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Demonstrate critical and strategic thinking skills to understand management choices and organizational contexts; articulate how theory and practice are linked to professional public administration.

Choose one public administration or policy issue preferably state or local to help narrow focus that is unresolved. You should reflect on the applicability of public administration concepts.

Administrative policy

Topic: Administrative or policy issues in the US by Trump government recently

As soon as Donald Trump elected and moved in the white house, a long series of both foreign policies and radical domestic reversals are made. The president even tried to bring many changes in the American administrative policies. The commander-in-chief of Trump government has also viewed by undoing few of the signature achievements of Barack Obama, including Obamacare. Before that Trump has also tried to scrap the signature healthcare reforms of Mr. Obama that are known as a complete and entire disaster (Abadie, Diamond & Hainmueller, 2014). He had even promised that laws would also get replaced through undertaking the new measures simultaneously and got replaced and these changes will be reflected soon. This paper will discuss about the administrative policy of America, in which few policies will be changed by Trump government as per their plan. From the available policies, Trump government is planning to dismantle Obamacare policy that will impact many people of America, who don’t have healthcare insurance. The policy is also discussed with the help of theory.

The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) 79-404, 60 Stat. 237, was enacted in the year 1946, is considered as the American federal statute, which assists in governing the manner in which agencies of administration of federal government in the United States might try to propose as well as set up the regulations. For protecting the citizen, it is analysed that APA was also granted with the judiciary over every action of the agency. It’s referred as one of the most significant parts of American administrative laws, and this act came as a law in the year 1946. The Administrative Procedure Act (APA) is implemented by both the independent agencies as well as federal executive departments. According to Pat McCarran, senator of U. S, which had mentioned APA as the bill of rights for many Americans, whose affairs are regulated or either controlled through the agencies of federal government (Ahearn, Williamson & Black, 2015). The APA text can be explored at Title 5 of U.S Code, in starting of Section 500.

This is same as Model State Administrative Procedure Act that was mainly drafted through the Uniform State Laws or National Conference of Commissioners, to omit the state agencies (Ahearn, Williamson & Black, 2015). Not every state has implemented the wholesale model law by the year 2017. The APA federal don’t require to have the systematic regulations oversight after the adoption of Model APA.

The legal framework of Administrative law, working in the public administration is initiated. It is attained through the requirement to develop and create the public administration system as per law. It’s a concept that can be compared with other previous notion of justice as per the law (Amato & Schreiber, 2013). As administrative includes the power exercise through the executive government arm, administrative law is related to political, constitutional, along with juridical. There is no universally recognized definition related to administrative law, but importantly it might be considered for covering the powers, organization, duties, as well as functions described with public authorities of every type, which is connected with administration; their connection with each other and with nongovernmental bodies and citizens; legal ways for controlling the administration of public, along with liabilities and rights of officials (Anderson, 2014).

Administrative law is at colossal extent complemented by the laws of the constitution, and it is noted that the line between is quite challenging to draw (Angell, 2013). The national legislature organization, court structures, cabinet characteristics, along with the head of the state role is primarily considered as the purpose of the constitutional law, in which both the procedural and substantive procedures are linked with local and central governments, as well as judicial, administrative review, that relates with administrative law. In some issues like ministers, responsibility can never be assigned exclusively as per constitutional or administrative laws (Arnold, 2013). According to American jurist, administrative law is referred as the constitutional law parts.

The law associated with the education, health, public services and housing can be primarily considered under the administrative law, but due to the sheer bulk, it is most of the time referred as ancillary (Auster, Wylie & Valente, 2005).

In America, Donald Trump is presiding over the devastating, withering as well as trenchant attack over the administrative state of America, which is every seen by this nation. The administrative state, which is also known as the modern American government pillars is linked with creating and enforcing the environmental and economic regulations, running and designing of social welfare programs, fighting corruption and crime, and offering national defence and many more (Bailey & Chorniy, 2016).

