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Smart Buildings Enhance the Human Experience

We live in a world where smart technology has taken over every part of our lives. Breakthroughs are notable because they help people live better lives. Furthermore, smart highway and smart buildings are enhancing the human experience with their respective subsystems in infrastructure like motorways and buildings (Jerman et al. 2020). The smart building has several subsystems, such as smart lighting, to offer improved lighting systems for the comfort of its residents. By offering optimum safety for both people and the building itself, smart security further enhances the occupants' experience. Smart blinds, a smart mirror in the bathroom, and a smart vacuum cleaner are a few more examples. The electric toll system, on the other hand, is a crucial component of a smart highway since it makes it easy for consumers who are purchasing items to halt at the toll gate without having to stop. Engineered solar cells and LED lights that form signs and lines automatically are another subsystem (Kalsoom et al. 2020). Designated lanes are delineated by electric priority lines. Artificial intelligence (AI) in smart buildings and motion sensors in intelligent roads are both essential components of these systems' operation. To put it simply, these technologies must be able to work seamlessly with smart systems to avoid any inconveniences. Smart systems and discoveries must be able to adapt to future developments.

Smart Buildings

The term "intelligent building" refers to a structure that uses automated procedures to manage and regulate the activities of a building, such as air conditioning, ventilation, heating, security, lighting, and other systems (Shi et al. 2020). To handle data in accordance with the functionality and services, it makes use of sensors, microchips, and actuators. Owners and operators of smart buildings benefit from improved asset dependability and performance. When compared to comparable buildings that aren't linked, this one provides better thermal comfort, lighting, security, air quality, and sanitation for less money and with less impact on the environment. Data reveal that a smart building breakthrough may create $8.5 billion in worldwide revenue, which grows at a compound growth rate of nearly 16 percent over the next three years (Jung et al. 2021). Markedly, the smart building incorporates numerous inputs, including Internet of Things (IoT) sensors, user interface, analytic software, and connection. Sensors link to a building access point and then to a building entrance point. This technology has progressed over time and is currently used to monitor a variety of different aspects of a structure (Shi et al. 2020).

Lighting, cooling, and heating adjustments, maximum security, and full data on building usage are only some of the smart building's key outputs. The smart building successfully integrates technology. The 5G network, for example, is essential in smart buildings for successful connection despite the skepticism around it (Chen et al. 2020). Smart building connection may also benefit from WiFi 6. In smart buildings, artificial intelligence AI (machine simulation) may be used to recommend any maintenance, learn inhabitants' preferences, and alter systems such as lighting and temperature management (Chen et al. 2020).

The Benefits of Smart Technology in Smart Highways

Smart lights. One of the newest lighting subsystems, this one improves the efficiency of lighting. Smart nodes in wireless are at the heart of every well-thought-out scheme, according to Resman (2021). Workplaces with intelligent lighting have higher productivity while using less energy and producing less trash. In order for smart lighting to perform, a dependable data transmission network is required. As a result, it's fair to state that the development of energy-efficient power systems in residential and commercial buildings as well as smart cities relies heavily on smart lighting.

Requirements. It is essential that smart lighting be able to adapt to the diverse needs, requirements, and tastes of its users. Smart lighting has to be interactive in order to be more user-friendly. The smart lights must be able to communicate with one another in order for the lighting system to operate with other systems. There should be a way to expand or improve smart lighting in the near future. Smart lighting must be modular in order to accommodate installation and simplify maintenance. When utilized correctly, intelligent lighting may make a huge difference. Smart lighting must be energy-efficient in order to keep costs down for the owners. To ensure that the demands of everyone who works beneath them are met, smart lighting must be tailored to their specifications. Smart lighting should be affordable for all home and business owners. The use of ecologically friendly, energy-efficient lighting may help keep our skies clear of glare and light pollution. In an ideal world, the light emitted by a smart bulb would resemble that of the sun (Wan et al.2018).

