The counselor and the counselee's background
Interviewer (Myself) – I belong from Latin America. I believe in spirituality but not religious by heart. My mother language is Portuguese. I can also speak English. I am heterosexual. Presently I am pursuing my university degree in psychology. I belong from a quite supportive and well of family. My Parents supported me for my studies and other curricular activities that I wanted to pursue.
The interviewee – Belongs from African country Ghana. She is Christian. The client is able to speak in 5 languages from her country as well as is good in English, the main reason being, her country was colonized by English for long time. The client is heterosexual and obtains great sense of community (that is much more than Latin people). This girl had a modest youth. She grew up in a remote village in Ghana. Her parents managed to pay for both her and her brothers’ bachelor degrees with by doing a lot of sacrifices. She is very brilliant and after finishing her university she got a scholarship to do her master degree in ******ope. Once she finished her masters degree, she got another scholarship to do PHD, which she is pursuing at the moment. She has a partner who belongs from India. She had suffered prejudice, not in her motherland but in Australia. She is a very strong woman and retain potential to overcome any obstacles that occurs into her path of life.
Me: How are you?
Interviewee: I am fine. How are you?
Me: I am good. Thanks for asking.
Me: How did you reach my clinic today? Roads are too crowded and busy today.
Interviewee: Actually I got struck while reaching your clinic. I also noticed that the roads are very busy today. This is very unusual. Generally, roads are less crowded at this time. Maybe, something is there today! I have no idea about it. But you know it’s very irritating to wait for long in signals when you are in hurry and specially have an appointment fixed with someone (smile).
Me: Yes, I agree with you. It is indeed very irritating I n signals when you are going to meet someone and have given a fixed time.
Ok. So tell me something about yourself.
Interviewee: Alright. My name is Lola Simpson. I belong from a remote village in Ghana.
Me: Great! You belong from a continent Africa that is culturally very rich.
You know, I have a wish to visit the great Masaimara Reserve Forest situated in Africa.
Interviewee: Wow! Have you ever visited Africa? Ther4e are several places and wonders other than Masaimara.
Me: No, not yet. But I desperately want to visit Africa.
Interviewee: If you ever plan to visit Ghana, let me know. I can guide you.
Me: Oh thank you! I will surely do that.
Now say something about your childhood.
Interviewee: I grew up with my younger brother within my parent’s observation.
Everyone knows that how females are considered in almost entire Africa. But I am proud of my parents. Being poor, they never discriminated between me and my brother. They sacrifice a lot for both of us. Starting from our primary schooling to higher education, their mental as well as financial support was always with us.
Counseling and psychotherapy as a technique to help clients
My father is a farmer and mother is a housewife. Unlike my neighbors who made their daughters get married in a very early age, my parents always showed that support to me so that I can become someone, a girl who can have self esteem.
Today, in my village my parents are famous for walking that much required extra mile.
Now I want to do something for my country, my village and lastly my people and girls.
Me: Lola, you are very luck to get such parents. My regards are always with you.
Ok so now tell me about your present life.
Interviewee: I am pursuing my PhD presently.
I like travelling, eating different foods and meeting new people.
Me: Ok. So, which tour you liked the most (till now) and why?
Visit to Switzerland. And the reason being, its scenic beauty, people and weather. I just loved it!
Me: And the worst one?
It was really bad. Australia.
I experienced racism in that country. But it does not mean that I will never visit Australia again. I will maybe for my honeymoon!
Me: Great plan! Australia is actually a great destination for honeymoon.
Interviewee: Actually I met Himanshu, my fiancé in Australia and we are planning to get married next year.
Me: So you are planning to move in Australia after marriage even after experiencing prejudice?
Interviewee: Actually no. He is supposed to settle in the U.S. and then we will be tying the knot. But will surely visit Australia for our honeymoon.
Me: That’s the spirit! Always remember, everything has two sides – good and bad. If you liked the good, you have to consider the bad as well. That is how all of us need to judge every situation and then take decisions.
Like Australia, you had a bitter experience in that country but in this country you found your life partner with whom you are going to settle very soon.
I wish you all the very best for your future.
Interviewee: Thank you. It was really a very effective session.
Counseling is a technique by which professional assistance is provided to a person for resolving the personal or psychological issues. It is a special type of guidance that is being trained to a person with a different guideline and procedure that composed of empathy as this process requires in-depth analyses of the client’s life and the factors that are creating the issues to the life of the client (Wilson, Onwuegbuzie & Manning, 2016). During the clinical supervision of the particular client, professional development, development towards the self-monitoring, self-awareness that enhances the capacity for the utilization of the self and the soul of the practitioner with the use of the therapeutic relationship effectively by the process of counseling.
The work of the counselor or the psychotherapist are quiet similar in nature apparently but it is a different if analyzed in depth. In the case of counseling, it is to be dealt with the specific and the particular problems those forces in the adjustment in the daily life-style with the fostering of the well being of the client (Copeland et al., 2017).
Culture's role in counseling and multicultural counseling
Counseling has a several aspect in the ground of the cultural dimensions. Culture plays an important role in the process of counseling. Multicultural counseling, is a special type of counseling when a counselor has to counsel a counselee of different culture, the change in the interaction between the two is quiet noticeable (Blair 2016). These includes dissimilarities between the sexual orientation, religious or spiritual, age, gender, family an even the socio-economic status of the individuals also gets affected. The initial stage of this special type of counseling can be the identification of the different aspects of the counselor and the counselee. One of the important and the effective tool that can be the part of the utilization for engaging the client for disclosing their issues to the counselor is by opening to the acknowledgement to the differences (Patel et al., 2016). This process is done by creating a belief to the counselee by offering a professional help and providing the solutions potentially. Establishment of rapport and willingness for learning more about the different culture, their view to the world, belief systems and the process or the means of solving the problems. In solving a case of the multicultural counselee, a counselor must allow for creating interventions that are quiet sensitive culturally.