In the last nine months, the government of Trump had made its aim and bulled its eye. Beyond public gaze, the government of Trump has tried to roll back, rescinded as well as reverse many environmental, transportation, labour, education, consumer protection and food and drug regulations (Baker & Jorgensen, 2015). Liberty hugely improves the deregulatory efforts, which create issues over the health, safety and Americans welfare, which is not mentioned as for right for rest of the world that rely on America for combatting towards banking and security frauds, global warming and exploitation of employees (Baker & Jorgensen, 2015). Simultaneously, Trump is trying to slander the bureaucracy, the sizeable political community, officials that work for designing and demanding the compliance with the regulations of administration through congressional designs as well as long-time practices, impulsive, proper position to respond, and issues related with directing the sudden, abusive as well as hyper-partisan president (Barker, Pistrang & Elliot, 2015).

In America, Donald Trump is the first president that had railed against all the administrative states or had made promises to offer substantial federal bureaucracy downsizing, but so far it’s still referred as unflinching. But in various aspects, the rollback of instant policy and recession are not the crucial ones. Trump has taken no steps for deregulating it. Trump along with his lieutenants are also trying to damage the regulation machinery to certain extent, which cannot be swing back into action by federal agencies, as they are not so capable of doing so, when outcry bust over environment, health and safety protections and labour propel towards the pro-regulation in the office of American president (Bates, Suchi, Ohno-Machado, Shah & Escobar, 2014). According to consumer protection, all the subsidiaries, which were under the act of Obamacare are wiped out by the present government. All the federal funds were given to the insurance firms, in order to provide them with cheap plans for the people living below poverty line. Trump in his tenure has abolished the Obamacare in the month of October, and in the result of that, premiums over the cheap plans have increased from 7to 38%. According to Congressional Budget Office, it is calculated that this action will add around $194 billion over the federal deficit by the year 2026 (Behara & Gunderson, 2015). It still exists a chance. Nevertheless, Congress will try to refund all the funds. After the dismantling of this policy, employers had refused to include the birth control under the insurance policy. In contrast with the actual rules of Obamacare, all the employers can now quickly go for paying for taking contraceptives for their staff through claiming that they have religious and moral objections. After the dismantling of this policy, many women might lose to have access to take contraceptives (Belatti, Pugely, Phisitkul, Anedola & Callaghan, 2014). The American government is also ready to pay for the legal fees for the community, which had previously used the administration of Obama for attaining the mandate to take a turn.

Policy Aim

The aim of this policy is quite simple to extend, where the coverage of health insurance to an individual extent is calculated to around 15% of the total population of America that lack it. People who didn’t receive the insurance coverage through their employers are not included in the health programme of America for elderly and poor were part of Obamacare. To attain this, the law needs that every American should have their health insurance, but it provides subsidies for covering the affordable (Bernardi, 2014). It also aims to minimize the price of insurance through bringing young, as well as healthy people in the system of medical coverage. It also needs that businesses having mor0e than 50 employees should provide this health insurance.

This law aims to create the marketplace, which is run by states over the websites that are akin towards online shopping and travel sites, where individuals can quickly try to compare the cost when they shop for covering it. Individual states had not taken part in ACA, and the community residing there can easily buy the online market plan through the help of federal government (Blavin, Shartzer, Long & Holahan, 2014). Along with this, the law had tried to ban the companies of insurance through denying them with offering health coverage to individuals having the pre-health conditions, permitting the young people to stay over the plans of parents till they get 26, and then afterwards expand the eligibility towards the government-run programme of Medicaid health for poor and elderly people. The aim of this law eventually has gone little slow for the expansion of healthcare spending in America that is highest all over the world (Bloodgood & Morrow, 2003).

