Global Information Age
According to Martins et al. (2021), with the recent rise of globalisation and digitization of the educational institutes introducing a wide array of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the coaching teaching and learning processes followed. However, this idea of adopting the new information systems aims for achieving the purposes of increasing performances of teachers and students according to their level of acceptance of the ideas. The paper analysed gives the perception of a wide array of teachers and parents relating to the uses of informational technologies in the process with factors like usage, beliefs and attitudes.
The information system in the educational system allows the student to interact with the system through various activities like music, games, cartoons, music and photos that might appeal to the interest of the parent and the children to infuse better multimedia facilities for improving the traditional way of sharing information. The information technologies are also used while creating training programs along with learning equipment and tools relating to the educational system. The teacher parents and the students need to develop a set of dependencies for gathering the correct information for following innovative measures to be implemented (Baharun 2019). The information system contains various data in different components with hardware, software, procedure and users interconnected among each other to create shared value.
The educational information system plays a key role in the educational institutions playing a major role for reducing costs, increasing shared productivity, effectiveness and efficiency among the students and the teachers, improving the quality of education and optimizing the decision making system. The management information system used to manage the educational institution. The Complex EMIS used in the paper helps in adding additional efforts for triggering increased performance among the teacher and the student. The information system is successful in increasing the quality of the information, system and service quality.
For measuring the level of success of the discussed EMIS, The questionnaire was developed to understand the various perspectives of the new system. The partial least squares needs to provide appropriate estimation in the research model implemented through the SmartPLS 3.0 M3 software. The measurement of the information is done on the basis of internal reliability, consistency and validity of the system (Martin et al. 2019). Internal and external controls of the educational institution helps in analysing information inside the system from the internal approaches and market strategies to show the external factors.
User development and coaching are important procedures that are needed to be understood and starts from defining the need for implementing the new information system. The change readiness approach allows the assessment of the previous history of the organizational changes to understand the current positionality. The employees need to be more confident about the use of the new systems training their staff in several ways (Karakozov and Ryzhova 2019). Online learning systems can be utilized in this step implementing strategies to create online courses for managing the learning development. The information system can be used for learning development by assessing the necessary learning requirements, developing an early yet tailored plan at the earlier stages, outsource resources and gain feedback.
Educational Information System
System modelling used in information systems are the approaches for the development of abstract models for the system, with these models showing a different perspective or view to the information system. These design approaches allow defining the different parts of the information system and can be seen from two different perspectives termed the Bottom-up model and the Top-down model. The bottom-up approach in the system designing model allows the developer to have complete knowledge about the different parts of the information system. The development of the application is made with defining the small parts and designing, developing the various components, linking them together to form a bigger component. The process is repeated until the final product is completed. The process allows decision making to be integrated into the system at the lowest of levels for deciding the reusability of the different components. The developers focus on the identification of the smaller problems in the system to find the bigger solutions. The components share a high level of interactivity among each other (Gaviria 2021). The factors of reusability allows minimum redundancy in the model. The approach shows advantage to the developer in providing awareness about the final product in the earlier stage. Major flaws can be detected earlier along with easier observation of the results. One of the major disadvantages of using the approach for designing the system comes from the lack of testing availability as there is no idea of the complete model before all the smaller models have been developed. In information systems, the pre-existing codes are needed to be understood, manipulated and pieced together. The approach allows a high level of abstraction as the design moves to the higher levels. The approach tends to be cost effective for designing as the smaller solutions can be reused later. The structure of the problems are not closely understood thus the system might be harder to be constructed. Programming can be done using the bottom up approach but there might be interface bugs which are difficult to be solved. The deadlines if they get exceeded might lead to problems being missed out to solve. The approach is thus beneficial for modeling the information system but has its own sets of disadvantages that must be mitigated to utilize the best practices.
The system modelling and designing the information system might be looked at from another angle to give a different view or perspective. The other approach that exists alongside the bottom up approach is the Top down approach. The Top Down approach to information system modelling allows the developer to have a complete understanding about the system as the whole. The system is then divided into subsequent smaller parts with availability of better details. The small parts that are decomposed from the main system are further broken down to find out the minute and the finest of the details. The approach helps in breaking down the larger problems into smaller ones solving all of them one after the other in a recursive mannerism. The decomposition of the larger problems allows one to understand what is required to be completed with each step of refining the new parts giving the system more sense of knowledge becoming easier to be solved even after the complexity (Luckeneder and Kaindl 2019). There might be chances for reusing a few elements in the design. The approach provides ample knowledge on the first-level subsystems. Information systems tend to be complex, and utilizing resources are necessary in every approach. The top down model allows the developer to work on different subsystems at the same time allowing to save a great amount of time. Bottom up approaches tend to look at the minute details and spend much time on the problem, losing sight of what needs to be actually made. The top down model shows the problem of tight coupling among the components of the system thus allowing a lower sense of interactivity. The redundancy in the model increases with the size of the system. The design of the final product is extremely responsive to the requirements of the system allowing a major advantage (Goranov, Georgieva and Todorova 2019). In the lifecycle of the development of an information system, the model allows the developer to have the complete perspective of the system from the beginning before starting to build the system. The bigger picture is painted in the earlier stages helping the developers to reduce the system complexity in designing and modelling.
