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1. Write a critical analysis essay on the key issues that should be considered when constructing and deconstructing a problem, doing a theory of change, a stakeholder analysis and stakeholder mapping. 

2. Identify a public policy problem in a developing country of your choice, and write a construction and deconstruction of the problem, a theory of change, stakeholder analysis and stakeholder mapping.

3. Choose one (1) project implemented and financed by UK DFID in a developing country in either health or education. 

Construction of Problem

Key Issues that should be considered when constructing and deconstructing a problem, doing a theory of change, a stakeholder analysis, and stakeholder mapping

The process of construction entails raising overall visibility of constant weaknesses by means spectacular focussing events such as crises, employment of different statistical indicators or else manipulation of feedback from prior experiences (Walker 2015). However, it is important to take into account certain factors while carrying out the construction process. The procedure of construction includes collection of important change agents for answering four important questions, that is to say, “What is the chief problem?”, “Why or how does it matter?”, “ To whom does the specific issue matter?”, “ Who needs to care for the issues faced?” and many more. It is important to the both in principle as well as practice to consider about the ones who answers the questions. Basically, one needs to be aware regarding power dynamics at play in collecting certain agents to undertake the work. Also, it is crucial to make certain that agents who can foster essential next steps in the change procedure are engaged in the procedure. Fundamentally, balancing the tension has need of agitators as well as decision makers in the process of construction of problem (Turner 2016). Importantly, these agents can all be considered to be internal to the specific context targeted for alteration. Therefore, the process of construction of problem can help in steering away one from illustrating the problem as the dearth of a preferred solution.  However, the effectually constructed problems can mobilize actions and the opposite effects can be present in case if the group engaged in the process of construction can dwell on the problem. The key issues faced in construction and deconstruction of problems includes Inappropriate structure of business concern, deficient communication, weak management of performance, non-universality of information, gaps in connection, poor calculations for the short term, inadequate management of risk and limited capabilities of skill (Larson et al. 2014). 

Confusing liability with hope: A theory of change has the need to clarify the results a particular non-profit shall hold itself for attaining. In itself, there is need to know the results that are needed to be delivered in order to be successful. Explaining outcomes in this manner can compel the corporation to get real regarding the influence that it can create and not just what the business hopes to create (Schwalbe 2015).

Theory of Change

An appropriate theory of change does not necessarily replicate what the business concern is already undertaking, rather, it articulates what the business concern wants to be liable for and operates backward to recognise necessary actions, stratagems, resources as well as capabilities and many others (Joslin and Müller 2015). In case if the theory of change does not direct towards proposal of changes to different elements, then it can be said that possibly the matter has not properly analysed.

Whilst internal dialogue is a common foundation for development of theory of change, the procedure need not conclude without a rigorous effort to validate whether the theory is ‘conceivable’.

In a bid to examine, refine and enhance the theory of change over a period of time, there is need to measure different important elements. Boyle (2017) suggests that a common way to operationalize the theory of change is to be more specific. There is need to articulate all the probable inputs, outputs as well as outcomes indicators that the theory of change recommends. In case if there is problem in gathering these indicators at the appropriate frequencies to learn what is learning, then there might be the need to specify theory of change at a adequate depth.

In order to acquire the most of the theory of changes, there is need to identify and explicitly account for different uncertainties that underlie the particular plan. Essentially, learning organizations watchfully specify their suppositions, regularly replicating whether these suppositions are bearing out, and considering the new suppositions as well as hypothesis that business concerns can examine at certain frequency (van Dongen et al. 2017). In essence, a learning agenda can make certain that theory of change of corporation is continuously revisited.

Stakeholder analysis involves identification of stakeholders that are likely to be affected and influenced by the actions of the business concern. In essence, the stakeholder analysis also involves assessment of the way stakeholders can be influenced (Athey and Imbens 2017). Again, this analysis involves anticipation of different consequences of any alteration in the activities of the corporation. Further, these stakeholder analyses also assure a successful outcome for the business concern by developing co-operation with different stakeholders. However, there are certain issues involved in the process of stakeholder analysis as it is best done on continuous basis (Price 2017). Also, disadvantage of the stakeholder analysis is that assessment of this specific analysis might perhaps be subjective. Also, it might be the fact that all interests of the stakeholders cannot be satisfied at the same time during stakeholder analysis. As a result, there is need to concentrate on key stakeholders and balance and reconcile diverse interests as per importance otherwise urgency.

