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City of Casey and its Characteristics

City of Casey is the Interface Council. It contains agricultural or localities with low density and urban expansion both. It acts as the bridge between rural Victoria and metropolitan Melbourne. This brings in both rural and urban characteristics (Secada SURe, 2019). City of Casey has a significantly higher population of young adolescents when compared to rest of the Victoria. Use of drugs or substance use is a major concern among the young adolescents or students in this city (Cook et al., 2020). Teenagers or school students are more vulnerable towards the use of drugs as these teenagers are not able to take their decisions by their own regarding their health and well- being. They are more prone to use drugs or substance use and in fact more quickly than the adults. Mostly, Aboriginals population are residing in this city and in general their socio- economic status is not good or having low income which leads to depression and to certain extent impacts the mental health very badly, which in turn can lead a person for drug addicts (AU & C. V. G, 2018-2021).

Municipal Public Health and Well- being Plan is directed to focus on the health and well- being for the residents of Casey (City of Casey, 2022). Council plan have prepared a health and well- being directions as well as priorities such as local health & social data, community consultation, public health evidence consideration for the City of Casey (City of Casey, 2022).

The paper describes regarding the drug use in secondary students, aged within 12- 17 years old from the City of Casey, Victoria, Australia. It is also known to be the largest residential areas of Aboriginals and Torres Islanders. According to the data of Australian Bureau of statistics, it has estimated residential population of 6696670 by the year 2020, estimated Aboriginals and Torres Islanders population is 57767 by the year 2016 (ABS, 2022). Amongst which, estimated population of school students is 90757 by the year 2020 (ABS, 2022). Socio- economic status is the main factor behind the health impacts and drug abuse. Key priorities of the Municipal Public Health and Well- being Plan are: reducing any kinds of self- harm or so by the use of alcohol, drug and tobacco use; improving mental well- being; reducing violence and any kinds of injuries; increasing physical activity and increasing healthy eating (City of Casey, 2022). Therefore, the primary goal of this plan is to support and protect the health and well- being with a focus on preventing risk factors impacting on physical and mental health conditions of the Casey community. Determining factors for drug use includes stress which may be prolonged and detrimental for health and well- being; other factors include: resilience, self- regulation, human relationships and attachment (Pascoe, Hetrick & Parker, 2020). Behaviour influenced due to use of drugs is the resulting interaction between developmental processes and environmental factors. There are various risk factors which are salient at different stages of life and influential factors which lead to the development of risks of drug abuse (Pascoe, Hetrick & Parker, 2020). For examples in case of these school students or adolescent teenagers include: early behavioural disorders, emotional disturbances, depression, oppositional defiant disorders, inability in self- regulation, inexpressible emotions and behaviour, exposure to drugs and use of drugs from social influence, children of sole parents, children of divorced parents and low socio- economic status of the family (City of Casey, 2022). Drug prevention is needed to be addressed with the associated factor that includes suicide prevention, crime prevention, bullying prevention and other factors. Monitoring the youth for drug abuse and other social related problems that influence them to get involved into these addictions, is quite an important aspect. Other activities and outcomes can be monitored through community resilience; policies and programs by Governments and other social organizations (City of Casey, 2022).

The Issue of Drug Abuse Among Secondary Students

Nursing advocacy and interventions is a crucial step for this community to prevent and manage the drug abuse among the students of City of Casey. In regards of nursing interventions, services recommended for these students are: counselling, rehabilitation in terms of therapeutic interventions, residential rehabilitation, pharmacotherapy, coordination in terms of care and recovery, alcohol and drug prevention services specific to youths, conducting health related teachings for the drug addict students and their family, making the family members and students aware of substance use, its effects on physical and mental health, recovery, understanding and addressing the family issues and, promoting of coping skills (Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services, Ch. 4, 2016). Casey community requires necessary knowledge, resources and skills to alleviate the substance use (City of Casey, 2018). Life course approach for the health and well- being of these school students are needed to be considered that includes the transition period from childhood to adolescent, to school to employment, and the old age (City of Casey, 2021). Actions to be undertaken must be with the goal of improvising the mental health and well- being as well as to ensure no to self- harm, intervention strategies are enough effective, appropriate use of resources, must be cost effective and support accountability. Due to complex social issues and no single policy is existing to tackle these students in isolation; hence, such organisation or programs must be initiated. Partnerships or programs are crucial for sustaining and building effort from aspects of improvisation for the City of Casey community in terms of drug abuse (Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services, Ch. 4, 2016). From the aspect of primary or general healthcare practices, students addicted with drug use disorders within mild to moderate, those students can be treated with general healthcare system that may be sufficient; and the students with severe disorders of drug abuse, i.e., addiction, are required to be subjected to speciality- based treatment (Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services, Ch. 4, 2016). Being a nurse, I would coordinate the general and behavioural healthcare system. I would integrate primary care services along with mental health and drug abuse related problems al together that will produce best outcomes with an approach of most effective and supportive health and wellness interventions. I would also provide prevention, treatment, management and recovery support services for drug abuse students along with substance use related medications (Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services, Ch. 6, 2016). I would also conduct an awareness program in each locality of the city to make them aware regarding the substance use and its effects and other consequences of drug abuse in life. Being a primary goal of the nurse, I would apply the management approach or methods for treating non problematic symptoms and improving the functional health status and well- being along with other psychiatric disorders. Based on the scientific evidences, I would implement “behavioural therapies” for the treatment of drug abuse or substance abuse disorders (Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services, Ch. 6, 2016). Apart from that, I would also prefer electronic technology- based treatment strategies like Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and using telehealth that could help to improvise that accessibility, engagement, monitoring as well as supportive care for those having substance use disorders (Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services, Ch. 6, 2016).