It is examined that around 22 million people will lose the medical insurance in case Obamacare is repealed. The law provisions try to take care of the accessibility to the one that was previously shut down. The rate of uninsured has also reduced to around 5% since the beginning of the program. There are specific provisions related with this law, such as, children can easily stay with the healthcare plan of their parents by the age of 26; everyone will be allowed to take insurance as per their pre-existing medical condition, and organizations cannot charge the women more as compared to men (Blumenthal & Collins, 2014).

Two extraordinary steps were taken by Donald Trump under their health law signature, which tries to measure the damage, which will take to Obamacare, despite all the repeated Republican failure in Congress for repealing it. For attaining the access to less comprehensive as well as cheap insurance, which is predicted by the experts might lead towards the health plans for the patients to get more costly by the executive orders made by President of America (Buchmueller, Carey & Levy, 2013). The surprise notice was issued by the American president by federal subsidizing and underpinning the system. The actions taken by Trump government can quickly undermine the marketplace of health for many Americans, which are dependent upon it and this policy will also hurt most of the vulnerable population of America.

President of America spending on his campaigning had faced many issues due to his vague promises that relate with replacing the Obama health law that increases its coverage to around 20 million individuals, and he is also frustrated by the inability of his fellow Republicans to coalesce near the plan (Burwell, 2015).

Just like other developed countries, America fails to have a proper national health system, and as the Americans have the most costly healthcare system in the world, even the trip of the hospital can be ruinous in the financial system, and that’s why insurance in healthcare has become a necessity for Americans. In America, most of the people are taking insurance in three ways, such as by the program of government for both elderly and poor and its known as Medicaid and Medicare; through employer and through internet marketplace, which is established by Obama Affordable Care Act started in 2010 (Busom, Corchuelo & Martínez-Ros, 2014). It’s among that marketplace, which is affected by the initiatives taken by Trump. The group applying the marketplace is highly dominated by the small business owners as well as self-employed. Plans of the marketplace are highly regulated with the help of standards set of advantages, which includes mental health care, maternity care as well as prescription drugs. Trump had tried to change the system in two manners.

First is through signing the executive order, for permitting the insurers of health to sell out the loosely regulated, as well as cheap plans that are outside the marketplace, and its known as association health plans, and the same relies on the idea that in case of small businesses they should band itself for attaining better rates through the insurance firms (Carlson, Lennox Kail, Lynch & Dreher, 2014). Conservatives mention that this can turn the insurance of health in what is known as financial items that are meant for the emergencies and is highly designed exclusively for the middle class. It also includes the progressive groups, and these plans are known as junk, as they might consist of few benefits and might not contain the people when they require it most.

Secondly, Trump had decided for not funding the government subsidiaries by giving insurance firms under the Obamacare, in order to make the health insurance even less costly for the people coming from the low-income group. It’s known as cost sharing minimization. For meeting this, Trump only need to make an announcement, because as per the rule, the court can quickly rule out the illegal subsidiaries before the administration left the Obama office, and before they had time to appeal (Chan, Fung & Chien, 2013).

From last seven years, Republicans had started their campaign against ACA, which they refer to the unwarranted intrusion of government within the private industry and for finishing the mandate related to the high-cost plan of insurance. Nevertheless, after attaining the presidency control, Senate and House in 2016 election, they didn’t agree on how actually to replace the law. Dismantling Obamacare might leave more than 20 million people in America to have no healthcare insurance because it’s a prospect that has to brighten as an uproar. Public approvals related to the health plans of Republicans is approximately 20% (Charach, Yeung, Volpe, Goodale & dosReis, 2014). It was analysed that Republicans also suffered through the embarrassing failure caused after they try to pass the bills by the help of Congress. As Trump is asking for the repeal of Obamacare, it was also insisted by him to implode, that Obamacare should get fail as things will go more comfortable for him, this was mentioned by Trump himself after one of the legislative failures in the summer session. Through the subsidiary characterization that used to help poor and act as a bailout for the insurers as well as health plans solutions in case of Obamacare nightmare (Diaz, 2015). The government has also made the implosion to happen it more.