Smart Security. As a digital building owner, a building isn't complete until the owner has successfully integrated a network-based monitoring system and begun reaping the rewards. Initially, it is feasible to begin by installing CCTV cameras for security purposes. However, it has the potential to be a lot more than it is now. Surveillance systems may be operated from afar and connected to photo analysis software through the internet if they are connected to the internet. As an example, imagine being able to monitor a property and everything going on within it without having to physically be there. Smart security is a must for a smart building to be complete. Security monitoring devices are part of the subsystem (Kodali et al., 2016). Image analysis software is used to operate the internet-connected surveillance system. In this way, buildings and properties may be monitored from a distance, as well as the activities taking on inside of them, even when no one is there. Conscious safety

Requirements. Dual-path monitoring should be provided by a smart security system, which connects to your phone and provides IP communication options (Oh et al. 2018). Security systems should be able to offer a wide range of resolutions for video surveillance of a building's operations. Images and movies may be retrieved with ease if a secure storage system is used. You should be alerted in the event of any suspicious activity by an alarm system in your smart security system. Good night vision is essential for smart security. Fast motion activation should be a standard feature of smart security. There should be a large range of vision in a smart security system Two-way audio is a must for smart security. The installation of smart security should be made as easy as possible using a well-designed system. A long-term solution to smart security is needed (Chen et al. 2018). 

The Term "Intelligent Building" Explained

Propane gas sensor, flame sensor, Arduino microcontroller, and a mobile phone controlled by a relay module make up the hardware in this scenario. As soon as a sensor is activated, the microcontroller tells the relaymodule to call a user's phone number. The microcontroller and the phone can only communicate with each other thanks to the mobile phone. The module may be configured and interfaced using AT commands. The AT commands are written in C and sent to the module through the terminal program. Instructions in a program are written in C-language code that may be executed at any moment (Shi et al. 2020). If everything goes well, the code might be quickly created and uploaded to an Arduino board.

Using a mobile phone and an Arduino, the user will get a direct warning (calling) over GSM networks. To react to an emergency such as a gas leak or fire, the owner is notified through phone call from a registered number on the mobile device placed in the protection equipment.

 Block Diagram of gas leakage and flame detection security system with GSM 

Figure 1 Block Diagram of gas leakage and flame detection security system with GSM 

 Gas leakage and flame detection

Figure 2 Gas leakage and flame detection

Microcontroller board containing an ATmega328 microprocessor and open-source software program. Arduino helps to build communicative devices that control lights, motors, and other physical outputs based on input devices such as sensors. There are a wide variety of software applications that may be used in combination with Arduino projects, including Flash, Processing, Proteus and MaxMSP. ) [6,7].

Based on Atmel's CPU, the Arduino Uno is a microcontroller platform. The uno USB (Universal Serial Bus) board is the newest USB version since "uno" means one in Italian. On the Arduino Uno board, you'll find everything from a USB connection to an ICSP header, a reset button, six inputs which are all analogue, and 14 digital pins, 6 support PWM. The clock speed is maintained at 16 MHz

Detecting gas leaks is one of the most prevalent uses for this sensor. The material of the MQ-6 is very responsive (SnO2). It has a very low conductivity in fresh air. Propane, Butane, and Natural Gas may all be detected using the MQ-6 gas sensor. Detecting combustible gases like methane is easy with this sensor since it can detect a wide range of other gases as well. There is a 300-10000ppm sensitivity range for the MQ-6 gas sensor. It has six pins, four of which are used to gather signals and two of which are used to heat up. The sensor needs a voltage of 5 volts to operate. In "Fig. 2," the MQ-6 gas sensor is shown.

Detecting the existence of a flame or fire is the primary function of a flame detector. It is also capable of distinguishing between 760nm and 1100nm wavelengths, which are the wavelengths used by most conventional lighting. The sensor has a detection range of 100 cm. Flame detectors are often efficient and more accurate than heat detectors because of the procedures they use complex detection techniques. If the Flame sensor is used, a digital or analog signal may be produced.

Smart Lighting in Action

Using a lot of power, the relay is an electromagnetic device composed of a solenoid, switches, and restoring springs. It acts as a divider between the devices under control and those being controlled. Consequently, the interface IC is able to operate the relay with complete confidence. To make this easier, a drivercircuitry will be combined between them to act as a dielectric circuit. When a "high" level is detected at the input, the driver circuitry switches to another voltage source to operate the relay. In this way, the relay is used to switch the power on and off for the devices. To provide safety in the event that the voltage or current is too high for the Arduino to handle, the relay module is utilized as an electrically driven switch to open and close circuits depending on voltage or current. 

