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Background

Describe about the Organisation Behaviour for Culture and Leadership.

Organizational behaviour is one of the significant aspects that influence the business performance. Organizations are nothing but social systems. It is necessary for an individuals to understand how the organizations run the operations if they wish to work in them or manage them. The thesis of organization behaviour seems to be interesting as well as challenging as well. It is associated with the individuals, group of individuals working together in teams. The research of organizational behaviour relates to the expected behaviour of an employee or individual in the organization. In this context, Chhokar, Brodbeck and House (2013) commented that organizational behaviour is considered as the systematic study of human behaviour, attitude and performance within an organizational setting. The report considers the case study of XYZ Consultants to understand how changes in the organizational behaviour could influence organizational as well as employee performance.

Background

There have been some factors such as employee motivation, leadership and impact of personality could influence the organizational behaviour. As commented by Antonakis (2013), the individuals are not supposed to behave in the same manner in a particular work situation. It is the predictability of a leader or the manager about the expected behaviour of an individual. It is evident that the human factor is contributory to the productivity; therefore, great importance of human behaviour and the organizational behaviour needs to be attached to the report.

 Aim

The aim of the report is apply variety of approaches to organizational behaviour and improve the human relationship within the firm. The report also focuses on exploring the relationship among different elements of organizational behaviour and its effectiveness.

Scope

The scope of report is under:

  • Influence of performance or the personality
  • Employee motivation
  • Leadership
  • Engagement theory

Kahn’s need satisfying approach

Employee engagement is one of the significant fields in an organization that could largely influence the performance of the employees and the organization as well. In this context, Marion and Gonzales (2013) commented that the simultaneous employment as well as the expression of an individual’s preferred self in a work behaviour, which promotes relation to work and to others is the known as the positive employee engagement. In this context, Greenberg and Colquitt (2013) mentioned that the employees should be engaged on a physical, emotional as well as the cognitive levels. However, these levels are meaningfully affected by three psychological domains including the meaningfulness, availability and safety. Hence, the meaningfulness is defined as the positive “sense of return on investment of self in role of performance”. Kahn explains psychological meaningfulness as a feeling the individual experience into work performance. As opined by Parris and Peachey (2013), the employee observe meaningfulness, when they feel safe, useful, and valuable as well as not taken for granted. In the case study, it was studied that when Tim first started the operation he implemented an open management style, where the employees are encouraged to discuss any issues with him. In addition, the working space of the consultants were situated on the same floor. Moreover, Tim and training consultants would share a common dining area and washroom facilities. This helps to form an informal interaction between Tim and the other consultants. Most importantly, the training consultants were greatly involved in all aspects of the business. The family as well as the personal commitments of the employees were highly respected and considered before any work schedule was finalised. This shows the sense of meaningfulness, which positively influence the performance of the employees

Aim

Identifying the changes reviewing the leadership style and the culture

After taking over the operation, Fiona brought some changes in the organizational structure as well as the culture, which negatively influence the performance of the employees and organizational productivity decreases. Hence, Fiona follows a different leadership style unlike her father Tim. Fiona follows an autocratic leadership style, where she used to have control over all decisions and little input from the HODs. Hence, the HoD of the consultants would take the decisions employees are not involved in making the major decision of the business. However, autocratic leadership may not be effective for such small and medium enterprise where employee opinions are least heard. However, Gillet et al.  (2013) argued that when decisions required to be made quickly without consulting with large group, autocratic style is effective.

Equity theory-The equity theory developed by Adam includes the subtle and the variable factors that influence individual’s assessment as well as the perception of the relationship with their work. Thus, while developing the organizational productivity along with employee performance, it is necessary to focus on the principles of equity theory. It helps to increase employee’s job satisfaction and encouragement level. While applying the theory, it is significant to focus on the balance or the imbalance that presently exists between the input as well as the output. The inputs may include effort, hard work, commitment, loyalty, skills, ability and other skills.  

