- Provide a detailed analysis of the policies designed to achieve stated corporate objectives of one or more organisation in the oil and gas industry, and an examination of the problems related to resource acquisition and deployment relevant to those policies.
- Provide a relevant literature review on the problems investigated and relate current management theory to practical recommendations.
- Demonstrate a lucid and logic discourse containing objectives of the project, methodology, relevant literature review, recommendations for action, appropriate references and bibliography.
- Demonstrate the elements of autonomy, personal responsibility and critical analysis and evaluation
- Break down a project proposal into component parts and construct a time and cost constrained project plan towards its completion
Clearly defined objectives/research questions relevant to aim. Clear focus on aims / objectives maintained throughout. If appropriate, hypotheses defined and explained.
Thorough review of appropriate secondary sources; relationship between the literature and the project explored (i.e. justification is linked to literature)
Explanation and justification of an appropriate methodology – approach and data collection techniques appropriate to aims and research questions.
Appropriate analysis of data in the light of the research objectives and questions. Clear and analytical presentation of findings.
Results discussed, highlighting significant findings and comparing theory & practice where appropriate
Analyse the extent to which you have developed your knowledge, throughout the course and how the course and this project has helped your employability. This should be summarised as a personal statement of no more than 500 words and placed in an appendix to the main document.
Define objectives/research questions relevant to aim. Maintain focus on aims/objectives throughout. Define and explain hypotheses.
Conduct thorough review of appropriate secondary sources. Critically explore relationship between the literature and the project.
Explain and justify an appropriate methodology – approach and data collection techniques appropriate to aims and research questions.
Analysis of data in the light of the research objectives and questions. Analytical presentation of findings.
Discuss results highlighting significant findings and comparing theory & practice
Formulate conclusions and recommendations based on interpretation of both the research conducted and the existing literature.
Critically evaluate work. Identify and discuss areas for further research.
This research focuses on the analysis of strategic problems in the oil and gas industries and how these problems are caused by the oil and gas industries. This research also covers on how these strategic problems can be avoided through taking into consideration certain steps that have been put in place to counter these strategic problems. These strategic problems are being faced by the majority of oil and gas industries, however, some of these issues are handled differently depending on the industry in question (B. Yang, 2012, p. 145). Some of the strategic problems facing the oil and gas industries include unconventional sources of gas and oil, dealing with 3D effects, attracting investors, improving safety standards, political risk, geological risks, and cost risk.
Oil and Gas Company is a business entity that deals in the production, distribution, exploration, and refinement of oil and gas. Oil and gas were being used for the purposes of lighting in the previous years. Seeps of crude gas or oil can develop naturally in regions where oil is found in reservoirs that are shallow or collected from tar ponds or seepage. Currently, numerous oil and gas companies have integrated due to the high entry cost relating to numerous operations involved (Booth, 2013, p. 174).
This integration involves the division of numerous operations into groups such as upstream which is composed of production and exploration activities, while downstream deals with marketing and refinement actions. The midstream actions focus on the refinement of oil and gas as well as marketing of the products. During these processes, the companies are faced with some strategic problems which are discussed in this research (C. Rus-Casas, 2003, p. 214).
Statement of the Problem
Like any other company, oil and gas companies are faced with some strategic problems during the various stages from extraction to marketing. This research paper is about these strategic problems faced by the oil and gas industries. However, some companies have come up with the measure to counter these strategic problems which may not be very effective, but have impacted positively on these industries.
In regard to the strategic problems facing oil and gas industries, the following are some of the formulated research questions that will be effective for this research paper:
- What are some of the general problems facing oil and gas industries?
- Which of these problems are strategic?
- Which are the policies put in place to counter these problems?
The research seeks to obtain the following objectives:
- To identify the general problems facing the oil and gas industries
- To find out which of these problems are strategic in nature
- To find out how the strategic problems can be dealt with
Oil was first drilled successfully from the oil well by Edwin Drake in 1859 with the main purpose of looking for oil. These wells were shallower than the standards of the current wells since they had a depth of 50 meters but had a huge oil production. The wooden tank was then used to collect oil. Oil has substituted majority of fuels for engines used in locomotives after their developments at the end of 19th Century. Engines using gasoline were important for making effective aircraft. Ships which were driven by oil could travel twice faster than the shis powered by coal which was a crucial military advantage (C. Rus-Casas, 2003, p. 315).
The attempts to transport gas in 1821 failed until after the World War II that techniques of pipe rolling and welding enabled the construction of effective pipelines leading to the growth of the industry of natural gas. Similarly, the industry of petrochemical together with plastic materials immediately improved in production. Through the arrival of automobiles and consumers who were more advanced, it was important to standardize and improve the products which were marketable. Refining was critical since it enabled the division of crude oil into fractions which could be blended to a given specifications (Ellis, 2012, p. 257).
Statement of the Problem
As quality moved to production of upstream from refining, it became more important for refineries to improve fuel yield which was high yield from a number of crudes. Chemicals got from natural gas or petroleum which are known as petrochemicals, critical section of the industry dealing with chemicals. Due to the increase in consumption and increasing unconventional and conventional resources, the task becomes the ecological usage of fossil fuels as the impacts to the ecology also rises.
The facilities and systems of oil and gas industry are defined broadly defined in terms of their usage in the production stream of gas and oil industry:
Exploration: This stage involves activities such as drilling, seismic, and prospecting which take place before field development is decided finally (Calixto, 2009, p. 187).
Upstream: This refers to all the stabilization and production facilities of gas and oil. The drilling and reservoir group usually uses upstream for the reservoir, wellhead, completion, and well only, while downstream of the wellhead as processing or production. Production/upstream and exploration together is known as E and P.
Midstream: This is defined treatment of gas, regasification, and LNG production plants, and the systems of gas and oil pipelines.
Refining: This is the process where condensates and oil are processed into products which are marketable with specifications that are defined which include diesel, feedstock or gasoline for the industry of petrochemical. The off sites of the refinery like channels of distribution and storage tanks are involved in this segment or can be a section of an operation with separate distribution.
Petrochemical: This is composed of chemical products were the major feedback is hydrocarbons such as industrial chemicals, fertilizer, and plastics.