Municipal Public Health and Well-being Plan for City of Casey

Moreover, existing health promotional programs for identifying, treating and managing drug use issues or substances use disorders are there that can help out someone with a drug abuse problem as well as if that person is at risk of developing substance use disorders. By this existing strategy, one can be considered for early intervention before the progression of the condition. Considering as the strength of this program is that, it is being on condition that in general healthcare settings, recognition and screening for drug use is existing; this would help to understand the upcoming problems related to drug- abuse is being detected and hence early intervention can be done. To address this service, effective care strategies, evidence- based medications, behavioural related therapies and other supportive services has been extended (Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services, Ch. 6, 2016; Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services, Ch. 4, 2016). Whereas, from the weaknesses point of view, there are few barriers that have limited adoption for these existing services that includes insufficient training programs, shortages of workforce, lack of resources and other organisational programs. This is mainly impacting the treatment for those with substance use disorders and co- occurring drug use along with physical and mental disorders. Weaknesses also includes, that there is no availability of FDA approved medications for treating marijuana, methamphetamine, cocaine and other drug use disorders (Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services, Ch. 4, 2016).

Conclusion

Therefore, it can be concluded as a primary goal from the perspective of nurse’s role in primary healthcare or health promotion is that, prevention and management of substance abuse or drug use disorders is a very crucial issue to address as an early intervention. In regards of this, self- harm tendency or suicidal thoughts can be prevented if counselling and other awareness programs are being implemented to literate this community and preventing them from becoming more vulnerable. Other than this, emerging treatment technologies must be implemented to support the procedures of assessing, treating and maintaining the contacts with the students with substances use disorders as well as with their families.

References

ABS. (2022). Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 5 April 2022, from

https://www.abs.gov.au/.


AU, C. V. G. Inclusive Casey Strategic Framework 2018–2021.

https://www.casey.vic.gov.au/sites/default/files-public/2018-09/Inclusive-Casey-Strategic-Framework-2018-21.pdf


City of Casey. (2018). Council welcomes funding to establish Local Drug Action Team. City Of Casey. Retrieved 5 April 2022, from https://www.casey.vic.gov.au/news/council-welcomes-funding-establish-local-drug-action-team.


City of Casey. (2021). Casey’s Future: A Plan for Children, Young People & Families [Ebook] (p. 22). Retrieved 5 April 2022, from https://www.casey.vic.gov.au/sites/default/files/2018-08/Caseys-Future-A-Plan-for-Children-Young-People-Families-2017-2021.pdf.


City of Casey. (2022). Municipal Public Health and Wellbeing Plan 2017-2021 Adopted | City of Casey. Casey.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 5 April 2022, from https://www.casey.vic.gov.au/policies-strategies/municipal-public-health-wellbeing-plan-2017-2021-adopted.


Cook, M., Livingston, M., Wilkinson, C., Shanthosh, J., & Morrison, C. N. (2020). Alcohol industry vs. public health presentations at judicial reviews of liquor licence applications in Australia. International Journal of Drug Policy, 82, 102808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102808


Pascoe, M. C., Hetrick, S. E., & Parker, A. G. (2020). The impact of stress on students in secondary school and higher education. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 25(1), 104-112.

https://doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2019.1596823


Secada SURe. (2019). South Eastern Melbourne Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) Catchment-based plan [Ebook] (p. 28). Secada SURe. Retrieved 5 April 2022, from https://enliven.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/AOD.pdf.


Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services; 2016 Nov. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); Office of the Surgeon General (US). Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General's Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health [Internet]. CHAPTER 4, EARLY INTERVENTION, TREATMENT, AND MANAGEMENT OF SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK424859/


Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services; 2016 Nov. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); Office of the Surgeon General (US). Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General's Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health [Internet]. CHAPTER 6, HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS AND SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK424848/

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