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Impact of Detention Centre on Children's Mental Health and Cognitive Development

Question:

Discuss about the Personal Practice Framework in Cases of Trauma.

Trauma can be defined the significant type of damage to the psyche of an individual facilitated by the result of a severely distressing event. On a more elaborative note, it can be mentioned that the disastrous event can leave behind a severe aftermath in the psychological perception and understanding of an individual which can alter The cognitive functioning and thought process of a person, and the severity to which trauma can affect the psychology of a person depends on individual psychological characteristics of that person (Farrell, 2015). Any distressing life event can facility trauma it can be a disaster such as earthquakes are tornadoes or man-made catastrophes or brutal events as well. There are various different kinds of effects that a traumatic event can lead to, such as anxiety and depression and post traumatic stress disorder or PTSD. It has to be mentioned in this context that has the most impactful effect on the psyche of a particular individual that has gone through a significant trauma. Hence it is crucial for the care planning and management involving trauma patients to be extensive detailed and as patient centred as possible. There are various resilience frameworks or care what is aligned to the needs of PTSD patients or any individual that has gone through a particularly significant trauma (Farrell, Evershed & Davidson, 2016). This assignment will attempt to focus on one of the residents frameworks fit for the trauma condition taking the target population of detention Centre children and the trauma they face while being held in the detention centre.

The environment in the detention center and the struggles that the children go through while being in detention centre, deteriorates their mental stability and sanity. As per the investigation report by the Smith (2016), these children are often subjected to torture, starvation, physical and sexual violation in the country of origin and in transit. And as a result the harsh and delimiting condition of the detention centres causes intrinsic damage to the cognitive health of the children. As illustrated by the Elliott and Gunasekera (2016), this acute mental distress caused on the children for the detention centre environment has been reported to have a lifelong aftermath in the form of post traumatic stress disorder, depression and behavioural disorders. According to the report published by The Forgotten children, the Australian government initiative for protecting the human rights and best interest of the children in detention centre, close to one third of the detention center children in Australia living with chronic mental distress and post traumatic stress disorder that require extensive psychiatric support (Triggs, 2015).

Grieving Process and its Association with Depression

Elaborating on the impact of the varied range of different stressful environment on the children, it has to be mentioned that chronic pain and stress has a distinct Pathology in human psychological development.  As the children have still developing psyche and cognition, exposure to long-term and chronic distress can lead to altered cognitive development in pathways triggering higher violence and fight response in the children. On a more elaborative note, it has to be mentioned that the growing brains are far more vulnerable and as a result repeated trauma results in alteration of the children’s enduring hormonal functionality and the brain development, especially targeting the cortisol pathways (Muntean & Cojocaru, 2016).

It has to be mentioned in this context that many researchers have found the detrimental impact of the detention environment has been shown to alter the cortisol levels in the detained children. Along with that it also has been discovered that the cortisol hormone levels are associated with stress response, and is crucially related to the depression pathway of the detained children. On the other hand it has to be mentioned that the detention Centre environment is also associated with extreme environmental deprivation and scarcity of basic necessities. The living condition of such detentions and terms are stark and below normal standards. Many reports have also commented on the torture and physical assault that these children are subjected to in the detention centre. The impact of the distress caused by torture and deprivation has also been accounted to be the major contributing factor behind the mental distress and psychological disorders experienced in these children. The detention centres cannot provide the children with adequate amount of food, clothes and other basic necessities (Brooker et al., 2016).  The detention Centre children often are subjected to Extreme low quality living and have to fight for the basic necessities that they have a right to. The constant torture and deprivation leads them to depression anxiety post traumatic stress disorder and behavioural disorders which extend far into the future. Hence in order to provide psychiatric support that they need there is need for a detailed and extensive practice Framework that takes into consideration is every need and demand of the storage and how it can be fulfilled with utmost cultural safety and dignity (Earnest et al., 2015).