Previously, the features at the surface like gas pockmarks or tar seeps gave primary evidence to the location of shallow deposits of hydrocarbon. Currently, a sequence of surveys beginning with wide geological mapping by increasing radical approaches like gravity surveys, passive seismic, magnetic, and reflective seismic provide data to sophisticated tools of analysis which identify a potential rock bearing hydrocarbon as prospects. Oil companies spend more time on the model of analysis of better data exploration and will drill only when models provide a better indication of the origin of rock and probability of finding gas or oil.
The initial wells in a place are known as Wildcats since a few may be identified concerning the potential risks like the pressures of downhole which will be met, and therefore need specific attention and care to safety equipment. In case penetration or strike is made, a characterization of an extra reservoir for example appraisal wells and production testing are required to find out the capacity and size of production of the reservoir so as to validate a decision of development.
Though there is a wide range of layouts and sizes, the majority of facilities of production have numerous similar processing systems displayed in the simplified outline below:
Currently, gas and oil are manufactured in nearly each section of the globe from as minor as 100 barrels daily in wells that are private to as huge bore as wells of 4000 barrels per day and in reservoirs with shallow depths of 20 meters to reservoirs with a depth of 3000 meters. Even though there are wide ranges numerous sections of the process have some similarity in their operation. On the left section, there if wellheads which lest manifolds and feed into production. It is involved in product distribution which is known as the system of gathering. The rest of the figure is the real process which is normally known as the plant of gas and oil separation (Fund, 2009, p. 169).
There are also gas-only or oil-only installations, frequently the well-stream will be composed of hydrocarbons of full range from gases such as propane, methane or butane. With the flow of the well, numerous components which as unwanted will be gotten such as salt, carbon dioxide, sand, water, and sulphur. The function of GOSP is to develop the good flow into marketable and clean products such as condensates, oil or natural gas. Some of the utility systems are also part of the systems which are not a portion of the real system, however, give water, air, or energy (IBP, 2015, p. 149).
The productions onshore are viable economically from a few dozen oil barrels upward and daily. Gas and oil are manufactured from numerous wells globally. Specifically, a network of gas gathering may become large with production from many wells which are very far apart, feeding by a gathering system into the plant for processing. In the case of minute reservoirs, oil is brought together simply in a holding tank and selected up at frequent pauses by a railcar or tanker truck for the next process in the refinery. Onshore wells in areas rich in oil have also high volume wells which can produce numerous barrels daily, joined to a million barrel or more daily GOSP (Ecole des Hautes études commercials (Montréal, 2015, p. 275).
The product is sent from the plant through tankers or pipeline. Alternatively, very heavy tar sands and crude became extractable economically with new technology and higher prices. The crude which is heavy may require diluents and heating for extraction to take place. Sands of tar have lost their compounds which are volatile are strip mined or extracted by the use of steam. It must be processed further for the separation of bitumen from sand. From 2007, the reservoir fracturing and drilling technology have permitted liquids and shale gas to be manufactured in increasing quantity (I. de la Parra, 2015, p. 269).
Offshore is used in a whole range of diverse structures depending on water depth and size. Previously, it was possible to observe the installations of pure sea bottom with piping to shore which is multiphase and no offshore at the topside construction. Substituting outlying wellhead towers, drilling through deviation is utilized to access numerous sections of the reservoir from a few locations of wellhead cluster (Marcel, 2014, p. 185). The following are some of the structures of common offshore:
Shallow water complex: This is characterized by numerous platforms which are independent with different sections of the utilities and process linked with bridges of the gangway. Individual platforms are composed of platforms of power generation, wellhead riser, accommodation, and processing.
Gravity base: This is composed of a huge structure of fixed concrete on the bottom usually with cells of oil storage in a skirt which rests on the bottom of the sea. The huge deck obtains all sections of the utilities and process in huge modules. The fields which are large at an approximately water depth of 100 meters to 500 meters were usually in the 1990s. The concrete was emptied at a location of onshore with air that is enough in the cells for storage so as to keep the construction floating until lowering and tow-out onto the seabed (Ilias Bantekas, 2009, p. 189).
Compliant towers: They are majorly similar to platforms which are fixed. They are composed of the narrow tower which is joined to a foundation on the floor of the sea and prolonged up to the platform. The flexibility enables the compliant tower to function in deep water since it can absorb a majority of the pressure by the sea and wind. These towers are utilized at a range of 500 meters and 1000 meters of water depth (Hilyard, 2016, p. 359).
Floating production: This is where all the system’s topside is located on a structure that is floating with subsea or dry wells. Examples of floaters include:
FPSO: This an abbreviation of Floating Production Storage and Offloading. The major benefit is for this system is that it is a structure standing alone which does not require external infrastructures like storage or pipelines. Crude oil is unburdened to a tank of the shuttle at a frequent interval depending on storage and production capacity. An FPSO is usually a tanker type barge or hull which is often converted from a prevailing tanker of crude oil. Because of the rise in-depth of the sea from the new field, these fields dominate the new development of new offshore field with a water depth of more than 100 meters (IBP, 2013, p. 259). The subsea risers or the wellhead are situated on the bow-mounted or middle turret so that the ship may revolve at liberty to point into current, waves, or wind. The turret has a rope of wire and chain connecting to numerous anchors or it may be positioned drastically by the use of thrusters. The majority of the installations utilize wells of subsea. The major procedure is located on the desk, whereas the hull is utilized in offloading and storage to a tanker of the shuttle. This system is also used for the pipeline's transportation to the site.
Tension Leg Platform: This is composed of a construction positioned by the tendons which are at a vertical position and connected to the floor of the sea through templates which are pile-secured. The construction is positioned by tendons which are tensioned and provides for the utilization of the TLP in the depth of broad water up to approximately 2000 meter. The tendons are built as high tensile strength pipes of steel which are hollow and used in carrying the extra buoyancy of the construction and ensuring limited motion vertically (Lerche, 2008, p. 149).
Semi-submersible platforms: They have similarity in design, however, lack taut mooring. This allows extra vertical and lateral motion and usually used with subsea wells and flexible risers. Like wisely, platforms of Seastar are minute floating platforms of tension leg, more like the type of semi-submersible with tendons tensioned (Simon Hecker, 2011, p. 349).
Spar: This is composed of a single tall cylindrical hull which is floating and supporting a stationary deck. The cylinder does not extend to the subbed but it is tied to the bottom by a successive of lines and cables. The huge cylinder assists in the stabilization of the platform in the water and allowing the movement to absorb the force of perspective hurricanes. The SPARs may be large and are utilized in depths of water from 300 meters to 3000 meters (Reza Javaherdashti, 2014, p. 269).
