1.Demonstrate a broad understanding of the knowledge base of systems analysis and design concepts, and their terminology and discourse, including awareness that areas of this knowledge base are open to ongoing debate and reformulation, thus fostering a socio-technical approach to the analysis and design of systems;
2.Identify and apply principles and concepts underlying the theoretical frameworks highlighted in this module, and demonstrating an ability to identify their strengths and weaknesses in an analytical fashion;
3.Evaluate and collect information from a variety of authoritative sources to inform a choice of solutions to standard problems highlighted in this module, by applying the techniques learnt in a business context and evaluating the design decisions;
Evaluate the reliability of data and information provided in this module, using pre-defined techniques and/or criteria, including an understanding of object oriented systems theory in a wider context.
In the context of the business, system analysis and design may be thought of a process used to examine the situation of a business with an intent to improve it through the better procedures and much more the applied methods. It may relate to shaping an organization by improving the performance as well as helping in achievement of the set objectives for the organization profitability as well as its growth. Much of the emphasis is always given on the systems in action, the ways the subsystems are related and the way they contribute to making the goals a reality. It looks at the system and determine how adequately it really functions, what changes need to be done and the output quality as part of the system analysis.
Organizations usually have very complex systems which usually consists of systems which are interrelated and much more interlocking. When changes are done in one part of a system this will implicate both the anticipated and unanticipated consequences to other related parts in the entire system.
The systems approval is mostly a way to think of the system analysis and the design of the applications which are computer-based. It hence provides a framework through which visualization of the organization can be realized as well as the environmental factors operating on a given system. In understanding the meaning of the system development, it may be thought as a combination of two components namely the system analysis as well as the system design.
System analysis is the process through which planning of new system is done or one which is to replace the existing system. In this case, before planning is done one has to do a thorough investigation with regards to the existing system, this will help in determining how computers can best be used in making their operations more effective. Secondly, system design is the process through which the research analyst gathers and interprets facts, doing a diagnosis of the stated problem and using such information to recommend for the improvements of the system.
In the use case diagram above there are four actors which include the Administrator, Members, Players and the System itself. The Admin is responsible for registering new members, modifying and deleting the details of the already existing members in the system. The system admin is also responsible with suspending or dismissing a player due to lack of payment by the player in a period of one to three month. Each player is therefore supposed to make payment depending on what category one belongs to.
The admin is also responsible with creating a match or training session in which every player is supposed to attend failure to which the system generates a notification and send it to both the Coach and manages instantly. The admin is also able to change the status of the game to either cancelled or postpone and this is made available to all the members registered to the system. All members are able to view their account details and make any updates while the system provides a functionality that allows the generation of reports for the previous games played.n
System Design Principles, Theories and Associated Tools
This is the part of the given project that will be including the planning of the project which may involve the ways in which one can be able to determine and document a list of specific goals, the deliverables and outcomes, associated features, functions, task or activities, deadlines and the ultimate cost. In other words, it can be explained to as what one will need to be achieved and this activity must be done in order to achieve the project deliverables. In the scope with regards to the system analysis and design it will be important to pin down the project scope life cycle as it will greatly affect the impacts of set schedule or timeline as well as the cost.
The scope of this project is to design a digital management system of Cheltenham Football Club. The club has an idea of running 5 individual teams for the youths aged between 10 and 25 years of age. This system will allow the addition of members such as the staff, coaches who will be coaching the footballers as well as the players who will be playing for the club. The system scope is to help in recording the club members information details such as the name of the member, the details of the phone contacts, the role they will be playing in the club, joined date and the leaving date. The system is also entitled to be able to modify the , one can add and delete the details of the member of the club.
The other hidden scope is that if a new player is to join the club, then he will have to pay £50 admin fees for registration if he is under 18 years and also be contributing about £25 monthly and for those who are over 18 years old will pay £75 admin fees for registration also be contributing about and £50 monthly. In this case of a player fails to contribute the monthly contribution he will have to be suspended and if they totally fail to pay for three months consecutively, they will have to be dismissed from the club. The system is entitled to be able to able to record the match details which will consist of the players themselves, date and specific time of the games and much more the type in terms of friendly and tournament among many other things.
