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Discussion

Discuss about the Sexual Trauma And Effects On The Victims.

The subject matter of the case is based on the sexual trauma and effects or impacts of the same on the victims or the perpetrators. The term sexual trauma can be defined as a threat to the human personalities by inflicting harm on them. The trauma cropped up when there is any emotional psychological effects taken place for certain sexual offences such as rape or physical assault (Barth et al. 2016). In many cases, it has been observed that the victims of these offences are facing certain disabilities due to this and there shall be certain traumatic disorders take place during struggling with the problem. The effect of the same to the victims is havoc in nature and it has been observed that they are suffering from sleep disturbance or nightmares and emotional instability. In certain times, they become the victim of fear and anxiety (Ullman et al. 2013).

It has been observed that the growth regarding the index of rape in the provinces of Australia has increased epidemically and the victims are suffering from mental disorder after the sexual offence occurred as against them. It has been told by one of the rape victims of Australia that the nightmare of rape could not easily be forgotten. Research has been done to understand the impacts of sexual assault on the women in Australia and it has been observed that the scope of sex related problems are wide in nature (Rosellini et al. 2016). It is obvious to state that the effect of sexual intercourse hampered the mental and psychological system of the victim as well as the physical and social circumstance of them.

There are certain issues present to understand the impacts of the sexual assaults on the victims. It has been observed that the gravity of torture is different from one case to another. However, the standard of implication is same at almost every time. There are certain factors that are influencing the impacts of the sexual offences. They can be categorised as follows:


The relationship in between the victims and the perpetrators are one of these influences. The psychological or the physical abuse that happened to the victims during the process of assault also creates effect on the victims. Besides this, the severability of the offence, the extent of bodily injury, the responses that the victims are getting from their family and friends create effect on them (Staples et al. 2016). In certain circumstances, it is to be find out the family background or the past history of the victims.

Immediate and Long-term Impacts of Sexual Trauma

The impacts can be divided into two parts: the first is the immediate impact and the second one is the long-term impact. When a person is become victimised, he or she is experiencing common trauma regarding the same and it is obvious that they has undergone to the period of obsession and mental disorder. In many cases, it has been observed that the victims are become paralyse for the same and they become anxious in the aftermath period of rape. Traumas occurred when the victims remember the incidents and they are suffering from insomnia regarding the same. Other possible traumas included fear for HIV virus or become pregnant regarding the same. The circumstances are going worst when they are assaulted again in future and if not, the fear will follow them and they will become mental patient due to this. A suicidal mentality has been grown up within them and they are suffering from more stress regarding the same. 

According to Psychiatric Association of America the impacts of the sexual offences can be classified as follows:

  • It is a fact that all the traumas are not of same values;
  • In case of rape victim, the level of trauma is depending on the level of violence;
  • In certain circumstances, it can be observed that the attitude of the world towards the rape victims is dominant in nature. That creates impact on the mind of the victim.
  • It has been observed that the trauma like PTSD creates different effect on different person.


It is to be noted that there are certain condition regarding the trauma and the symptoms of the trauma can be inflicted by certain reasons that can be categorized as follows:

  • One of the aftermath effect of the sexual assault is the remembrance of the violent incident;
  • It is a fact that the rape victims are suffering from insomnia and that disease creates impact on their minds and also inflicted harm on their physical state. It has been observed that the incident creates effect on the psychological state of the victim and life becomes complicated for them;
  • The most common impacts of the sexual assault is that the victims are undergone to depression and that can create a long-term effect on them.
  • Mood or anxiety disorders are also happened and it has been found that 39% of women who are suffering from sexual assault met criteria for a mood or anxiety disorder that hampered their personal life and social life as well; and
  • It has been observed that the fatal incident could create avoidance behavioral that affects the victims.

Women who have suffering from sexual aggression may comprise the solitary largest group of people affected by PTSD.

It has been stated earlier that there are various kinds of impacts can be seen in case of sexual assaults and the case of traumas the condition of the victim become hazardous. There are certain kinds of traumas can be observed regarding the physical conditions. Physical impacts created regarding the same as:

  • the urethra, vagina and anus (for some victims of penetrative sexual assault) of the victim can be infected for such sexual offences;
  • there can be problem like gastrointestinal, sexual and reproductive health problems; pain syndromes and eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa could be take place;
  • the risk of contracting sexually transmissible infections, including HIV/AIDS can be increased;
  • there shall be a chance regarding the unwanted pregnancy and decisions can be happened and the possibility of pregnancy can be taken into place;
  • pelvic pain can be developed within the victim;
  • irritable bowel syndrome are a common fact regarding the same;
  • chronic diseases such as diabetes and arthritis can be taken into place;
  • head nuisance and
  • gynecologic symptoms; for example, dysmenorrheal, menorrhagia that means abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding during menstruation and certain sex related problems are also one of the syndrome regarding the same and in these cases, the support that the victim can be get from the families and the friends plays an important role (Hofmann 2017).