According to Slobodin and de Jong (2015), for any psychodynamic framework, the outcome of grieving process is associated with many external and internal factors, which is incorporated with the understanding of how grief and trauma affects people can be integrated into the care planning and therapeutic Processing which can target the exact need of each traumatized individual and lead them towards their recovery planning with much more clarity and effectiveness. Researchers are of the opinion that conceptualization of a stressful event indicates grief to be a major source of stress which leads to depression as its most likely outcome. It is the most efficient and easy framework to understand the pathology taken by such traumatic stress disorder on the depression and other psychiatric symptoms in the victims. According to the authors the relationship between grief and depression is a cause and effect relationship and in order to target the grief causing factors in any person telling with a traumatizing life event mediators like cooking skill social support and positive all negative appraisal of the situation can be employed (Boynton & Vis, 2011). Derivatives stress and coping models that has been abundantly used by researchers and clinical psychologist to target the traumatized patients and their post traumatic stress disorder or other psychiatric disorder facilitated by the traumatic event and the grief associated with it. One example of such coping strategies can be adaptive coping strategy, which encourages the victims to accept the feelings of loss, so that the victim can recognise their own identity, social relationships and day-to-day living. Is coping strategy helps the victim optimise the effect of loss and bereavement and in turn help the victim to reinstate in new commitments towards life intern reducing the physical emotional social and spiritual impact of bereavement. According to the Smith (2008) positive emotional approach to handling loss 3 for bereavement can result in positive outcomes for the victim dealing with loss. Hence adaptive coping strategy can be an effective model for care planning and therapeutic intervention that can help the trauma victim associate positive outlook with the loss and bereavement that the patient is going through. Similarly another very common stress coping model can be the deficit model for partner loss which characterizes grief as the impact of bereavement of a closed family member or a spouse. Although this models are very effective in addressing one or the other impact of tree for stress this what is cannot be applied to the extensive and detailed area of stress and trauma that the children in the detention centre face. Along with the grief of loss or bereavement or separation, these children are subjected to many other stressors. Hence it can be concluded that they require an extensive and collaborative Framework that can fit all the different factors associated with the stress that they go through and the trauma that it results into.

Coping Strategies for Traumatized Patients

In order to design interventions and therapeutic management in order to enhance the psychological health and cognitive development of the these children that are going through any psychotic disorder or simply are going through and extremely stressful traumatic event, recovery oriented framework is very important. Among the various options available for coping framework or model that can be used in this scenario the resilience framework has been reported to be the best fit for traumatized children in the detention centres. Exploring more, resilience can be defined as a behavioral competence,  functional patterns, and cultural capacities of an individual that he or she can use in any adverse life isn't to turn the adversity into a condition that serves as a catalyst for growth and development. This Framework is associated with four main elements, background characteristics,  adversity characteristics, capacities, and outcome which in this case is mental and physical well being of the victim. The behavioral characteristics comprises of gender, age, race/ethnicity, developmental phase, nature of the relationship, and family structure of both the person grieving and the grieved. Adversities is the traumatic event or stressors. Capacities can be the personal, family, social, cultural, and community resources of the bereaved person. And lastly, the outcome measurement is based on growth, development, healing, accommodation, or integration of the loss (Hooyman & Kramer, 2010).

When applied to the condition of the detention Centre children, the bereavement or loss is multifaceted. These children have sustained loss of their native plant, separation from the environment that they felt comfortable in,  and most importantly separation from the loved ones that they have known all of their life including their family and friends. Applying the first element of the resilient framework, under the context of background characteristics first and foremost the gender of the victim has to be taken into account. It has been reported that there is a distinct difference between the response and acceptance of grief in male and female. Although it also has to be incorporated in this context that the extent of violence and torture is also a little higher for the female children in detention centre (Hooyman & Kramer, 2010). Hence the intervention planning should also have to incorporate the general characteristics of the children. Secondly age and developmental face also plays a pivotal role in the manner that a child can perceive and accept the grieving process. Hence the interventions should also match the age and development is phase of the child depending on the stages of cognitive and psychosocial development of the child is in according to different models such as eric's eight stages of psychosocial development. Nestle by far the most important factor with background characteristics is the addressing the ethnicity and cultural competence of the detention children. In many cases the successful implementation and response rates of different psychotherapeutic plants and behavioral therapeutic interventions due to the lack of cultural safety and culturally appropriate approach to the implementation procedure. Hands when planning intervention for the detention center children the cultural background and ethnic of traditional norms should also be taken into account. In this case body language and privacy how to wearing major issues that offer neglected while planning and implementing the care for the detention center children. In many cultural backgrounds, certain westernized body language and gestures and considered offensive and culturally of inappropriate. Healthcare has to be taken to incorporate these traditional factors so that the children are not offended, most preferably in the presence of a culture relation officer and language expert (Walter, 2017).