The system is supposed to allow the club members to be able to view their accounts, be able to update the details which are relevant such as the email, phone number and addresses. In case, there is a change in any game date or time, then the system should be possible to record if the game has been cancelled or even in cases where it has been postponed. The system should entirely be able keep all the members or the participants up to date about all the existing and incoming situations as well as news. If there is a case a member such as player misses a training the system should record it and immediately notifies the coach and the managers automatically.
Lastly, is that the system scope should not be limited in essence that it should be possible also to search the system for all the data which is relevant i.e. the details of the players, the details of the game among others. The system scope indicates that the digital management system should also be able to generate the seasonal reports after each and every three months about all the matches that have been played may it be in the tournament or a friendly in both legs that is home and away grounds.
A learned person can easily understand that the role of the user interface (UI) designer is not significant in any way at the early stage of any product. But sooner, after there is emergence of some iterations, there is existence of hundreds of features coming up and one will now start realizing how ugly a product will look like. Those are what we refer to as the product design debts. To build a new system design then this is a way that need to be followed. The figure below shows the system structure of the user interface design.
The following are some of the system design principles that should be followed by Cheltenham Football Club in designing the digital management system for the football club. In design, is termed as the creative activity, consequently, there is not time or process will 100 percentage guarantee the design is good, but there may exists some principles which will help in increasing the probability of having a good design. In this concept of digital management system of Cheltenham Football Club, the stated principles are the one which should be applied in making the system to be better. When these principled are applied they will make a product to become more reusable for the systems in the future of the specific club and thus helping to reduce the redesigning cost when there is need to change the requirements.
- Use models in designing the systems. In this principle the system can be based on the requirement, functions basis as well as the model basis. Model system will have a basis of having executable models that can help in improving the efficiency and rigor of digital management system in Cheltenham FC (Madni, 2017).
- Use of the hierarchical, i.e. top-down design. In this principle, it is good to translate the needs of the customers at an early stage in to goals, capabilities and the associated functional and non-functional requirements. This will provide a very good guidance in the future development of the system.
- Working on high risk items at first. In this case one can be able to reduce risks which are likely to change and thus making such changes in other entities in the system (Michael, 2015).
- The importance of the criteria should be put in to considerations such as the requirements, capabilities, goals and associated risks.
- Producing satisficing designs. In this case, one should not try to produce optimal designs because it may be impossible to do so to the complex systems.
- List all the functional requirements as indicated in the use cases.
- Develop iteratively and test all the modules immediately
- Creation of modules.
- Creation of reusable objects in the stated libraries
- Use the open standards.
- Identify the things will likely change if the id the system is to be replaced with a new system.
- Writing the extension points.
- Grouping of data as well as behaviors.
- Creation of a new design process
Through building of such principles one can be able to understand deeply about the user needs, thus this will make the user to do a research of who is the researcher, their nature, habits and then narrowing them down the main problems that will help them in solving the issues (bahill, 2017). The other concept is that task can’t be done in silo. In this case, one may need a team which may contain anyone who may deeply has some wisdom with regards to the football club and these maybe such as that of the CEO, CMO and may the founders and developers.
Design language. In this case, in the design principle, the designers have to starts to explore the stated foundation such as the typography, color schemes, spacing, tone and the voice (Anon., 2016). In this case one has to try to gather all the old and the new and even the potential components and thus applying them on the explorations.
In system analysis there is inclusion of all the activities which will help in the transformation of all the requirement specifications in to the implementation (quade, 2016). The requirement specifications will have to specify all the expectations which may be functional and the non-functional which may be used in shaping the human readable and understanding the documents (Nichiani, 2017). The following are some of the tools which are used by software designers in doing analysis and design.
- Data flow Diagram. This is a diagram which acts as a graphical representation on the data flow in an information system. This diagram is capable of depicting the data flow which is incoming as well as which is outgoing and the data which is stored. There are two typed of DFD which are either the physical and the logical DFDs respectively. Logical DFD is the one which concentrates on the process of the system and the data flow in a given system e.g. like the banking software system, how the data is moved in between the stated entities. Physical DFD is the type of the DFD which shows all the data flow as actually being implemented in the system. A good example is the one which shows level 0 and level respectively.
