGEAR Nighthawk X10 AD7200 802.11ac/ad Quad-Stream WiFi Router is 7200 MB per second. On the other hand, the similar products compared with this device can deliver the data transfer rate of 3100 MB per second, 5300 MB per second respectively. The other routing device along with this device does not have the LAN ports. The main difference that has provided NETGEAR Nighthawk X10 AD7200 802.11ac/ad Quad-Stream WiFi Router a certain advantage is the use of The Nighthawk X10.  Through this feature the router can be set up easily through the connected mobile device. The features of this particular routing device and the comparison of this device with the other device indicates this routing device to be the best choice of router in price of $500.

The router recommended to the for around $100 is the TP-Link Wireless Router AC1900 Smart WiFi Dual-Band Gigabit (Archer C9). The router is very efficient within a small complex and would support more than 12 devices in the network and the speed provided for the network is around 1750 mbps. The router consists of advanced feature that helps in obtaining the free application of the individuals working on the router. The system requirement to support the router in the network are Microsoft Windows 7, 8, 10, Vista, XP, 2000, Mac OS, UNIX, or Linux, Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0, Firefox 2.0, Safari 1.4, or Google Chrome 11.0 browsers or higher. The router is to be placed on the lower level of the warehouse. This would provide the networking access to the staffs form all the corner of the warehouse. The warehouse also need additional access hence; it is recommended that switches are used with the router that would help in spreading the network to the whole warehouse. The switch that is to be used is a 24 port switch. The recommended switch for the network is the Cisco 24 port Gigabit Switch (10/100/1000). This help the network is providing access to all the nodes within the warehouse. The switch provides 24 ports that provides 10, 100 and 1000 mbps speeds for the network and also the Weighted Round Robin (WRR) queuing which helps the network during congestions. Additionally, the standard provided for the router are IEEE 802.3, IEEE 802.3u, IEEE 802.3z, IEEE 802.3ab, IEEE 802.1p, IEEE 802.3x, IEEE 802.3az. Each switch port independently sets itself for the optimal speed and determines whether to run in half- or full-duplex mode automatically. The switch supports the network speeds of around 10 mbps, 100 mbps and 1 Gbps. Hence there would be no confusion within the warehouse that would be taking place in between the staffs that so anyone can connect to any cable they want to. The switches would be able to deliver the performance that the organization wants to perform very efficiently. It supports up Gigabit Ethernet speeds, unlocking a new level of capacity and performance in your business network and letting you transfer large files in seconds. Along with the router the NETGEAR CM500-1AZNAS (16x4) DOCSIS 3.0 Cable Modem, Max download speeds of 686Mbps, certified for Xfinity from Comcast, Spectrum, Cox, Cablevision & more product should also be used. The DOVCSIS 3.0 of the device provided up to 680 mbps of speed and the alternate version of DOVCSIS 3.0 of the device provided up to 960 mbps of speed. This would help the internet connection into the network. The product Support Cable Internet Service plans up to 200 Mbps. Separate router required for Wi-Fi. 16x4 channel bonding. The dev ice would also help in making the firewall configurations in the router. The firewall configurations for the router are very important and the organization has already mentioned that the employees in the network should not be able perform tasks other than the official tasks that are required. The setting in the router are to be set to use Opendns, if the internet service provider does not provide a strong enough / limited control. Additionally, the internet service provider can be also be asked to provide the network with the firewall facilities and this would help the access control in the network however the this would be very unconvincing for the staffs within the warehouse. The process is very easy. The user has to make a free account with opendns & use their parental control customise the options It should also be ensured that the web stats / logging are enabled. Thus to monitor what sites are being viewed. The standard accounts are created for the employees and the administrator account would be created for the admin. So the employees Can’t change settings or add programs that may be malicious and also they can’t change the DNS settings on the computer / laptop & thus side step the router DNS settings. The admin should also periodically login in to opendns online & check web usage to spot any patterns of activity, whether the employees are trying to access restricted sites and then have a general chat about the web and avoiding detrimental habits.

Cui, X., Tsang, Y.H., Hui, L.C., Yiu, S.M. and Luo, B., 2016, January. Defend against Internet censorship in named data networking. In Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), 2016 18th International Conference on (pp. 300-305). IEEE.

Ding, K., Liu, Y., Cho, H.H., Chao, H.C. and Shih, T.K., 2016. Cooperative detection and protection for interest flooding attacks in named data networking. International Journal of Communication Systems, 29(13), pp.1968-1980.

Gizis, A., Lutz, B. and Prodoehl, B., Connectify, Inc., 2017. Network address translating router for mobile networking. U.S. Patent 9,686,232.

Hardison, N.C., Chakoumakos, R.M., Schallich, T.A. and Weaver, N.S., Eero Inc., 2017. Methods for dynamic router configuration in a mesh network. U.S. Patent 9,736,019.

Kawase, H., Hasegawa, H. and Sato, K.I., 2015, February. Router power reduction by active performance control realized with support vector machines. In Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC), 2015 International Conference on(pp. 530-535). IEEE.

Li, Z., Liu, T. and Cheng, L., Xiaomi Inc, 2017. Router-based networking control. U.S. Patent 9,774,705.

Schallich, T.A., Weaver, N.S. and Hardison, N.C., Eero Inc, 2018. Systems and methods for intuitive home networking. U.S. Patent 9,882,774.

So, W., Chung, T., Yuan, H., Oran, D. and Stapp, M., 2014, October. Toward terabyte-scale caching with SSD in a named data networking router. In Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ANCS), 2014 ACM/IEEE Symposium on (pp. 241-242). IEEE.

Verma, G., Agarwal, H., Singh, S., Khanam, S.N., Gupta, P.K. and Jain, V., 2016. Design and Implementation of Router for NOC on FPGA. International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking, 9(12), pp.263-271.

Zhang, D. and Xie, T., Phicomm (shanghai) Co Ltd, 2018. Wireless terminal type identification method and system in router bridge networking mode. U.S. Patent Application 15/557,115.

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