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What is the difference between the 2-step application for a nuclear reactor and the combined application? Be sure to reference which regulations apply and discuss how they are the same and how they are different (beyond the obvious statement that one is a 2-step process and one is a single step). What information is required for each submittal package?

What is an Early Site Permit? What is it’s intended use?

Where are the opportunities for public involvement in the NRC licensing process? What dictates the level of public involvement?

What does the Regulatory Guide 10.3 apply to? What regulatory requirement is the guide addressing? What is the purpose of Guide 10.3 (what is the benefit to the applicant)? What NUREG document does the guide support?

10 CFR 20 defines the radiation protection standards for work at a Nuclear facility. What are the analogous standards adopted by the IAEA. How do the dose exposure limits compare for the following?Occupational Dose limits for adults?

Occupational Dose limits for minors?

Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus?

Dose limits for individual members of the public?

10 CFR 75 defines the NRC/IAEA agreements for safeguards of nuclear material. What are the exemptions allowed under 10 CFR 75?

What are the radiological dose exposure limits according to the NRC and the IAEA for: An occupational worker, and And an individual of the public

Are the dose rate limits published by the NRC and the IAEA equivalent?

What factors must be considered during design basis activities to ensure the safety of the workers and the public?

Write a brief summary documenting the development of the US IAEA Safeguards agreement. Why was this agreement put into place? What was the driving legislation? What were the concerns from other member states?

What changed from the initial agreement to the ratified agreement put into force on December 9, 1980? What countries also accepted the IAEA safeguards provisions? Which U.S. presidents were involved?

In your opinion, what impact does the implementation of this agreement have on the US nuclear industry? What impact does it have for the global nuclear industry?

Difference between the 2-step application and the combined application for a nuclear reactor

A combined license is able to authorize both the construction and conditional operation of nuclear plant. For the application of the combined license, the application for the operational license is done according to 10 CFR Part 50. The details which are required in the application for the operating license are also considered important in the application of the combined license. Financial and antitrust information as well as assessment needs for the power are required in the application. In addition, inspections, tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria (ITAAC) are considered in this process unlike in the two-step licensing (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2004). Operation standards and safety are the key elements which are focused in the combined license.

On the other hand, the key requirements which are needed for the obtaining of the operational license in two-step licensing in contained in NRC’s regulations. The two processes in this process include the issuance of a construction permit and an operating license. The Two-Step licensing process is able to cover wider events of activities unlike the combined licenses which concentrate on nuclear plants (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2004).  In addition, the two-step licensing procedure is able to consider different aspects such as the preliminary safety analyses, the environmental review and the financial and antitrust statements. The needs of the power plant are the other important aspects which are considered in this process. The NRC must be able to perform the acceptance review for the licensing to takes effect.

The early site permit is an approval which can be issued in order to address emergency and review of some key elements of nuclear plants. The early site permits are issued to address some key issues such as safety issues, environmental protection issues and plans for coping with emergencies as well as review of specific nuclear plan designs.

The opportunities which are involved in public involvement include optional pre-application meeting, tech meeting on site safety review (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (n.d.), 2012), public meeting on environmental review; ACRS review meeting and mandatory hearing on BSP. The level of public participation is dictated by notices which are issued for different events.

Regulatory Guide 10.3 applies to preparation of applications for special nuclear material licenses which are for less than critical mass quantities. The key requirement used for the guide is the code of federal regulations found on 10 CFR Part 70. The guide is able to provide the information to applicants needed to complete NRC form 313. The guide supports the volume 17 of NUREG- 1556.

Understanding Early Site Permits

The analogous standard adopted by the IAEA for the protection against radiations in 10 CFR 20 include the control of issuance of licenses, controlling of receipts and their possession, control of use, transfer, and disposal of the licensed radiations. The evaluation of the probability of the accidents and consequences are also incklud3d in the safety consideration for the nuclear plants. Reduction of the margin of safety is an analogue consideration which is made in this regulation. PSAR and FSAR are able to provide the safety requirements to consider at different instances. The control of dose exposure is usually defined under this section for different parties. All these standards are meant to ensure that the emission from the licensed personnel does not exceed the set radiation limit. The dose exposures in this section are able to involve key elements from the Occupational Dose limit for adults. The Occupational Dose limit for adults is shown to be controlled except on specific special planned exposures. Occupational Dose limit for minors must be maintained at all cases as well as the dose equivalent to any embryo or fetus. The dose exposure limit relates to the dose limit for individual members of the public where the later providers that their consideration should come first. Even with special consideration, the overall limit should first be considered.

Under the 10 CFR 75, the first exemption which is made is related to the communication language. It states that when noted all the communication concerning the regulation, can be addressed to another place apart from the SU.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which has the mandate to address the nuclear safeguard issues. The other exemption is that when the deadline for submission falls on Saturday, Sunday or any federal holiday, the deadline is pushed to next federal working day officially.

The NRC and IAEA are able to provide key standards on dose exposure to different parties. The radiological dose exposure limit for an occupational worker according to NRC and IAEA is set to a permissible maximum dose of 20 mSv per year, which is averaged over five years. The dose exposure limit for individual of the public is one the other hand set at 100 mrem per year according to NRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (n.d.), 2012). The dose rate limits published by both NRC and IAEA are not equivalent although published in different units. Conversions of the units will lead to the different rates. The conversion rate shows that 1Sv is equivalent to 100 rem. The IAEA has set a maximum exposure of less than 1mSv per year for the public and less than 20 Av per year for the licensed workers while NRC has an maximum exposure of 5 mSv per year for the public. The different maximum exposure rates are provides by these two organizations.

International safeguards requirements must be considered for the safety of the workers and public during the design stage. Protection barriers for workers must be provided to limit exposure to workers and public. The interplay between operations and regulations requirements are key factors which are considered during design stage to ensure safety will be maintained. Moreover, the design processes has to emission of the nuclear rays are least emitted. The safety requirements on facility construction must also be adhered to as well. Also, the design of the facility is required to follow the I & C system to enhance the safety of workers and public. Stable site for foundation is required for the structure. This will help to limit the amount of rays which are moving via ground. Radiation control is a key safety measure which is emphasized during the design of the facilities. High material quality and control procedures are essential to enhance the safety of the facilities operations.

The IAEA safeguard agreement was made due to the widespread concerns on safety issues related to nuclear weapons among nuclear-states. The NPT was the driving legislation which led to the IAEA safeguard agreement. Some key concerns which were raised by the member states were on the allowed access of the IAEA personnel to access their facilities and records. Financing to i8ncrease the IAEA agreement safeguard was another issue which the member state raised. Some key changes which was made include the formation of “Interagency Steering Group for International Safeguards” to handle policy matters. The IAEA safeguard provision was accepted by countries such as Italy, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany .Presidents Johnson and Carter were the U.S presidents who were involved in the push to acceptance of IAEA agreement.

In U.S. I think the implementation of this agreement will help increase public safety and also enhance the development of nuclear industry. Increase in global nuclear development is a key impact which this agreement will provide as well as increased safety consideration.

References

10 CFR Part 70, “Domestic Licensing of Special Nuclear Material,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory

Commission, Washington, DC.

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (2004). Nuclear power plant licensing process. Washington, DC : United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (n.d.). (2012). Rules and regulations - United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Washington.

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