Stakeholder Analysis

The problems encountered in mapping stakeholders include the following:

- Searching for stakeholders for undertaking research that has no clear beneficial influences

-Recognizing stakeholders who are sufficiently interested in very nuanced or fine grained research findings (Kerzner and Kerzner 2017)

-Exploring completely unknown stakeholders for novel research projects

-Sourcing pertinent stakeholders for older or else newly reopened projects and searching for new ways of re-engaging with the same

-Using networks of stakeholders from different failed research proposals and undertaking pertinent contacts to different larger projects or else re-developed research proposals (Rees 2017)

-Connecting diverse levels of stakeholders to develop a coherent plan for engagement. For instance, by connecting the local to the global

-drawing together very disparate otherwise non-traditional groupings of stakeholders

-stakeholder mapping in a business environment or else context that is not amenable to evidence or else openly repressive of the discourse that the research is necessarily communicating (Drummond et al. 2015)

-mapping of different stakeholders of a specific research with direct government financing or else research outcomes that conflicts with interests of different financiers

-distilling different stakeholders from highly collaborative or else complicated research projects (Vedung 2017) 

Identification of a public policy problem in a developing country of your choice, and write a construction and deconstruction of the problem, a theory of change, stakeholder analysis and stakeholder mapping

Public policy problem in Nigeria includes military rule that resulted in a specific top-down policymaking procedure. In essence, power is chiefly focused in particularly the presidency, and input can be acquired from mainly the president and cabinet ministers by means channels instituted by patron clientelism (Ieg.worldbankgroup.org 2018). Nigeria is necessarily a rentier state and a rentier economy is hugely supported by state expends, whilst the state accepts rent from diverse other nations. Basically, Iran as well as Nigeria accepts earning by means of exporting oil and leasing out different oil fields to different foreign nations. The primary role of the states in this economy is to control revenue of the nation and spend the earnings referred to as rents that mainly come from oil (Siggel 2016). Particularly, individuals, different groups as well as communities have learned to act in response through a rent seeking behaviour, mainly by competing for government. Majority of the Nigerians thrive without much access and partake in the informal economy of unreported earnings from small scale trade as well as subsistence agriculture. Throughout the period, Nigeria has acquired clout whenever Middle Eastern tensions have discontinued supplies of oil from that specific region, compelling developed nations to depend more on Nigerian oil. After worldwide increase in oil prices, Nigeria was compelled to turn to transnational corporations for help in handling its huge nationwide debt (Unevaluation.org 2018). A structural adjustment program was developed with the support of the World Bank as well as International Monetary Fund (Wiesner 2017). This program intended to restructure and diversify Nigerian economy so that it could lessen reliance on oil. Also, the government also pledged to decrease government spending and to privatise para-statals. The economy of Nigeria did not suffer much during 2008 crisis, and partly system of banking improved considerably under initiative of President Obasanjo. Another contributing factor that directed towards stable economy of Nigeria is that it paid off sizeable debts under structural adjustment program. Nonetheless, the steep decline in the oil price created economic damage, counting devaluation of the nation currency (Brazier et al. 2017). Nigerian Stock Exchange reflected steep decline, decrease in housing prices and disappearance of small amount of global tourism. Again, inability of Nigeria to deliver electric power has sustained.

Stakeholder Mapping

The nation finds itself drowned in debt and majority of the people sustain poverty. In essence, tremendous oil revenues have necessarily disappeared into government officials, and majority of Nigerians have not gained from the same at all. Also, the federal government pled to the Supreme Court to permit the federal government to amass oil revenues and pool the same into a definite federal account. Apparently, this seems to be revenue sharing or else permitting the whole nation benefit from offshore oil gains. Nonetheless, the specific areas in the south together with the Niger Delta protested vehemently against the practice as they observed the policy to come from the northerners who wanted to take away profits from the southerners (Giglio et al. 2016). And without confidence in their government, almost none believed that profits would benefit other than corrupt government officials. 

Synthetic Approaches can be adopted in public policy. The underlying theme in particularly public policy is that policy alteration and variation stems from mainly interaction of different factors affecting decision making. In this framework for analysis, considerations regarding nature of decision making were mixed into different accounts of the influence of diverse ideas and the procedures of agenda-setting. In essence, policy coalition can also be taken into consideration that is necessarily a wider set of procedures than what is evoked by the network metaphor. In essence, coalitions comprise of more number of participants than the traditional whirlpool or else triangle of decision makers (Parsa et al. 2017). This can essentially explain change in policy. Essentially, the basic idea is that multiple policy advocacy coalition, each one having own ideas regarding policy content, competition for dominance in a specific sub-system.