Facilities and Processes
Subsea production systems: These are wells which are situated on the floor of the sea, and not to the surface. Similar to the system of floating production, the petrol is mined at the seabed, and is then tied-back to the platform of a preexisting production or even facility onshore, restricted by offset or horizontal distance (Odell, 2016, p. 163). The well is bored by a ring which is movable and the oil and gas extracted is transported by riser and pipeline situated undersea to the facility for processing. This enables a single platform of production which is strategically located to service numerous wells over a logically wide area. The systems of subsea are usually utilized at 500 meters depths or more and lack the capability of drilling but only transportation and extraction. The completion and drilling are done from a rig at the surface (M. Chawla, 2013, p. 178).
The activities which are involved in the upstream process include wellhead, drilling, completion, and casing. These activities are discussed below:
Wellheads: This section is found at the top of the real gas or oil well leading down to the reservoir. The wellhead can also be a well for injection which is used in injecting gas or water back into the reservoir for the pressure level maintenance for the maximization of production. This process involves well hole strengthening by the use of casing, evaluation of the pressure, and formation of temperature and installation of suitable equipment ensuring an effective stream of natural gas from the well. The flow of well is regulated with a choke (Noreng, 2014, p. 175).
Gathering and Manifolds: At the onshore, each stream of well are brought into the primary facilities of production through a gathering pipelines network and systems of the manifold. The reason of these pipelines is to enable production setup so that for a specific level of production, the best utilization reservoir well flow which includes oil, water, and gas which may be selected from the wells available (Anon., 2014, p. 159). In the system of gas gathering, it is common to measure the specific lines of gathering into the manifold. In the case of flows of multiphase which is made of combining water, gas, and oil, the high cost of meters of multiphase flow usually leads to the utilization of estimators of software rate of flow which use data that is well tested in calculating the actual flow. For offshore, the wells of dry completion on the major field centre directly feed into the manifolds of production while outlying towers of wellhead and installations feed of subsea through multiphase pipelines back to the risers of production. The risers as the system which permits a pipeline to move up to the structure's topside (Calixto, 2009, p. 167).
Many wells possess pure production of gas which may be directly taken for treatment of gas or compression. Normally, the well releases a combination of oil, gas, and water with numerous contaminants which must be processed after being separated. The separators of production come in numerous designs and forms with the variant which is classic being the separator of gravity. For the separation of gravity, the flow of well is fed into the vessel that is horizontal. The period of retention is usually five minutes, enabling gas to bubble out, settling of water, at the bottom, and oil is removed in the centre (Marcel, 2014, p. 189). The pressure is normally minimized in many stages to enable separation which is separation which is controlled by components that are volatile. An abrupt reduction in pressure may permit flash vaporization resulting in safety hazards and instability.
The majority of companies do not permit the storage of local gas, however, oil is normally stored before being loaded into the vessel, for example, the shutter tank taking oil to terminals of the larger tank or directly to the carrier of oil. The facilities of offshore production without a direct connection to pipeline usually depend on storage of crude in the hull or base, enabling a shutter tanker to discharge approximately about weekly. A huge complex of production usually has a connected tank farm terminal enabling the storage of different crude grades to accommodate the demand changes or delaying transportation (Joseph A. Pratt, 2011, p. 357).
The stations for metering enable the people operating to manage and monitor the oil and natural gas exported from the installation in production. These use meters which are specialized in measuring the oil or natural gas as it moves through the pipeline without hindering its flow. This volume metered denotes ownership transfer from the producer to the consumer and this is known as custody transfer metering. It forms the foundation for invoicing the product sold and also for revenue and taxes production sharing between partners (Lerche, 2008, p. 215).
These are systems that are not involved in handling the process of flow of hydrocarbon, rather involved in the production of some services to the major process residents or safety. Depending on the position of the installation, the majority of such functions may be available from the infrastructure nearby, for example, electricity. Numerous installations which are remote are completely self-sustaining and should produce their own water or power (Kann, 2006, p. 314).
The section of the midstream of the value chain is usually referred to as gas and oil pipeline transport systems, LNG regasification and production, and gas plants. The figure below shows facilities of midstream:
The processing of gas involves the separation of the fluids and hydrocarbons from the natural gas that is pure in the production of dry natural gas which is known as pipeline quality. The primary pipelines transportation normally enact limitations on the natural gas make up which is permitted into the pipeline. Before the transportation of the natural gas, it must be purified first. Once the natural gas has been separated from the crude oil, the gas normally exists as a mixture of other hydrocarbons such as butane, pentane, ethane, and propane. The natural gas that is raw is composed of carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide, and helium (M. Ibrahim Khan, 2007, p. 248).
The gas from the wellhead containing pure natural gas has enough pressure to directly feed into the transport system of the pipeline. Generally, separators gas is lost a lot of pressure and needs to be recompressed before the transportation. Compressors that are power-driven acquire their energy by the use of minute proportion of the compressed natural gas (Bank, 2009, p. 356). The turbine assists as the centrifugal compressor which has a special fan which pumps and compresses the natural gas through the pipeline. The majority of the stations of compressor function by the use of an electric motor in turning the centrifugal compressor. This compression type does not need to utilize the natural gas from the pipe, but it requires an electricity source which is reliable. The compression comprises a huge part of equipment associated like scrubber which is involved in the removal of droplets of liquids and heat exchanger (N.Kakimoto, 2009, p. 169).
The pipelines have a measurement in diameter of from 15 cm to 120 cm. To ensure that the safe operation and efficiency, the technicians of operating the systems need to scrutinize the pipelines in case there are any signs of defects or corrosion. This is normally done by pieces of equipment that are sophisticated which are robotic devices that are intelligent and are thrust down the pipelines to assess pipe's interior (Lerche, 2008, p. 247). These robotic devices which are commonly known as pigs can be used in testing the corrosion signs, roundness, thickness, and defections on the inside of the pipeline which may be restricting the gas flow hence posting prospective safety hazards for the pipeline operation. The process of sending the robotic device commonly known as the pig is called pigging. The facility of exporting should have the equipment to retrieve and insert pigs safely from the pipeline and depressurization (Roome, 2016, p. 174).