The GSM modem is a mobile phone in this design (Nokia 6670 in transmitter and anymobile phone in receiver). A relay module is used to connect the Nokia 6670 to the Arduino. Sending an active signal to all linked devices, as well as informing a person by phone when a sensor is activated by a microcontroller.

The gas leakage detector for incident and advertising is developed using an integrated network of detectors, a GSM-enabled processor chip, and cloud processing in-fractures. The gas leakage detector was designed to detect a leak and alert uninvited emergency contacts as soon as possible. A vibration sensor is used to determine the signal that is used to calculate the likelihood of a collision. When the threshold limitations are exceeded, a text message is sent to the emergency contacts that includes the incident area. The text message is sent at regular intervals to allow the connection to easily locate the victim.

 Gas leakage and flame detection

Figure 3 Circuit Diagram of Gas Leakage Detector.

This circuit is intended to increase people's life safety. The GAS Leakage Detector will assist consumers in detecting gas leaks in their homes or restaurants, as well as transmitting important information and location to an emergency contact number. This may assist in obtaining adequate fire service attention. There's no need to contact the fire department. Our system will send an alert to the fire station leadership and forces, instructing them to dispatch firefighters to the victim's location.

 Arduino Program

Figure 4 Arduino Program

As a result of the smart industrial system, standard research and development methods have been used, yet new technology is constantly being developed. As a result, contemporary approaches must be used in lieu of outdated ones. Having an inherent potential to be adopted is a need in today's technologically advanced environment.

Android sensor technology is a cost-efficient and effective alternative. As a result of this, the cost of traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for smoke and leak detection would be reduced. The Android operating system is intuitive and simple to operate. As a result, system breakdowns will be less of a bother for everyone. because the factory's security demands can be met by an android system that uses the factory's already-proven security system to identify and alert to gas leaks.

Using the offered method will provide positive outcomes if this new technology is genuinely meeting the wants and desires of customers by delivering operative and proved product. It's impossible to ignore the impact of marketing and advertising in this situation. It is the only way new inventions will be exposed to the public in a practical manner. Social networking sites have clearly shown how product marketplaces have grown by regular advertising to specific groups of individuals who are interested in the topic at hand. There are many individuals who are interested in adopting creative technology in their infrastructure projects, and this new idea might quickly get to the top of the list if offered to them.

Conclusion

No one can deny the importance of software behemoth Smart Factory System. It aids in the creation and development of new technologies and their modernization in a more innovative manner. Integration of several security subsystems to create an integrated smart security system. Because of its comprehensive nature, this system already has a high level of productivity, and this addition will further boost its productivity by allowing contractors and builders to employ this approach in the construction phase of their projects to get full value from this innovative technology.

References

Chen, G., Wang, P., Feng, B., Li, Y. and Liu, D., 2020. The framework design of smart factory in discrete manufacturing industry based on cyber-physical system. International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 33(1), pp.79-101.

Jerman, A., Peji? Bach, M. and Aleksi?, A., 2020. Transformation towards smart factory system: Examining new job profiles and competencies. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 37(2), pp.388-402.

Jung, W.K., Kim, D.R., Lee, H., Lee, T.H., Yang, I., Youn, B.D., Zontar, D., Brockmann, M., Brecher, C. and Ahn, S.H., 2021. Appropriate smart factory for SMEs: concept, application and perspective. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 22(1), pp.201-215.

Kalsoom, T., Ramzan, N., Ahmed, S. and Ur-Rehman, M., 2020. Advances in sensor technologies in the era of smart factory and industry 4.0. Sensors, 20(23), p.6783.

Oh, J.Y. and Choi, S.H., 2018. An analysis of the characteristics of companies introducing smart factory system using data mining technique. Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, 9(5), pp.179-189.

Resman, M., Turk, M. and Herakovi?, N., 2021. Methodology for planning smart factory. Procedia CIRP, 97, pp.401-406.

Shi, Z., Xie, Y., Xue, W., Chen, Y., Fu, L. and Xu, X., 2020. Smart factory in Industry 4.0. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 37(4), pp.607-617.

Wan, J., Yang, J., Wang, Z. and Hua, Q., 2018. Artificial intelligence for cloud-assisted smart factory. IEEE Access, 6, pp.55419-55430.

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