AirBnb UK needs to understand the various aspects of data and process modelling using the available approaches, techniques and tools. The possible business process modelling tool that can be utilized are Business process modelling Notations(BPMN), Data flow diagrams, UML diagrams, flowcharts, role interaction, role activity, pert chart, gantt chart, simulation model, use case diagrams, Integrated Definition for Function Modeling(IDEF) and Colored Petri Nets.
Data modelling can be done with different levels of abstractions showing the connection among the various pieces of data. The data models can thus be of three types; the conceptual, physical and logical. The possible data modelling approaches that can be utilized by the system are the entity relationship model, dimensional model and the graph data model (Osman and Sahraoui 2021). Other techniques that might be useful to some functions are the hierarchical model, object-oriented model, network data model and entity-relationship model.
Today AirBnB is working on new innovative ways to work on their big datasets and finding conclusions on their information. AirBnb must look for new ways for reshaping its business model. The major techniques that can be used to gather the big data for AirBnB would be the Loyalty cards and programs, Online market analysis, Gamification, social media analysis and satellite image analysis. The loyalty cards would allow businesses to create profiles with details of habits and preferences. The gamification also produces tons of big data while allowing customers to addictively earn incentive on playing minigames. Social media adds a huge amount of unstructured data which can be analysed to make perfect user profiles (He et al. 2018). The satellite images would allow Airbnb to gain information from long distances within less time.
The Freedom Of Information And Data Protection Laws In Eu Give a Strong Approach For Design And Information Sharing That Combines Safeguards To Administrative, legal and technical aspects. These laws and legislation guides protecting personal data of all sorts, like online data, data on the physical system or on papers and files. The measures taken by these laws to protect data from illegal use and access are “Asking for Consent before collecting personal data” and “reporting data breaches at all cost”. Both these measures provide immensely on the fact of data protection. The first measure of asking for consent requires the organizations, industries, government agencies and companies to obtain personal information from the people required to gain a consent from the individual. The consent must be accessible, intelligible and distinguishable written in plain language making it easy to understand (Spá?, Voda and Zagrapan 2018). The companies must also report the Data breaches when they occur under all the circumstances to inform the people about their data. The data breach is a security incident that lacks confidentiality, integrity and availability (Rhahla,, Allegue and Abdellatif 2021). The organization needs to notify their clients and the people within three days after being aware of the data breach.
Baharun, H., 2019, March. Management information systems in education: the significance of e-public relation for enhancing competitiveness of higher education. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1175, No. 1, p. 012151). IOP Publishing.
Gaviria, S.G., 2021. Context-Aware Design Framework: Using a Bottom-Up Approach for Breaking Downand Contextualizing Design Problems (Doctoral dissertation, Kent State University).
Goranov, P., Georgieva, D. and Todorova, E., 2019. “Top-down” design methodology utilizing abstraction of mechanical interfaces. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 287, p. 01029). EDP Sciences.
He, W., Zhang, W., Tian, X., Tao, R. and Akula, V., 2018. Identifying customer knowledge on social media through data analytics. Journal of Enterprise Information Management.
Karakozov, S.D. and Ryzhova, N.I., 2019. Information and education systems in the context of digitalization of education. ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ????????????. ?????: ???????????? ?????, 12(9), pp.1635-1647.
Luckeneder, C. and Kaindl, H., 2018, May. Systematic top-down design of cyber-physical models with integrated validation and formal verification. In Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Companion Proceeedings (pp. 274-275).
Martins, J., Branco, F., Gonçalves, R., Au-Yong-Oliveira, M., Oliveira, T., Naranjo-Zolotov, M. and Cruz-Jesus, F., 2019. Assessing the success behind the use of education management information systems in higher education. Telematics and Informatics, 38, pp.182-193.
Osman, N.I. and Sahraoui, A.E., 2021. Modeling and Verification of ERP Functional Requirements based on Colored Petri Net. International Journal of Software Engineering & Applications (IJSEA), 12(2/3).
Rhahla, M., Allegue, S. and Abdellatif, T., 2021. Guidelines for GDPR compliance in Big Data systems. Journal of Information Security and Applications, 61, p.102896.
Spá?, P., Voda, P. and Zagrapan, J., 2018. Does the freedom of information law increase transparency at the local level? Evidence from a field experiment. Government Information Quarterly, (3).
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