LNG Regasification and Liquefaction
Methane which is the major constituent of the natural gas cannot undergo the process of compression to change state from gas to liquid at a normal temperature. However, under special uses like compressed natural gas at a temperature of -162 Degrees which will permit the transportation of gas through long distances due to the absence of pipeline. This procedure needs more than one stages of cooling which consume 6% to 10% of the transported energy (Lerche, 2008, p. 248).
The refining process is done to help in the provision of a products range which is defined according to the conditions approved. The refineries that simply utilize a column of dilution in separating fractions to get crude and the quantities that are relative are dependent directly on the used crude (John Wong, 2010, p. 269). Consequently, it is important to get arrange of crudes which may be blended to a feedstock that is suitable for producing the quality required and quality of the final product. The financial prosperity of a refinery that is modern depends on its capability to allow any crude available. With numerous processes like blending, cracking, additives, and reforming, it can give quality and quantity products to meet the demand of the market premium prices. The operation of refining normally involves the terminal of product distribution for distributing product to customers who are bulk as industries, airport, ports, and gasoline stations (Kelland, 2014, p. 189).
Petrochemicals are those chemicals derived from natural gas or petroleum which form part of an important section of the chemical industry currently. The plants of petrochemicals manufacture numerous compounds of chemicals. The major feedstock is condensate, byproducts of the refinery for example benzene, naphtha, and gasoline, and natural gas (J. Marcos, 2006, p. 286). The plants of petrochemicals are categorized into three major basic groups of products depending on their basic petrochemical product and feedstock namely:
Aromatics: These are composed of xylenes, benzene, and toluene which are also sources synthetic dyes, detergents, and plastics such as nylon, polyurethane, and acrylates (Corinne Whitby, 2016, p. 259).
Olefins: These are composed of butadiene, propylene, and ethylene. These are the major sources of synthetic rubber, industrial chemicals, and plastics such as PVC, polyester, and polyethene.
Synthesis gas: This is formed through steam reforming between steam and methane to make a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. It is used in making ammonia and its compounds such as methanol, and fertilizer urea (Ellis, 2012, p. 249).
Wellheads and Reservoir
The conventional wells can be divided into three major types. The first one is an oil well which is the most common and is associated with gas. The wells of condensate have natural gas and also condensate which is liquid. The condensate is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbon which is normally separated from the natural gas at the wellhead or during natural gas processing. Depending on the type of well, the terminations may slightly differ. It is critical to note that natural gas since it is lighter than air, will rise naturally to the well's surface. Therefore, well treatment and lifting equipment are not needed in numerous condensate wells and natural gas. Whereas in oil wells, numerous artificial lifts types are installed especially as the pressure of the reservoir reduces as the production years pass (Hey, 2017, p. 178).
This is a mixture which is complex and composing 200 or more compounds that are organic majorly alkanes and minute fraction aromatics. The figures below show the structures of alkanes and aromatics:
Different crude oil is composed of different concentration and combination of these two compounds making the crude. The gravity of a given crude oil is measured by its specific density or gravity which is denoted by American Petroleum Institute abbreviated as API. The greater the number of API which is expressed in degrees, the lighter the crude. Crude oil from different formation and regions may have some similarities in composition or have some substantial differences. Apart from the hydrocarbons and API grade, crude oil can be described for other elements which are not desired such as sulphur that is regulated and requires to be eliminated (Conference, 2011, p. 157).
For crude oil which has undergone analysis of chemical properties and physical properties, the gravity of API may be used as an approximate index of crude’s quality of similar same composition as they occur naturally. When crude oil of different quality and type are combined, the API gravity cannot logically be used for anything other than measuring the density of the fluid (IBP, 2015, p. 154).
Natural gas which is utilized by the consumers is made up of large methane. But the natural gas gotten at the wellhead which is also composed of methane is not pure. The natural gas which is natural is gotten from three categories of wells namely condensate wells, gas wells, and oil wells. Natural gas which originates from oil wells is normally known as associated gas. The associated gas may separately occur from oil in the dissolved or formation in the crude oil. The natural gas from the condensate wells and gas in which there is less or no crude oil is referred to as non-associated gas (Editors: Nina Muncherji, 2010, p. 184).
Wells of gas usually involved in the natural gas production that is raw. But condensate wells are involved in the natural gas production that is free along with hydrocarbon condensate which is semi-liquid. Whichever the source of natural gas, immediately its separation from the crude oil, it exist commonly as a compound with other hydrocarbons such as pentanes, propane, ethane, and butane. Natural gas that is still raw also contains helium, water vapour, nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide (Shelley, 2013, p. 147).
Since the propane, pentane, ethane, and butane should be eliminated from the natural gas which does not insinuate that all of them are waste products. The natural gas liquids which are an example of associated hydrocarbons is an important byproduct of the processing of natural gas. The natural gas liquids include butane, natural gasoline, ethane, propane, and isobutane. These NGL are sold separately and have numerous uses such as raw materials for plants of petrochemical and oil refineries or as an enhancement of oil recovery in oil wells (Hilyard, 2012, p. 317).
The structure bearing gas and oil is usually porous rock for example washed out limestone or sandstone. The sand may have been placed as sea floor or sand desert dunes. The deposit of gas and oil form as organic material deposited in previous periods of geology usually 100 million years to 200 million years ago under, the silt or sand are converted by high pressures and temperatures into hydrocarbons. For the formation of the oil reservoir, the rocks that are porous require being enclosed by a layer which is non-porous such as mud-rock, salt. Chalk, and shale which helps in the prevention of the hydrocarbons from dripping out of the construction (Hey, 2017, p. 274). The figure below shows the formation of the reservoir:
As the structures of rock become raised and folded due to tectonic movements, there will be the migration of hydrocarbons out of the deposit and upward in rock that is porous and collected at the crest under the rock that is non-permeable with fossil water and oil at the bottom and the gas at the top. Salt which is a thick fluid will be deposited in the reservoir and will flow up in weightier rock over thousands of years. The process will lead to creating of domes of salt with same effects of reservoir formation (Roome, 2016, p. 317).
A majority of the areas, cracking, strong uplift, and erosion of the rock on top have enabled the leakage of hydrocarbons leaving behind heavy reservoirs of oil. Approximately the leading deposits of oil in the world are tar sands were compounds that are volatile evaporate from the formation of shallow sands, leaving large quantity sand soaked with bitumen. There are usually exposed at the surface and may be mined through stripping, however, there is need of separation from the sand by the use of diluents, steam, and hot water and processed further with reforming and cracking in the refinery to help in improving the yield of the fuel (Ilias Bantekas, 2009, p. 269).