The stakeholders engaged can be classified as oil corporations, specifically the International Oil Companies, organized labour, diverse host communities and general public, regional interests as well as government. The host communities in this regard are mainly the communities that are hosting the petroleum resource in the land else wise people resident within the petroleum prospecting license otherwise petroleum mining lease region (Dunn 2015). 

Selection of the project: Health: Prevention of Maternal Deaths

This project focuses on decreased option to unsafe abortion and enhanced utilization of family planning for particularly women. The project started during 25th July in the year 2011 and is anticipated to end during 30th September during the year 2018. Again, progress in terms of time is roughly 97.19%. Essentially, project budget is necessarily £139,347,939 and expenditure till date is £129,082,424 (92.63%) (Oecd.org 2018). Particularly, sector groups mainly present a particular percentage of budgets of nation as per Development Assistance Committee’s categorisation. A comparison to predict expends and the total amount of money expended on the project to date.

Issues with Construction and Deconstruction of Problems

Performance Indicator: Financial Metrics can be used as a key performance indicator in this current project. Proper management of the project can be carried out by using performance indicators that can continue to deliver higher standards of actions (Weimer and Vining 2017). In this regard, cost can measure overall effectiveness of cost and search for the best ways to lessen and handle the costs. The value for money when properly benchmarked against worldwide standards therefore is used as a performance indicator. In this regard, it can be hereby mentioned that value for money analysis meets different requirements established in different business cases as well as log frame (Ons.gov.uk 2018). The performance indicator that concentrates on value for money helps in understanding variances between different channels that undertake the same. Important learning can be effective for future programming (Vedung  2017).

Value for Money Indicators can be considered to be important benchmarking means for evaluating value for money in particularly the public sector. There are different programmes that deliver provision of different sexual reproductive health and rights services, upholding different public as well as private facilities to deliver services, providing training to health sector staff designing policy along with regulatory environment and sharing different lessons (Dror 2017). The programmes are said to be well adapted to different altering circumstances and functioning environment and diverse constraints to deliver a successful programme.

The mean cost incurred for CYP (couple years protection) and cost incurred for every DALY (Disability-Adjusted Life Years) can be taken into consideration as a performance indicator (Morra Imas et al. 2009). As per records, it can be seen that cost/CYP was registered to be £5.0 whereas the same was recorded to be £5.7. Again, cost/DALY was recorded to be £11.2 while the same was recorded to be £14.6 in the previous year utilizing relatively conservative suppositions. Again, on the other hand, it can be seen that since the past year, an approximated 6644 maternal deaths can be averted owing to different activities involved in different programmes implemented across Africa as well as Asia (Morra Imas and Rist 2009). Since at all levels the staffs of the firm have an inclination to be dedicated and at the same time competent, there is substantiation regarding good amount of cooperation between different partners (Ehrenberg and Smith 2016).

Therefore, the value for money analysis used as a performance indicator can help in understanding optimum combination of particularly life cycle costs along with quality of a specific good or else service to satisfy the requirements of the users. This analysis is usually presented in quantitative form and is expressed as a percentage or in monetary form. Essentially, there are different timings of the value for money that entails the project development, procurement as well as implementation of project (Walker 2015). Also, this analysis can help in identification of potential options of procurement, identification, monetization as well as allocation of project risks, development of different comparators and consideration of different qualitative factors as well (Sabatier and Weible 2014). For the current case under consideration, identification of procurement options include designing, building, financing, operating and maintaining different options of procurement. Thereafter, assessment of risk includes identification of risk, allocation of risk, quantification of risk and value risk. Thereafter, development of comparator also involves estimation of present value of specific hypothetical, risk-adjusted program costs along with revenue of diverse conventionally procured programs (Oecd.org 2018). Also, this stage of “value for money” as a performance indicator also include supposing that the project is entirely completed to similar scope as well as quality standards, supposing similar timeframe (Turner 2016). Further, the analysis involves understanding present value of particularly net costs to particularly agencies for the purpose of delivering similar projects. This includes comprehending contract payment, revenue to different agencies as well as retained cost plus risk. Moreover, this performance indicator that is “value for money” also comprises of understanding competitive neutrality, other costs, risks, financing fees over and above base cost. Further, there needs to be qualitative assessment that includes considerations associated to different project goals and quality of service (Schwalbe 2015). Additionally, contract associated considerations takes in viability, flexibility, achievability and assessment of performance.