The next impacts are related to the society in general and the effectiveness of such impacts create significant role regarding the same. It is to be stated that the rape victims or the victims of any kinds of sexual offences have to faces a number of problems and in most of the times, it has been observed that their personal life are being hampered for the incidents. The impacts of the sexual offence have been seen when they are dumped by their friends or by their relatives and they got mentally harassed by the society for their hatred past. They face real problem when they wanted to mix up with the society as before and the mentality or behavior of the society towards the rape victims also affected their life (Marshall, Laws and Barbaree 2013). In certain circumstances, it has been observed that the female victims are facing double trauma when they are teased by the male in subsequent events. These are the main reason for the trauma and many a times, it can be observed that they could not tolerate all the insults and commit suicide or attempt to commit suicide.

Physical and Societal Impacts of Sexual Trauma

Another aftermath effect of the sexual assault is that the female victims are feeling vulnerable conditions in their localities and it can be observed that attitude of the society towards their pain make them mentally ill. This behavior of the society is termed as “second rape” by the criminal justice researchers.

In the provinces of Victoria, Australia, it has been observed that the rape victims are facing domestic violence by their cumulative partners and the mental health of the victims are become deteriorated for the same (Bennett, Banyard and Edwards 2017).

There are certain financial impacts created due to the sexual violence and it can  be observed that the family of the victim could not bear the expenses of the victim. The future earning capacity of the victims are hampered a lot for the violence and it can be observed that the counseling expenses of the mental victims are huge and it become impossible for the family of the victims to spend this expenses.

Conclusion:

Therefore, it has been seen that the victims of the sexual violation have to face a number of problems. It is important to change the mentality of the society towards the rape victims. The mental support is needed to recover the mental balance of the victim and a helping hand is needed to raise before them. It is to be kept into mind that the interpersonal relationship of the victims should not be get hampered for all the accidents and a strong sympathy should be maintained to secure the interest of the victims.

References:

Baiocchi, M., Omondi, B., Langat, N., Boothroyd, D.B., Sinclair, J., Pavia, L., Mulinge, M., Githua, O., Golden, N.H. and Sarnquist, C., 2017. A behavior-based intervention that prevents sexual assault: The results of a matched-pairs, cluster-randomized study in Nairobi, Kenya. Prevention science, 18(7), pp.818-827.

Barth, S.K., Kimerling, R.E., Pavao, J., McCutcheon, S.J., Batten, S.V., Dursa, E., Peterson, M.R. and Schneiderman, A.I., 2016. Military sexual trauma among recent veterans: correlates of sexual assault and sexual harassment. American journal of preventive medicine, 50(1), pp.77-86.

Bennett, S., Banyard, V.L. and Edwards, K.M., 2017. The impact of the bystander’s relationship with the victim and the perpetrator on intent to help in situations involving sexual violence. Journal of interpersonal violence, 32(5), pp.682-702.

Goeman, K., 2014. Sexual Assault on College Campuses.

Hofmann, S.M., 2017. Exposing Rape on Campus: A Semiotic Analysis of the Sexual Assault Awareness Campaign “It Happens”.

Hoxmeier, J.C., Flay, B.R. and Acock, A.C., 2015. When will students intervene? Differences in students' intent to intervene in a spectrum of sexual assault situations. Violence and gender, 2(3), pp.179-184.

Marshall, W.L., Laws, D.R. and Barbaree, H.E. eds., 2013. Handbook of sexual assault: Issues, theories, and treatment of the offender. Springer Science & Business Media.

McMahon, S., Peterson, N.A., Winter, S.C., Palmer, J.E., Postmus, J.L. and Koenick, R.A., 2015. Predicting Bystander Behavior to Prevent Sexual Assault on College Campuses: The Role of Self?Efficacy and Intent. American journal of community psychology, 56(1-2), pp.46-56.

Mirghassemi, F.L., Scott, K.A., Lundberg-Love, P.K., Phelps, H. and Burke, A.L., 2016. Ramifications of Title IX on Campus Sexual Assault Prevention and Treatment Protocol: Will Recent Changes Work to Protect College Students?. Campus Action Against Sexual Assault: Needs, Policies, Procedures, and Training Programs: Needs, Policies, Procedures, and Training Programs, p.163.

Rosellini, A.J., Street, A.E., Ursano, R.J., Chiu, W.T., Heeringa, S.G., Monahan, J., Naifeh, J.A., Petukhova, M.V., Reis, B.Y., Sampson, N.A. and Bliese, P.D., 2017. Sexual assault victimization and mental health treatment, suicide attempts, and career outcomes among women in the US Army. American journal of public health, 107(5), pp.732-739.

Staples, J.M., Eakins, D., Neilson, E.C., George, W.H., Davis, K.C. and Norris, J., 2016. Sexual assault disclosure and sexual functioning: the role of trauma symptomatology. The journal of sexual medicine, 13(10), pp.1562-1569.

Ullman, S.E., Relyea, M., Peter-Hagene, L. and Vasquez, A.L., 2013. Trauma histories, substance use coping, PTSD, and problem substance use among sexual assault victims. Addictive behaviors, 38(6), pp.2219-2223.

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