The gas and oil are pressurized in the openings of the rock of absorbent formation. When the well is drilled into the structure of reservoir, the formation of hydrostatic pressure pushes the hydrocarbons outside the rock and up into the well. During the flow of the well, water, oil, and gas are extracted and the stages change due to the depletion of the reservoir. The major challenge is to plan to drill so that utilization of reservoir may be optimized. The advanced model of 3D visualization and seismic data are used in planning the extraction (IBP, 2015, p. 259).
Drilling and Exploration
After the completion of the investigation of 3D seismic, it will be the best time of drilling the well. Usually, drilling pigs that are dedicated to offshore floating rigs or mobile onshore units are utilized (Joseph A. Pratt, 2011, p. 247). The platforms of productions that are huge can also have their own drilling equipment of production. The major drilling rig components include mud handling, drive, draw works and Derrick. Power and control may be electric or hydraulic. During production, there will be a drop in pressure due to flow resistance in the well and reservoir. The mud gets in through the drill pipe and passes through the cone and ascends in the well uncompleted. The mud assists in numerous functions such as:
- Bringing rock shales up to the surface
- Cooling and cleaning the cone
- Lubricating the drill cone and string
- Particles that are fibrous should balance the pressure downhole to prevent leakage of oil and gas.
To prevent blowout that is not controlled, a valve of subsurface safety is usually installed. The safety valve has a closing force which is enough to seal off the well and cut the string of drill in a blow-out situation that is uncontrollable. The mixture of mud is a distinct drew designed to match the thickness of desired flow, specific gravity, and properties of lubrication (IBP, 2010, p. 278).
Once the drilling of the well has been done, the well must be completed fully. For the well to be completed, the following steps should be followed; completion, installation of lifting equipment, installation of well casing, and installation of well head (Hey, 2017, p. 249). These steps are explained below:
The installation of the good casing is a critical part of completion and drilling process. Well, casing involves a series of installed metal tubes in a drilled whole that is still fresh. The casing is used in strengthening the well hole sides to make sure that no natural gas or oil seeps out during the process of being brought to the surface, at the same time keeping other gases or fluids from oozing into the construction through the well. The well casing can be grouped into the following types casing of conductors, intermediate casing, surface casing, and production casing (IBP, 2015, p. 214).
The completion of well is usually known as the fishing process of a well so that it is prepared to produce natural gas or oil. In the formation of hydrocarbon targeted. The completion process involves deciding the features of the portion of intake of the well in the hydrocarbon formation targeted. The types of completion that can be implemented include open hole completions, conventionally perforated completions, sand exclusion completion, permanent completions, and drain hole completions (Hilyard, 2012, p. 359).
Wellheads are composed of subsea or dry completion. Dry completion refers to the well which is topside or onshore structure of the installation offshore. The wellhead has a mounted equipment at the opening of the well to monitor and regulate the removal of hydrocarbons from the formation underground. There is also prevention of natural gas or oil from sipping out of the well and also prevention of blowout as a result of the formation of high pressure. High-pressure formation usually needs wellheads which can endure a huge deal of pressure upward from the liquids and gases escaping. Some of the components making up the wellhead are the turbine hunger, master gate valve, pressure gauge, wind valve, swab valve, and vertical tree (Ellis, 2012, p. 194).
These wells are similar to the dry completion wells. They are however placed in the structure of subsea mechanically which enables the wells to be drilled and remotely serviced from the surface and secured from destruction (Editors: Nina Muncherji, 2010, p. 245).
The wells are also categorized into injection wells and production wells. The production well is used in producing the gas and oil. The injection wells inject water or gas into the reservoir through drilling.
The gas and oil process is the process equipment which moves the product from the manifolds of the wellhead and delivers marketable products which are stabilized in form of gas, condensates, and crude oil. The process also has some components which are involved in testing the products and waste that are clean like the water produced (Chowdhury, 2014, p. 249).
Gas compression and treatment
The train of gas is composed of numerous stages of a pressure level which is suitable in the gas outlet of production separator and from the earlier stages. The stages usually have heat exchangers, scrubber, compressor, and anti-surge. The heat exchangers are used in cooling the gas for efficient operation of the compressor. The scrubbers are used in removing the liquid droplets and mist which occur during the cooling in the heat exchanger. The compressors are used in numerous sections of gas and oil process for compression of gas to achieve different pressure, volume, speed, and operating power (Christopher E. H. Ross, 2009, p. 347).
Removal of Acid gas
The acidic gases like hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide from acids after a reaction with water and hence should be removed to avoid damage caused by corrosion of pipelines and equipment. The process which is used in removing these acidic gases include absorption which enables these gases to be dissolved into solvent, adsorption is where molecules bind to the surface of certain solids which will regenerate to release the gas, and cryogenic which utilizes turbo expander where a gas turbine is driven by the expansion of gas followed by cooling below the dew point for the removal of gas (Byrne, 2005, p. 269).
Some of the strategic problems facing the oil and gas industries include unconventional sources of gas and oil, dealing with 3D effects, attracting investors, improving safety standards, political risk, geological risks, emission, and cost risk. The increase in demand for oil and gas will lead to the rise in prices making the unconventional resources to become an option. The unconventional sources of gas and oil are synthetic crude, methane, oil sands, heavy crudes, gas, and oil shale. These unconventional sources of oil and gas make it difficult for the oil and gas companies to set their prices depending on their level of production. The unconventional resources were not viable commercially until lately. Due to the advancement of technology, these unconventional resources became famous currently partially solving the problem of demand. The technology used in their manufacture such as hydraulic fracturing has a lot of harm on the conservation of nature and water resources (Booth, 2013, p. 196).
Political risk is also another strategic problem facing the oil and gas industry through its regulatory sense. The oil and gas company is covered by numerous laws and regulations such as how, when, and where extraction is done. The company requires a place where there is political stability. The geological risk is where the places in where oil is found leading to difficulty in extraction or the deposit may be smaller than what was estimated before. Price risk is also another strategic problem affecting the oil and gas industry (B. Yang, 2012, p. 319).