Self-reflection is an essential aspect for becoming a culturally-competent counselor. Identification of the self view of the world and personal beliefs about the counselee who is different from the counselor is also a part of the multicultural counseling (Cooper et al., 2015). This implementation will assist the counselee in uncovering the own prejudices, emotions and ideas those are stereotypical, about clients from different cultures. Being an open-minded and willing for educating themselves about culturally dissimilar groups is a fruitful way of moving ahead towards the goal of working efficiently with them in the session of counseling. Becoming aware towards the self is one of the valuable tools, that is used as constant practice, and allowing fresh information for playing a part in shaping the identity professionally (Gayes & Steel, 2014).
Multicultural counseling is considered as one of the important for understanding and that professional counselors can never be the master in the ability for understanding every unique differences culturally; this is a persistent learning state. The base of the knowledge will grow with the work with a huge number of diverse counselee, but the process of gaining knowledge doesn’t discontinue (Ivey, Ivey & Zalaquett, 2013). Working in this field of professional counseling will continuously provides the better with the better opportunities for gaining the new approach and the skills that develops continuously with each and every new multicultural counselee.
After diagnosing the counselee’s present issue, the counselor is expected for stating what ought to be done, when, why and by whom or the time-period of the intervention, and its outcome, in order for removing out the problematic or disturbing situation. Mentioning such a report the counselors must be knowledgeable of the cultural values and the systems of their clients. Each culture deals with the ideas that are diverse about the issues they are dealing with. The therapy, cause of it, the person for consulting, and for the duration of the consultation should last must also be cultural-specific (Aggrawal et al., 2014). Counselors should not guess that the plan of the treatment for a Moroccan client will be the similar as writing one for the British or a client from the States. A pragmatic treatment plan depends mainly on four factors. The first being the knowledge of the counselor of what is naturally done in the counselee’s culture for eliminating the present issue. The second deals with a perceptive of the general treatment in the counselor's have own culture for the counselee with the issue that has to be diagnosed. The third is focused on the awareness of the way counselee feels better towards the life that being acculturated to the congregation culture (Codern-Bové et al., 2015). If the counselee is sound well acculturated to the hosted culture, counselors can experience more relaxed on designing a plan of the treatment that parallel to what they usually format for local clients. If the client is a latest coming from a developing country, counselors may perhaps want for considering how they can implement into the treatment plan; some remedies would be known to the client. The fourth factor is the willingness of clients for participating in a therapy that is proposed.
It is obvious that counseling is greatly being influenced by culture in various ways. The most vital thing that is required for keeping in mind during the counseling session of the counselee from cultures that is different from the culture of the counselor. In cross-cultural counseling, it is best for initiating the relationship with the acknowledgment of the common humanity that has being shared with counselee (Sorsdahl et al., 2014). It can be considered best if counseling must be put into special position where instead of being under-estimated, they are being blended with each other and delivers a fruitful solution that will guide the counselee in their further future.
Aggarwal, N. K., Desilva, R., Nicasio, A. V., Boiler, M., & Lewis-Fernández, R. (2015). Does the Cultural Formulation Interview for the fifth revision of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) affect medical communication? A qualitative exploratory study from the New York site. Ethnicity & health, 20(1), 1-28.
Blair, T., 2016. A Literature Review and Proposed Future Study to Analyze the Effectiveness of Utilizing Physical Activity as a Counselling Medium (Doctoral dissertation, City University of Seattle).
Codern-Bové, N., Pujol-Ribera, E., Pla, M., González-Bonilla, J., Granollers, S., Ballvé, J. L., ... & Cabezas, C. (2014). Motivational interviewing interactions and the primary health care challenges presented by smokers with low motivation to stop smoking: a conversation analysis. BMC public health, 14(1), 1225.
Cooper, M., McLeod, J., Ogden, G. S., Omylinska-Thurston, J., & Rupani, P. (2015). Client helpfulness interview studies: A guide to exploring client perceptions of change in counselling and psychotherapy. Working paper). Retrieved from https://www. researchgate. net/profile/Mick_Cooper Cooper, M., & Norcross, JC (2016). A brief, multidimensional measure of clients’ therapy preferences: The Cooper–Norcross Inventory of Preferences (C-NIP). International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 16, 87–98.
Copeland, L., McNamara, R., Kelson, M., & Simpson, S. (2017). The development of a coding system to code planning talk within motivational interviewing. Patient Education and Counseling, 100(2), 313-319.
Gayes, L. A., & Steele, R. G. (2014). A meta-analysis of motivational interviewing interventions for pediatric health behavior change.
Ivey, A., Ivey, M., & Zalaquett, C. (2013). Intentional interviewing and counseling: Facilitating client development in a multicultural society. Nelson Education.
Patel, K., Auton, M. F., Carter, B., Watkins, C. L., Hackett, M., Leathley, M. J., ... & Lightbody, C. E. (2016). Parallel-serial memoing: A novel approach to analyzing qualitative data. Qualitative health research, 26(13), 1745-1752.
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Wilson, A. D., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Manning, L. P. (2016). Using Paired Depth Interviews to Collect Qualitative Data. The Qualitative Report, 21(9), 1549.
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