The Need for a Resilience Framework for Detention Centre Children

II characteristics the adversity according to the resilience Framework is the condition of suffering. In this step the care provider will have to explode the nature of the loss or trauma and accumulation of past losses and traumatic events that led to the response that the patient is having. In the next section the care professionals will look at the capacities of the trauma victim and will attempt to build on those capacities to help him or her deal with the stress and revert back to normal and healthy living. This capacity include personal cognitive ability competence focus tendency of self blaming religious and spiritual beliefs, ethnic identity adaptation capacity ritual associated with grief and loss family systems and roles social support Peer Groups for various social integration and relationship with the loss is needed to be included. When planning the intervention the care provider will have to explore each and every aspect of the capacities that the victim may have and design a therapeutic management plan that will utilize the strength of the patient and either camouflage or rectify the weakness is found in this exploration procedure.  Lastly the culmination of the previous 3 steps is the outcome, which will eat the victim towards a healthy Lifestyle with optimal cognitive and Physical health (Hooyman & Kramer, 2010).

Conclusion:

Every year a vast variety of different asylum seekers and refugees immigrate towards the Australian continents where they are detained under the law and legislations protecting the citizens of Australia. There are shelter and protection given to The Asylum seekers and refugees in the detention centre after the protection policies of Australian government however the environment of the detention centres I want to have a significant impact on the psychological development and mental sanity of the inhabitants of the detention centre. The most of the impact on the psychological health is for the children that are detained in the detention centres. The environment of the detention centres have reported to be brutal and filled with different uncertainties, and the combination of all these factors facilitate cognitive damage to the children with highly impressionable minds. This essay discussed how the resilience framework can be used in order to plan and implement curated interventions for these children and the benefits these framework can provide to improve he future of these unfortunate innocent children.

Reference:

Boynton, H. M. expressive therapies: Pathways to processing grief with children.

Boynton, H. M., & Vis, J. (2011). Meaning making, spirituality, and creative expressive therapies: Pathway to processing grief with children. Counseling and Spirituality, 30(2), 137-159.

Brooker, S., Albert, S., Young, P., & Steel, Z. (2016). Challenges to providing mental health care in immigration detention. Geneva: Global Detention Project.

Earnest, J., Mansi, R., Bayati, S., Earnest, J. A., & Thompson, S. C. (2015). Resettlement experiences and resilience in refugee youth in Perth, Western Australia. BMC research notes, 8(1), 236.

Elliott, E. J., & Gunasekera, H. (2016). The Health and Well-being of Children in Immigration Detention: Report to the Australian Human Rights Commission: Monitoring Visit to Wickham Point Detention Centre, Darwin, NT, October 16th-18th 2015. Australian Human Rights Commission.

Farrell, P. (2015). Police carry out more raids on Save the Children staff at Nauru detention centre. The Guardian Australia.

Farrell, P., Evershed, N., & Davidson, H. (2016). The Nauru files: cache of 2,000 leaked reports reveal scale of abuse of children in Australian offshore detention. The Guardian, 10(8), 16.

Hooyman, N. R., & Kramer, B. J. (2010). Living through loss: Interventions across the life span. Columbia University Press.

Muntean, A., & Cojocaru, S. (2016). Resilience of Children Behind Bars. Revista de Cercetare si Interventie Sociala, 52.

Muselman, D. M., & Wiggins, M. I. (2012). Spirituality and loss: Approaches for counseling grieving adolescents. Counseling and Values, 57(2), 229-240.

Robillard, A. G., Holliday, R. C., Dehart, D. D., Lewis, K., Rutherford, Y., & Amutah, N. N. (2016). An exploratory study examining risk communication among adolescent children, their incarcerated mothers, and their caregivers. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, 27(2), 101-119.

Slobodin, O., & de Jong, J. T. (2015). Mental health interventions for traumatized asylum seekers and refugees: What do we know about their efficacy?. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 61(1), 17-26.

Smith, C. (2008). Nancy R. Hooyman and Betty J. Kramer Living through Loss: Interventions across the Life Span: New York: Columbia University Press, 2006, 512 pp.,(hbk),£ 42, ISBN 0321122462. Journal of Social Work, 8(2), 203-205.

Smith, P. (2016). Australian doctors condemn" horrific" treatment of children in juvenile detention. BMJ: British Medical Journal (Online), 354.

Triggs, G. (2015). The forgotten children: national inquiry into children in immigration detention 2014. MJA, 202(11), 553-555.

Walter, C. A. (2017). Understanding loss: A guide for caring for those facing adversity by Judith Murray.

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