The price of gas and oil is the basic factor in making the decision on whether a place is economically feasible or not. The higher the geological hindrances the higher the price risk. Another major challenge facing these industries is dealing with the effect of 3D. This implies that the oil and gas industries have to deal with the rise in demand for these products worldwide. The oil and gas industries also find it difficult in attracting investors to invest in these companies. The major reason why the investors are shying away from these companies is that of the fluctuating prices of oil and gas products (Arcuri, 2014, p. 278).
Emissions are also a serious problem in Oil and Gas Company. The consumption, distribution, and production of hydrocarbons as feedstock or fuels are the largest cause of emissions into the environment in the whole world. The emissions from the oil and gas industry are categorized into the following; discharge (which is composed of sewage, ballast water, mud, silt, and shale), exposure (which is composed of carcinogenic and toxic chemicals), accidental spills (which is composed of pipeline leakage, blowout, bunker oil, and radioactive isotopes), and emissions (which compose of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and flaring). These emissions have negative effects on the health of wildlife and reproductive cycle despite the national government saying that the emission is controlled by the national and international regulations. The primary short-term impact of the emissions on the environment is from the spills associated with accidents. The greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide and methane which are involved in trapping the heat in the atmosphere hence causing global warming (Alexey Piskarev, 2011, p. 278).
This section explains the methods that were used in this research on the strategic difficulties facing the oil and gas industries. The researchers will also find out different suggestions which they the companies have implemented to help them tackle these problems they are encountering. It is true that the strategies implemented are not working to the perfection since the above-mentioned problems are still the greatest challenges facing the oil and gas companies in the whole world. The methodology that will be used in this research depends on the level of education, ranks in the companies, and age of the respondents.
The research should be conducted in an appropriate many so that the research objectives are met and this will only be possible through using an effective methodology, proper collecting of data, and proper data analysis. The research also focuses on ways in which the strategies that have been implemented can be improved to near perfecting with the aim of solving the strategic problems facing the oil and gas companies. There are two different types of research method namely qualitative research.The key feature of the qualitative study is that it is suitable for minor illustrations (Alexey Piskarev, 2011, p. 314).
The quantities of qualitative research borders on knowledge, skills as well as capabilities of researchers. The results may be personal because of the assumption that the outcomes are basically coming from the researcher's judgements and personal interpretations. The table below shows the comparison between the Quantitative research and Qualitative research:
The aim is complete and detailed.
The aim is to arrange according to groups, count and construct statistical models. This is to explain into detail observation made.
The researcher may not have sufficient knowledge in advance what is at stake.
The researcher knows in advance clearly what is at stake.
Suggestions during previous stages of investigation activities.
Suggestions during latter stages of researcher projects.
The result arises as the training progresses.
All features of the training are meticulously planned before facts are collected.
Researcher uses the data collection information.
Researcher uses instruments such as set of questions.
Materials are in the form of words, pictures, and objects
Materials are in the form of numbers and statistics.
Qualitative materials are more quality time to consume and difficult to be generalised.
Measurable materials are, more reliable and able to test the hypothesis about may not be able to meet detail.
The interview was purely based on personal observations and structured questions. The aim is to uncover the participant's emotions, feelings and their views on the strategic problems facing the oil and gas companies. Personal interviews and discussion afford the opportunity for the interviewer and the interviewee to interact and establish contacts directly. The researcher targets the age group between 21 to 70 years because this is considered the active age in the community and company employees also fall in this age bracket.
The research study was done within numerous oil and gas companies together with the local and national government as well and employees of these companies to determine their point of view. The local communities around the oil and gas company who are the most affected by the climatic change caused by pollution of oil and gas companies making them very resourceful for the research. The employees of the oil and gas companies will also be interviewed which will range from the managerial, CEOs, heads of departments, and ordinary employees.
The local and national government will be very resourceful in the provision of laws being implemented in ensuring that the strategic problems facing oil and gas industries are dealt with. The research took a maximum of two weeks with the whole process beginning with the employees until the local communities give their opinion. Although data are collected by mail, interview, phone and of late through social media interviews plays an important source of valid research information. The interview session delved into certain question aimed at obtaining the relevant data which will invariably provide substantial answers to the research questions (Adedeji B. Badiru, 2013, p. 269).
Furthermore, interviews sessions are viewed by researchers to delve deeper into issues. It is also to find new clues as well as develop new dimensions on a subject matter under study. Since the company employees are busy at work and also the government employees, the interview session was timed during the day which provided a maximum amount of time. Interviews lasted between 20 to 40 minutes which also allowed digressions to other topical but important issues. Local markets were also targeted by this researcher in their government offices through booking appointments and interviewing them ((MISTRA), 2013, p. 269). Other sessions coincided with festive occasions where the respondents were happy and eager to respond to the researcher's questions. Interview data gathered will be geared towards the objectives of this study aimed to assist the researcher in his conclusions.
Company CEOs and directors; during the visit to the different oil and gas companies, the managing directors were an interview and their respondents analyzed. The following are some of the questions which the CEOs and directors will be required to answer:
- Which are some of the general problems in the gas and oil companies?
- Which are some of the strategic problems in the gas and oil companies?
- Why are these problems strategic?
- What are some of the solutions which have been implemented to solve the problems mentioned?
- How do the problems mentioned above affect the society and the whole world?
- How effective are the implemented solutions?
- Which are some of the risks associated with oil and gas companies?
Ministry: The government officials, especially under the mining and energy department were also targeted since they will provide detailed information especially data from the archives which contains important statistics for the research. The following are some of the questions which the government officials will be asked:
- Which are some of the laws enforced on gas and oil companies?
- Which are some of the general problems which the gas and oil companies are facing in your country?
- Which are some of the strategic problems facing the oil and gas companies in your country?
- Why are these problems strategic?
- Which are some of the laws that have been put in place to mitigate the above-mentioned strategic problems facing the oil and gas companies?
- Are these laws effective? If not, why are they not effective in mitigating the problems facing oil and gas companies?
Company employees: The employees who are working in various oil and gas companies are also to be interviewed since they directly handle these products during each stage of their products until they are fully ready for their usage. Some of the questions which the oil and gas company employees will be asked include:
- Which are some of the operational problems that your company is facing?
- Which are some of the strategic problems which your company is facing?
- What are some of the risks which you have to pass through during your operations within the company?
- Which are some of the risks which most of the employees are facing in their working positions?
Oil and gas consumers: This category of individuals include the consumers of either oil or gas such as factories, petrol stations, residential homes, transport sector, and motorist. The targeted people are one motorist, a home using gas, a factory using oil to run its machines, a petrol station selling both oil and gas, and train engineers. Some of the questions which the oil and gas consumers will be asked include:
- How do the oil and gas companies affect you directly?