On the contrary, other skills may include recognition, sense of achievement, reputation and responsibility, value, respect and other elements. The organizational scenario of XYZ Consultants given in the case study, indicates that Tim, to gain the output from the employees he implemented an open management style where employee opinions and values were considered. Hence, the output received from the employer in the form of organizational culture, where the employees are seen to be participating in determining their work schedules and they would consult before the work is distributed. Moreover, the personal and family commitments were valued and organization provides employee appraisal benefits as the recognition to the employees.

Organizational justice- Organizational justice is referred to the employee perception of fairness in the work environment, where the perception of the employees are divided into four different categories including distributive, procedural, informational and interactional (Myhill and Bradford 2013). The distributive justice revolves around employee’s concern of the effective outcome they receive (Bos‐Nehles, Van Riemsdijk and Kees Looise 2013). The case study indicate that Tim maintains an effective organization culture, where employee benefits are highly considered based on which employees in return give the input.  However, Fiona taking over the business, the employee benefits such as employee appraisal systems were taken off. Hence, the employees may perceive this culture as unfair judgement. On the contrary, procedural justice revolves around the fact how employees perceive fairness of the business process based on which the outcome is determined (Barrick, Mount, and Li 2013). Likewise, the interactional justice includes the fact, where the explanation or discussion are effectively communicated. For example, in XYZ consultant, Tim motivates open communication and employees could discuss anything with him.

Scope

In order to increase organizational performance and employee job satisfaction, the XYZ consultant could change the leadership style and organizational culture. The organization could implement democratic leadership style in which the employees or the group of employees take more participative role in all business process including the decision making process. By applying this model, the organization could identify the potential issues of the employees that negatively affect their performance. The employees could raise the issues as democratic leadership style includes an open communication approach, in which any employee could discuss the personal issue with the leader. However, the democratic leadership could lead to communication failure and unaccomplished projects (Marion and Gonzales 2013).

Conclusion

On the completion of the report, it can be added that organizational culture or the behaviour play a crucial role in developing the performance of the organization and the employees. However, the discussion on equity theory indicates that inequitable comparison could result in a state of confusion and tension, which may encourage employees to restore equity. This could increase or decrease work effort and employee turnover.

Reference list:

Chhokar, J.S., Brodbeck, F.C. and House, R.J. eds., 2013. Culture and leadership across the world: The GLOBE book of in-depth studies of 25 societies. Routledge.

Antonakis, J., 2002. House (2013), The Full-Range Leadership Theory: The Way Forward. Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: The Road Ahead 10th Anniversary Edition (Monographs in Leadership and Management, Volume 5) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 5, pp.3-33.

Marion, R. and Gonzales, L.D., 2013. Leadership in education: Organizational theory for the practitioner. Waveland Press.

Parris, D.L. and Peachey, J.W., 2013. A systematic literature review of servant leadership theory in organizational contexts. Journal of business ethics, 113(3), pp.377-393.

Greenberg, J. and Colquitt, J.A. eds., 2013. Handbook of organizational justice. Psychology Press.

Gillet, N., Fouquereau, E., Bonnaud-Antignac, A., Mokounkolo, R. and Colombat, P., 2013. The mediating role of organizational justice in the relationship between transformational leadership and nurses’ quality of work life: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. International journal of nursing studies, 50(10), pp.1359-1367.

Myhill, A. and Bradford, B., 2013. Overcoming cop culture? Organizational justice and police officers' attitudes toward the public. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 36(2), pp.338-356.

Barrick, M.R., Mount, M.K. and Li, N., 2013. The theory of purposeful work behavior: The role of personality, higher-order goals, and job characteristics. Academy of Management Review, 38(1), pp.132-153.

Bos‐Nehles, A.C., Van Riemsdijk, M.J. and Kees Looise, J., 2013. Employee perceptions of line management performance: applying the AMO theory to explain the effectiveness of line managers' HRM implementation. Human resource management, 52(6), pp.861-877.

Marion, R. and Gonzales, L.D., 2013. Leadership in education: Organizational theory for the practitioner. Waveland Press.

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