From the dismantling of Obamacare policy, sick, poor, women, old Americans and mainly the small business owners will be impacted by the move of Trump, as per the doctors of America. Around 12.7 million of the American population depends heavily on the marketplace of health insurers as created by Obamacare. According to the joint statement made by six of the American physicians mentions that executives orders of Trump over the low price plans might create a crucial economic issue to both older and women, sick people of America that stand to face the problem of the high price as well as fewer options of insurance (Dillender, Heinrich & Houseman, 2016). According to Democrats, these actions might create serious problems, as the same might damage the structure of healthcare in America. As per Chuck Schumer of democratic congress leader and Nancy Pelosi, who is the representative of Congress had mentioned this action as the spiteful act of vast as well as unless sabotage. Susan Collins, who is the Republican senator and whose vote had supported in bringing down the repeal plan of republicans mentions that Trump has finished the significant subsidy, which assists the low-income population of America (Gai & Minniti, 2015).

The new Congress and President of America had come up with few significant problems related to health policy:

  •    Resolving the upcoming Affordable Care Act (ACA).
  •    Slowly expecting the national health growth spending over the private level and at the level of federal states.
  •    Medicare program reforms in the manner, which enhances the Medicare HI Trust Fund life and also try to moderate the expansion of Supplementary Medical Insurance trust fund for making sure about the viability of program for attaining more benefits (Gallman, 2016).
  •    In the year 2012, Supreme Court ruling had explored that constitutional ACA had struck within the provision by mentioning that states had to bring change within how they can administer the health program of government, Medicaid. According to the Obamacare, it was expected that states should enhance the number of people that get qualified to attain Medicaid that is primarily for the poor people and in turn, the federal government will offer states with more funds (Gallman, 2016). It is mentioned by the court that states can easily select not to take part in the expansion of Medicaid. In result of that, both the working class and low-income families that were not qualified to receive Medicaid explore themselves to pay for taking the private insurance.
  •    Insurance firms are backing to make a part in Obamacare due to the fewer Americans than expected are signing in; this is return increases the cost of insurance for each, that later on increases the participation (Geslison & Jacobs, 2013). For few Americans that come in a range of the middle-income group, the available subsidiaries for purchasing policies of Obamacare is not considered as generous and is excellent for covering too less for initiating them to go and enrol into the health plan (Giaimo, 2013).
  •    Premium are mainly to get increased by around 25% by the year 2017. This kind of increase is highly predicted at the beginning of law as well as subsidies of government to assist in paying the insurance that will also rise. But for the one who can be included under the Medicaid expansion is not liable for taking subsidiary.

It is analysed that the American payment system and healthcare delivery is highly extraordinary challenging. The changes in the proposed policy include the controversial trade-offs and are also challenging to clear for most of the voters. There are three problems which are highly linked with one another (Krizan, Luque & Zawacki, 2014). For instance, ACA has raised the federal spending for the health through developing the subsidies, to buy the health insurance as well as the expansion of Medicaid. Simultaneously, it had also minimized the Medicare spending and has come up with reforms to make the delivery of healthcare efficient. Therefore, ACA repealing is entirely make the reforms of Medicaid and concern for spending more challenging to get resolved (Lahm, 2015).

After the repealing of Obamacare, more and more people are coming in favor of Affordable Care Act as compared to the one, who are against it. Simultaneously, more people had started believing that it’s the right idea, instead of a bad idea, as shown by NBC News and Wall State Journal survey poll results (Leonhardt, 2015). There are specific reasons, which might create balance in tipping. I might also enhance the participation in Obamacare, which has slowly tipped in the survey polls. It might be that messaging of Democrats will reduce the covering of sinking it. But as per the especially compelling theory, it might mix it with relative deprivation theory (Leonhardt, 2015).