- Which are some of the changes you wish should be done on the quality of oil and gas you are currently using?
- What do you think are some of the challenges being faced by oil and Gas Company?
- Which of these problems facing oil and Gas Company affects you directly?
- What are some of the strategic problems facing oil and gas companies?
- What do you think should be implemented by the oil and gas companies to mitigate these problems affecting the company?
Local communities: The local communities are the people staying within the environment of manufacturing, extraction, and production of oil and gas. The people staying in these regions are directly affected by some of the problems facing oil and gas companies in numerous ways. Some of the questions which the local communities will be asked include:
- In which ways are the location of oil and Gas Company affecting you?
- Which are some of the problems facing the oil and gas company?
- How can some of the problems facing oil and Gas Company be solved?
- Which are some of the strategic problems facing oil and gas companies?
How they will respond will determine the structure of the report. Their answers were used as data that will finalize the results. The majority of those who were interviewed stated that the strategic problems facing oil and gas industries include unconventional sources of gas and oil, dealing with 3D effects, attracting investors, improving safety standards, political risk, geological risks, and cost risk. The company employees stressed on the geological risks as the major strategic problem facing the oil and gas company due to the numerous accidents which they face which mining. The managing directors and CEOs stressed on 3D effects which are a term used to refer to the difficulty in meeting the demand for oil and gas to the consumers (Shelley, 2013, p. 198).
The respondents got from interviewing employees, consumers, local communities, government officials, and company managers were tabulated and comments made depending on the number of individuals who had similar suggestions. The number of participants who took part in the research was fifty in number. The table below shows the data gotten from the research:
Possible strategic problem in oil and gas industry
No of respondents
Unconventional sources are moderate problems in the oil and gas industry
Dealing with 3D effects
The 3D effects are moderate problems in the oil and gas production
The cost risk is a moderate problem facing oil and gas company
Attracting investors is a moderate problem in gas and oil company
Emission is an extreme problem in oil and gas company
Political risk is extremely a problem in gas and oil companies
The geological risk have extremely affected the oil and gas companies
The findings from the data confirm that some factors are extreme problems to the oil and gas companies which other factors are moderate problems on the oil and gas companies depending on the opinions of the respondents interviewed. Some of the extreme strategic problems facing the oil and gas companies are geological risks, political risks, and emissions. Some of the moderate strategic problems facing the oil and gas companies include unconventional sources, cost risks, attracting investors, and dealing with 3D effects.
Content analysis is believed to be widely used in analyzing the outcome of data gathered from respondents of the interview session. The following are some of the factors and the majority of the individuals interviewed who supported the factor:
The unconventional sources of gas and oil: This strategic problem facing Oil and Gas Company was moderately supported by the individuals interviewed and the majority of those individuals were managers and CEOs who understood the factor well. However, there were some high-level employees who gave the point a backup claiming that it should be considered a major strategic problem facing Gas and Oil Company. The locals were not even aware of the factor and also the majority of the consumers who are ignorant on the general operations of the oil and gas company (Silvana Tordo, New York, p. 174).
This is the reason why the unconventional sources of gas and oil is a moderate problem facing oil and gas company. As the demand for oil and gas increases, prices source and new conventional sources of gas and oil from sources which are unconventional becomes more eye-catching. The unconventional sources include biofuels, coal bed methane, synthetic crude from coal, and methane hydrates. Similar, oil recovery that has been improved can be extracted economically (Simon Hecker, 2011, p. 218).
Emission: This was an extreme strategic problem facing Oil and Gas Company since the majority of those who were interviewed suggested that emission from the industry is a major problem in the industry. The majority of those who supported the factor where the local communities who are staying within the surroundings of the company, consumers of either oil or gas and few other employees who were handling the products. The local communities claimed that the unexpected changes in weather conditions are due to the environmental pollution faced by oil and gas companies situated near their habitats (Staff, 2010, p. 319).
The consumption, distribution, and production of hydrocarbons as feedstock or fuels are the largest cause of emissions into the environment in the whole world. The emissions from the oil and gas industry are categorized into the following; discharge (which is composed of sewage, ballast water, mud, silt, and shale), exposure (which is composed of carcinogenic and toxic chemicals), accidental spills (which is composed of pipeline leakage, blowout, bunker oil, and radioactive isotopes), and emissions (which compose of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and flaring). These emissions have negative effects on the health of wildlife and reproductive cycle despite the national government saying that the emission is controlled by the national and international regulations. The primary short-term impact of the emissions on the environment is from the spills associated with accidents. The greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide and methane which are involved in trapping the heat in the atmosphere hence causing global warming (T. D. Hund, 2011, p. 168).
Dealing with 3D effects: This factor was a moderate strategic problem affecting the oil and gas company according to the respondents who were interviewed. The government department officials suggested that 3D effects which deal with meeting the demand of the population are a problem which the oil and gas sector is facing due to limited mining fields for the raw materials which are insufficient to meet the rise in demand for oil and gas. Some consumers also suggested that meeting the demand of consumers of oil and gas is a serious challenge since they are usually affected by the shortage of the oil and gas supply leading to rising in the cost of these products and only those who can afford high prices are the one who purchases them. A number of employees also gave the suggestion concerning the limited number of oil and gas mines in the region which some have low deposits of the raw materials to an extent that it is not economical to extract them (Tam, 2013, p. 185).
Attracting investors: The ability to attract investors is a moderate strategic problem in oil and gas companies according to the individuals who were interviewed. This factor was mentioned by majorly government officials and CEOs who have found it difficult to lure investors towards investing in Oil and Gas Company. The investors tend to shy away from these companies claiming that this is a risky sector to invest in while the returns are also low due to high taxation and regulations put in place by the government and international organizations.
During the process of extraction, it has also been reported numerous mines collapsing and burying miners who some have never been found. Many companies have also burnt down due to political instability or accidental fires; these risks have really discouraged the investors from investing in oil and gas companies for the fear that they may end up incurring a huge financial loss even if the sector is very lucrative (Tengn´er, 2001, p. 248).