- Structure Charts. This is a chart which will be derived from the DFD. It may be used in representing the system in more details way than it is on the DFD. It usually breaks down the whole system in to the smallest functional modules, describing all the functions and all the sub functions of each and every module of the given system which offers some greater details than the DFD.
- HIPO Diagram. This is the hierarchical input process output diagram which is usually a combination of the two organized in analyzing the system and thus providing all the documentation means. The HIPO diagram always represents the modules hierarchy as it is in the system software. The following is an example of such tool in application.
- Structured English. This is a tool which uses pure and plain English words in the structured programming paradigms. A good example is that of the customer authentication in the online shopping and the ordering environment.
- Pseudo-code. This is a code which is written closer to the programming language and thus in most cases considered as the augmented programming language which is documented fully and full of comments as well as the descriptions which were detailed. A good example is to print Fibonacci up to n numbers.
- Adaptive system development (ASD) is one of the design principles mostly used in when the system software’s are being created (Alexandrou, 2018).. The major principle is that of the adaptive system development which usually focuses on the rapid and evolving software systems (Mrsic, 2017).This is an advance of rapid application development as thus it has replaced the Waterfall phases with series which are repeating by speculating, collaborating as well as learning cycles (tutorialspoint, 2017)..
This approach is mainly focused on the development of systems which may be complex through the use of iterative steps which may be used to produce the system prototype (Mohammed, 2018).. This has helped in reduction of the processes which are long and much more complicated as it is in the case of the traditional software development methods (Golla, 2013).
This is one of the best and widely used agile methodologies globally (Richter, 2018).. It was created with a reason of being able to improve the software development in to four ways namely the courage, simplicity, communication as well as the feedback(Stephen, 2017). Extreme has introduced so many practices which has made the programmers to courageously be able in responding the changes in the tech and the requirements as well as the specifications stated (Tester, 2017).. The figure below has been used to illustrate the 12 practices of the extreme programming in the field in the field of exploration when one is doing some planning, the initiations that need to be released and lastly is doing an implementation as well as the phases of the lifecycle death in the development (Kukhnavets, 2018)..
Extreme programming has so many advantages such as being robustness, they are so resilient, they can help one is saving the cost, lastly is that they can help in offering satisfaction to the employees. ‘
Based on the Adaptive system methodologies discussed above, it will be convenient and wise for one to recommend the Cheltenham Football club to adopt the extreme programming methodology for the digital management system development. Using Extreme Programming will offer provisions of close relationships between members and the developers (Deshpand, 2008). The benefit will emerge in that the members have wide experience on how the football club works and this will greatly help the developers or the team in developing the proposed digital management system by Cheltenham Football club. Extreme Programming methodology will make it possible for all the associated members in the development disciplines to be able to borrow help from most of the members such as the coaches and players as well as the staff in the football club which will be based on the current and the previous digital management systems that might have been used for interaction with.
Extreme programming will also ensure that the members feedbacks from the club will be obtained immediately and that all the developers will be able to update and integrate all the end users’ requirements the moment they receive the members of the club and the feedbacks from the development team. The ability of XP is that it can adapt to other software methods and thus making it possible and easy when integrating in to the payment system in to the future irrespective of the system methodology which has been applied in the development. In conclusion, Extreme programming is very cheap when compared to other agile software methodologies. The concept of saving the cost and time has made XP an ideal and better option to be applied by Cheltenham Football Club as the system methodology.
The idea that has been discussed in this research is to understand the concept of system analysis and design and more details on the tools, techniques as well as theories used. Understanding the system methodologies will help one to understand the capabilities of all the methodologies and the weaknesses that they may possess. There are some brief discussions on the approaches and the methodologies of ASD and XP methodology. The best and wise option to be considered for use by Cheltenham Football Club will be the XP methodology as it is well known for having the features of adopting very easily to other software methodologies and much more it is very cheap and very fast when one is implementing. In conclusion, if Cheltenham Football Club applies the stated recommendation on the use of Extreme Programming methodology it will be able to have a good system that will be always be user friendly and much more competent in all manner of its usage.
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