Regarding sociology, the theory of relative deprivation relates with the perception of both movements and social change as per the people taking action for bringing social change for acquiring something, such as status, wealth or either opportunity, which is possessed by others and for which they believe they should hold it. There are many sociologists who think that relative deprivation theory discusses why the people should try to join for the advocate social change as well as social movements (Liu & Jin, 2015). For instance, in this perspective, gay people had also joined this movement for conducting gay marriages to acquire something, which they believe that others should also possess it; it should also be relative for the people like gay marriage advocates to be supposed, that it's deprived. It is claimed by critics that the theory of relative deprivation fails in explaining why sure people try to join the movement, which most apparently don’t offer any advantage directly.

According to relative deprivation, it explains to get deprived of things, which the people feel they are entitled to attain it. For instance, they used to make hold of it, expected for it, and view that others should possess it (Watkins & Tseng, 2017). This theory also supports in discussing about the anger that going in political movement within America, whether it’s the increase in Obamacare popularity (in this relation as various of them had left, as they don’t view enough about the threats of laws), and why individuals are marching towards streets for protesting about the new president and why Trump got elected in first instant.

It is analysed that relative deprivation is considered as the primary force, which drives the rebellion of politics. Being the political scientist, theories are proposed by Theodore Gurr through his book on Why Men Rebel, launched in the year 1970. This book discusses the gap, which exists among what people think they should collect and what they think it is, as the same might create the discontent, and it also discontent the bore, and instigating situations for the respondents within collective violence (Michaels, 2017).

Saru Jayaraman, who is the employee of the restaurant had mentioned to Washington Post about the worker's pain when they lose the previous advantages while discussing the kinds of discontent. The newly approved acceptance for the Obamacare is not wholly referred as collective violence. But the same can be considered as the remarkable change in the policy of much-maligned. Sanger-Katz, as well as Park, points towards the demographics of who is upset about the repeal potential, and they also mention why they are upset (Page & Robson, 2018). Assistance towards the law has enhanced around various subgroups, but the highest type of movement seems to appear towards the groups of democratic leaning. The people might not like the Obamacare, but it is analysed that they worry about its repeal. In last few time, the fear of losing the Obamacare has increased enough towards the ambivalence of Trump about the laws. For Trump, relative deprivation was the considerable strategy (Tabor, 2017). It might be considered as the profoundly mind-blowing theory, which is threatening through to take away from individuals, which they think should exist and are mad about it.

But within the elegant discussion of the turmoil towards the present political climate, when it looks that many groups are feared about losing it, which they once used to have. In Washington Post Monkey Cage, Emily Kalah Gade has invoked the idea behind initiating the relative deprivation, and she explains, why she thinks that women should move towards making a strong appeal for it. People had pushed towards the streets, not due to the new problems, but due to the protections and values they think might safely depend on threats (Rivlin & Reischauer, 2016). The impending sense of losing the power is getting simmering from last any years between the specific demographics. For instance, few white men, mainly the one who had lost the economic clout, and they feel that way from last many years, according to Michael Kimmel, who is a sociologist and observed the same in his book “Angry White Men” launched in the year 2013 (Kurtzleben, 2017).

Revolutions did take place for those people, who had nothing to lose, but it took place for those who had something, which they can lose, and the fear they have of losing it. It is analyzed that relative deprivation is involved in the recent protests in America. Now that Trump is selected, complete other class of individual might feel more threated, and that’s the reason they are moving towards streets (Cassidy, 2016). Many in the match lead by women, for instance, had voice towards the fear, which women might face by losing the ability to attain the abortions, along with amorphous fear related with losing the social standing and respect, which they had gained in last many years. There are many women, who feel a threat, that the president selected by America, who in one instance had bragged about kissing and groping women. This is not to be mentioned that people are protesting for their benefit. It’s entirely right that various people had come on streets and are also protesting on behalf of others.