Confusing Liability with Hope

Proposal of an evaluation strategy and design, using both quantitative and qualitative methods

The proposal for evaluation plan are necessarily designed to outline and at the same time map different necessities and implementation of each of processes of evaluation. In essence, an inclusive evaluation concentrates on engaging the least beneficial members of a specific population as a fraction of a systematic examination of the merit or else the worth of a project, policy or else program (Morra Imas and Rist 2009). Fundamentally, an inclusive analysis is necessarily based on data, nonetheless the data are developed from the least advantaged stakeholders and the ones that are conventionally underrepresented (Vedung 2017). Similar to empowerment analysis, specifically inclusive analysis is a transformational concept. In itself, an inclusive analysis that is essentially a quantitative tool can aid in understanding significant variances within the served population. Additionally, this tool can also assist in the process of comprehending the way services can be appropriately delivered within diverse sub groups (Weimer and Vining 2017). Furthermore, an inclusive analysis can help in comprehending different values that are particularly underlying the entire system of service distribution.

Again, beneficiary assessment is on other hand qualitative tool of research that can be utilized for the purpose of improvement of influence of different development operations by acquiring different views of intended beneficiaries concerning a planned otherwise an ongoing intervention. Just like inclusive evaluation, this specific approach can help in involving different groups that often get overlooked. Particularly, this particular project focussed approach can help in complementing different technical as well as financial evaluation systems. The beneficiary assessment engages the final client, the project beneficiaries (Ieg.worldbankgroup.org 2018). The underlying principle states that augmented participation by different beneficiaries can help in designing tools as well as approaches.

The common proposal of plan presents development as well as documentation of specific regulations along with accountabilities for different players involved in the current process (Price 2017). This includes the following:

- Development of an effective evaluation team that can regularly satisfy for the purpose of discussing progress plus issues and to devise an effectual way to handle different progresses and design skills (Ons.gov.uk 2018)

-Integrating people pertinent to the subject matter of the evaluation (Athey and Imbens 2017)

- Effective negotiation of different roles as well as accountabilities for different members of the team for different components of evaluation within particularly resourcing and timing constraints

- Development of requisite communication and diverse awareness stratagems

Identifying Stakeholders

-Recognition of any kind of training requirements for different components of the evaluation, namely undertaking specific surveys, undertaking performance stories (Kerzner and Kerzner 2017)

Implementing of a specific means of assessing progress against agreed tasks and this will differ in detail based on overall evaluation size

The revaluation can help in creating a shared understanding of the entire purposes, usage and different users of evaluation outcomes. Also, evaluation plan can also foster transparency of program to different stakeholders as well as decision makers (Drummond et al. 2015). Also, evaluation strategy can help in increasing buy- in and acceptance of different mechanisms, connecting multiple evaluation actions and this is particularly effective when a specific program employs diverse contractors else wide contracts. Also, this evaluation aids in serving as a advocacy tool for different evaluation resources founded on negotiated parties and instituted stakeholder and information needs of decision makers (Rees 2017). Further, this evaluation plan can assist in identifying whether there are adequate resources of program and sufficient time to accomplish desired evaluation actions and answer prioritized evaluation questions. Moreover, evaluation strategy can aid in assisting in facilitating an even transition when there is staff turnover (Walker 2015). Also, this can facilitate in evaluation potential developing among different partners as well as stakeholders.

The issues that can be taken into consideration in the area of evaluation include relevance to particularly evaluation purpose, considering effectiveness of costs, validity of available information and taking into account diverse ethical issues around the way information needs to be utilized (Vedung 2017). In this regard, it can be hereby said that evaluation process and the team responsible for the same engage in the process of acquirement of information that become available otherwise gaps recognized, the original form and design that might need to be appropriately adjusted

Description of project

Target

Office Accountable

Timeline

Engagement of different stakeholders

This involves definition of purpose in the plan that can influence recognition of stakeholders for analysis, selection of particular evaluation questions and considering timing of evaluation analysis (Siggel 2016). The target of this phase is to understand who are the specific stakeholders, way to work with different stakeholders and the way roles of the stakeholders are described in the plan.