Political risk: This factor has extremely affected the oil and gas company according to the individuals who were interviewed in this research which strive to find out the problem in oil and gas companies. The political risk can be informed of national politics, company politics, community politics, and international politics. The oil and gas company employees mentioned that the internal politics within the company is a great problem facing Oil and Gas Company since it may lead to physical fights leading to accidents such as fire. The national politics which is commonly known as political instability has seriously affected the oil and gas company since wars may cause burning of oil and gas companies causing many losses of lives of the company employees and local communities. Countries which are still developing with dictatorship form of government are not suitable for setting up an oil and gas company (Valkealahti, 2001, p. 314).
Geological risks: Geological risk is an extremely strategic problem in oil and gas industries according to the people interviewed in this research. The majority of the interviewees who supported that the geological risk is a problem in oil and gas companies were the miners and government officials majorly trade unions who gave the statistics of the number of lives that have been lost in the previous years as a result of the collapse of mining walls. Geological risks are caused by weak mining walls, mechanical problems on mining equipment, and landslides (Vinay Couto, 2016, p. 325).
Cost risk: The price risk is a moderate strategic problem affecting the oil and gas company according to the respondents who were interviewed in this research. The majority of those who supported this factor were CEOs and general managers who understood the operations and sales of the company. The price of gas and oil is the basic factor in determining if an oil or gas reserve is economically viable. The higher the barriers in geology which ease the extraction, the higher the price risk faced by the project (Yi, 2013, p. 214).
The use of measurement for an opinion as part of data collection, validity and reliability tests are paramount. Therefore, the writer is aware that for research to be credible and reliable, it should be acceptable to the community in which it is conducted. Further, it should be acceptable to the academic society and practitioners at large. It is beings the above that the writer adopted tried and tested research strategies and data collection techniques which provide ample credibility to the research methods. Further, the researcher has painstakingly paid attention to details during the interview and data collection sessions. This enhances the dependability and conformability of the research (Wildcat, 2010, p. 187).
Indeed, the writer is aware that using the right data collecting techniques such as group discussions, interviews and questionnaires are sufficient to build a case for credibility. It is in view of the above that the writer adopted the above methods to make his research valid. The writer used the right research approach and techniques suitable for the project bearing in mind that reliability of the research depends upon the analytical ability of the researcher and the quality of data collected (Zuckerman, 2012, p. 269).
Flowing from the above, the researcher seeks to employ the following measures to ensure credibility of the research: The writer selected the appropriate time scale considering the availability of the respondents; The appropriate methodology has to be chosen to help unravel the motivation for selecting the problem in oil and gas industry; Much fairer method of sampling has to be selected to ensure accuracy; The respondents must not be influenced in any way to select specific choice of answer sets. It is, therefore, significant to ensure that the threat of research reliability is minimized as much as possible.
Like every study, the researcher encountered the following disadvantages: The sample size was moderately small – 84 contributors. A larger size of the sample would perhaps have been more reliable. In many cases, the participants refused to speak against their organisation. The qualitative research method did not allow full measurement of the examined problems. There is the problem of social desirability which means interviewees give the most acceptable reply socially to a question instead of the absolute truth, and also the need for training examiners and the required time to carry out the interviews was a financial disadvantage. There were a few challenges relating to translation as some interviewees spoke in native languages and certain expressions and words had to be interpreted differently in English.
Potential Value of Research
The financial cost of the research that was carried out to investigate the problems in oil and gas companies can be estimated to be 8,000 Dollar. The following table provides the breakdown on the different expenses that will be incurred by the research team:
Cost of equipment
Allowances for the team
This research paper is about the strategic problems in oil and gas companies. The research was carried out in the Oil and Gas Company and its environs. The research found that some of the strategic problems facing the oil and gas industries include unconventional sources of gas and oil, dealing with 3D effects, attracting investors, improving safety standards, political risk, geological risks, and cost risk. From the research, the greatest strategic problems in oil and gas industry are emissions followed by geological risks while the least problem facing oil and gas industry is cost risk.
The research could be unreliable due to mistakes in data collection, the improper framing of questions, poor timing of the interviewee, and mistakes in calculation. Some of the proposed recommendations are: using a greater number of respondents specifically more than 200 individuals, increasing the duration of the interview from 30 minutes to one hour, using a larger number of the researcher so as to cover a wider area in fewer days, having a translator, and using more comprehensive questions.
Some of the strategic problems in Oil and Gas Company can be solved through enforcing strict laws and regulations against environmental emissions. The geological risk is minimized through the use of advanced technology and ensuring that the miners have protective gears to protect them against accidents. Dealing with 3D effects may be dealt with by the national government through the provision of an alternative source of energy to the consumers. This will ensure that the demand for oil and gas will reduce drastically since there will be the variety of sources of energy (Roome, 2016, p. 278).
This project has really helped me in understanding the steps of production, extraction, and distribution of oil and gas. These process can be categorized into exploration, refining, midstream, petrochemical, and upstream. The activities involved in exploration include drilling activities, seismic, and prospecting and usually takes place before field development. The upstream involves the facilities for stabilization and production. Midstream is defined as treatment of gas, regasification, and LGN production plants, and the systems of gas and oil pipelines.
Refining is the process where condensates and oil are processed into products which are marketable with specifications that are defined which include diesel, feedstock or gasoline for the industry of petrochemical. The off sides of the refinery like channels of distribution and storage tanks are involved in this segment or can be a section of an operation with separate distribution. Petrochemical is composed of chemical products were the major feedback is hydrocarbons such as industrial chemicals, fertilizer, and plastics. The knowledge of these processes will help me decide on which stage of production I will be seeking to be employed in.
The stage which I have fully understood and would wish to seek employment in is refining stage which involves processes such as fractional distillation, blending, upgrading, and advanced processes. The processing I have acquired a lot of knowledge on the equipment involved in processing and refining the oil and gas such as artificial lift, rods pumps, gas lift, and plunger lift. Understanding this equipment will help me in operating the machines as I prepare myself in securing my future employment. The research has also helped me to develop communication skills during the interview which I used, such skills include body language, interrogation skills, turn taking, and tonal variations.
The research has also me understand the laws and regulations which govern the oil and gas sector. This information was gotten from the government officials who explained how the government is enacting laws in regulating the atmospheric emissions from the oil and gas companies, such knowledge will be very effective for me when I will be working in this sector since I will be well versant with the laws governing the sector. This project has also helped me in understanding the environmental impacts caused by oil and gas companies and how these impacts can be mitigated. This knowledge is important since I can use into protecting the environment hence preventing further pollution.
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