Relative deprivation theory emphasizes on two significant things expectations and other is whether it can be fulfilled or not. It is analysed that every politician plays the game of aspiration, in which they try to make promises, and then try to deliver the same to the public. Nevertheless, most of the success attained by Trump in its political game is arguable, as he is playing the game correctly as well as heavily (Cassidy, 2016). He had continued to inform people that they have ignored it unjustly, they have forgotten both men and women, and even missed out what he had once promised to do so, and all men petrify to talk to women. This kind of campaign was constructed over the narrative to being referred as an outsider, by punching at an individual in the name of power. As Trump is now in power and the most significant question is that, whether he will be able to deliver what people expect from him or not.

After his selection, the first two weeks were full of action-packed, as he tried to make policy related to travel ban, make a promise to construct a wall as well as regulations rollback. He even decided to go ahead and show that he is starting to take a handful of all the lost jobs, which were related with the production of goods (Cassidy, 2016). But it is true that four years is a quite long time, and his supporters fail to view his economic interest improvement, and that’s why they should jump out of the ship. These things go same for the immediate popularity of Obamacare. At one instant, Trump has increased the expectations that he will ensure that insurance in healthcare is given to every person of America, but at that time, his fellow Republicans had worked towards tamping that down later on. Now, the situation is that, he and his party had to deliver the promises in any way, and if they failed to do so, they might face the anger of public within America, who had expected from him to bring change since the Obamacare law is passed in the country (Cassidy, 2016).

There are various ways for proceeding with Obamacare policy. In case of the wall street journal, it is mentioned that Robert Litan, who is an economist has discussed specific ways to mitigate the recession of Trump government by dismantling Obamacare.

  1.    Patching up: As affordability is the real problem, the federal government can easily spend amount for reducing the prices, which families and individuals come across. This can be initiated directly through increasing the subsidiaries level, which is available for purchase on the exchange, or either through raising the threshold of income at which subsidiaries can be phased out (Cassidy, 2016). In an alternative option, the government can provide generous subsidies to the companies of insurance, especially the one which serve towards the high-risk population, under which they don’t have to increase the cost or either get imposed with the enormous deductibles.
  2.    Applying forces: One of the considerable problems which are faced by insurers is that in America there are many healthy people along with many sick people, who are signing for taking the plans, which is available through exchanges. In case of insurers, who are trying to change everything, they faced through the high claim as compared to what is expected; they also seek towards increasing the cost that creates the healthy people, mainly young and healthy population, which less likely sign up in following year (Cassidy, 2016). If it’s unchecked, this kind of process might lead towards the spiral of increasing the cost as well as reducing enrolment. The most expected way for examining the issue can dramatically improve the fines, which is faced by people if they fail to buy the purchase insurance. As per the Affordable Care Act terms, getting enrolled is not considered as any choice. Instead, it’s regarded as the legal obligation. Regarding political reason, nevertheless, the penalty imposed for flouting is deemed to be an individual mandate that is set quite low at the starting level and is expected to increase gradually (Cassidy, 2016).
  3.    The option of the public: the increasing price of healthcare is the major problem around the world. The manner in which countries faced it, is through enrolling the whole population or either almost every of it in the individual payer system and through applying the bargaining leverage that tries to develop to reduce the cost. Until now, the political system of America, which is tightly vulnerable towards capturing through high-interest groups like hospitals, doctors, as well as pharmaceutical firms had resisted going down on this path, but the same might get change (Cassidy, 2016).

Along with this, to patch up with the private exchange, Clinton had tried to propose to increase the Medicaid and to reduce the minimum age of enrolment for Medicare, as well as insurance system that is run by the government, up to fifty-five years of age. She has also tried to reaffirm the assistance through setting up the option of the public. It’s an insurance plan that is run by a government that could compete with the private policy of insurance provided by the help of public exchanges.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that administrative policies are changing in America after the coming of Trump government. In this paper, Obamacare policy is discussed which will be dismantled by trump government. Along with this various benefits of this policy along with policy issues are presented in this paper with the help of theory and resolution of issues is also mentioned.

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