Administrative Branch

End of every month

Description of different programs

shared understanding of specific program and comprehending what the evaluation strategy can otherwise cannot deliver (Wiesner 2017)

Administrative division

End of every month

Focussing on design of evaluation plan

Comprehending the purpose of particular evaluation and the basis for prioritization of assessment

Administrative division

End of every quarter

Planning for collecting credible evidences

Stakeholders need to accept that mechanisms selected are necessarily appropriate

End of every month

Promoting overall transparency

-Assessment of value for money (analysis of cost, cost benefit analysis)

Optimisation of output (that is decrease in maternal deaths) in comparison to prior years (Giglio et al. 2016)

Finance Management

End of every semester of each and every year

Justification of conclusions

Stakeholders have the need to inform the evaluation and interpretation of  specific findings and assist in the process of development of conclusions

End of every semester of each and every year

Ensuring usage and sharing different lessons learnt

Stakeholders have the need to inform specific translation of particular evaluation outcomes into realistic applications and dynamically participate in the significant dissemination of specific lessons learned (Parsa et al. 2017)

End of every semester of each and every year

References

Athey, S. and Imbens, G.W., 2017. The state of applied econometrics: Causality and policy evaluation. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31(2), pp.3-32.

Boyle, G., 2017. Design project management. Routledge.

Brazier, J., Ratcliffe, J., Saloman, J. and Tsuchiya, A., 2017. Measuring and valuing health benefits for economic evaluation. OXFORD university press.

Dror, Y., 2017. Public policy making reexamined. Routledge.

Drummond, M.F., Sculpher, M.J., Claxton, K., Stoddart, G.L. and Torrance, G.W., 2015. Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes. Oxford university press.

Dunn, W.N., 2015. Public policy analysis. Routledge.

Ehrenberg, R.G. and Smith, R.S., 2016. Modern labor economics: Theory and public policy. Routledge.

Giglio, S., Kelly, B. and Pruitt, S., 2016. Systemic risk and the macroeconomy: An empirical evaluation. Journal of Financial Economics, 119(3), pp.457-471.

Ieg.worldbankgroup.org. 2018. | Independent Evaluation Group. [online] Available at: https://ieg.worldbankgroup.org/ [Accessed 22 Jul. 2018].

Joslin, R. and Müller, R., 2015. Relationships between a project management methodology and project success in different project governance contexts. International Journal of Project Management, 33(6), pp.1377-1392.

Kerzner, H. and Kerzner, H.R., 2017. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.

Larson, E.W., Gray, C.F., Danlin, U., Honig, B. and Bacarini, D., 2014. Project management: The managerial process (Vol. 6). Grandview Heights, OH: McGraw-Hill Education.

Morra Imas, L.G. and Rist, R., 2009. The road to results: Designing and conducting effective development evaluations. The World Bank.

Oecd.org. 2018. Evaluation of development programmes - OECD. [online] Available at: https://www.oecd.org/development/evaluation/ [Accessed 22 Jul. 2018].

Ons.gov.uk 2018. [online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/hm-treasury https://www.ons.gov.uk/ [Accessed 22 Jul. 2018].

Parsa, P., Rossetti, M.D., Zhang, S. and Pohl, E.A., 2017. Quantifying the benefits of continuous replenishment program for partner evaluation. International Journal of Production Economics, 187, pp.229-245.

Price, C., 2017. Landscape economics. Springer.

Rees, J., 2017. Natural resources: allocation, economics and policy. Routledge.

Sabatier, P.A. and Weible, C.M. eds., 2014. Theories of the policy process. Westview Press.

Schwalbe, K., 2015. Information technology project management. Cengage Learning.

Siggel, E., 2016. Development economics: a policy analysis approach. Routledge.

Turner, R., 2016. Gower handbook of project management. Routledge.

Unevaluation.org. 2018. United Nations Evaluation Group - Home. [online] Available at: https://www.unevaluation.org/ [Accessed 22 Jul. 2018].

van Dongen, J.M., Ketheswaran, J., Tordrup, D., Ostelo, R.W.J.G., Bertollini, R. and van Tulder, M.W., 2017. Health economic evidence gaps and methodological constraints in low back pain and neck pain: Results of the Research Agenda for Health Economic Evaluation (RAHEE) project. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology.

Vedung, E., 2017. Public policy and program evaluation. Routledge.

Walker, A., 2015. Project management in construction. John Wiley & Sons.

Weimer, D.L. and Vining, A.R., 2017. Policy analysis: Concepts and practice. Routledge.

Wiesner, E., 2017. Evaluation and development: the institutional dimension. Routledge.

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