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Question:
Discuss about the Shallow Foundation Using Recent Swarm Intelligence Techniques.

 
Answer:

Expected costs

Amount

Expected Site costs

18000

Fencing

3900

Surveying

1000

Plumbing/Electrical

10400

Base Stage- Foundation

5000

Framing

1450

Lock Up

 

External Wall Cladding

6400

Roof Coverings

72000

Flooring

10000

External Doors/Windows

12000

Fixing

5000

Internal Cladding

4800

Architraves

24000

Skirting

2800

Doors

10840

Built in Shelves

15000

Baths

52500

Basins

45000

Sinks

15000

Cabinets

12000

Cupboards

120000

Total Fixing costs

407340

Completion

30000

 

Particulars

Budget

Actual

Total Contract Price

265463

Deposit

 

 

Expected Site costs

18000

 

Fencing

3900

 

Surveying

1000

 

Plumbing/Electrical

10400

 

Total

33300

13274

Base stage

5000

26546

Frame Stage

1450

39819

Lock up Stage

 

External Wall Cladding

6400

 

Roof Coverings

72000

 

Flooring

10000

 

External Doors/Windows

12000

 

Total Lock up stage

100400

92912

Fixing

 

 

Internal Cladding

4800

 

Architraves

24000

 

Skirting

2800

 

Doors

10840

 

Built in Shelves

15000

 

Baths

52500

 

Basins

45000

 

Sinks

15000

 

Cabinets

12000

 

Cupboards

120000

 

Total Lock up stage

301940

66366

Completion

30000

26546

Total costs

472090

265463

Balance

-206627

0

 

Particulars

Budget

GST@12%

After Tax value

Actual

GST@12%

After Tax value

Variances

Deposit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expected Site costs

18000

2160

20160

 

 

 

 

Fencing

3900

468

4368

 

 

 

 

Surveying

1000

120

1120

 

 

 

 

Plumbing/Electrical

10400

1248

11648

 

 

 

 

Total

33300

3996

37296

13274

1592.88

14866.88

22429.12

Base stage

5000

600

5600

26546

3185.52

29731.52

-24131.5

Frame Stage

1450

174

1624

39819

4778.28

44597.28

-42973.3

Lock up Stage

 

 

 

 

 

 

External Wall Cladding

6400

768

7168

 

 

 

 

Roof Coverings

72000

8640

80640

 

 

 

 

Flooring

10000

1200

11200

 

 

 

 

External Doors/Windows

12000

1440

13440

 

 

 

 

Total Lock up stage

100400

12048

112448

92912

11149.44

104061.4

8386.56

Fixing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Internal Cladding

4800

576

5376

 

 

 

 

Architraves

24000

2880

26880

 

 

 

 

Skirting

2800

336

3136

 

 

 

 

Doors

10840

1300.8

12140.8

 

 

 

 

Built in Shelves

15000

1800

16800

 

 

 

 

Baths

52500

6300

58800

 

 

 

 

Basins

45000

5400

50400

 

 

 

 

Sinks

15000

1800

16800

 

 

 

 

Cabinets

12000

1440

13440

 

 

 

 

Cupboards

120000

14400

134400

 

 

 

 

Total Lock up stage

301940

36232.8

338172.8

66366

7963.92

74329.92

263842.9

Completion

30000

3600

33600

26546

3185.52

29731.52

3868.48

 

Particulars

Budget

GST@12%

After Tax value

Actual

GST@12%

After Tax value

Contract Price

 

 

265463

277408.8

 

Deposit

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expected Site costs

18000

2160

20160

 

 

 

Fencing

3900

468

4368

 

 

 

Surveying

1000

120

1120

 

 

 

Plumbing/Electrical

10400

1248

11648

 

 

 

Total

33300

3996

37296

13274

1592.88

14866.88

Base stage

5000

600

5600

26546

3185.52

29731.52

Frame Stage

1450

174

1624

39819

4778.28

44597.28

Lock up Stage

 

 

 

 

 

External Wall Cladding

6400

768

7168

 

 

 

Roof Coverings

72000

8640

80640

 

 

 

Flooring

10000

1200

11200

 

 

 

External Doors/Windows

12000

1440

13440

 

 

 

Total Lock up stage

100400

12048

112448

92912

11149.44

104061.4

Fixing

 

 

 

 

 

 

Internal Cladding

4800

576

5376

 

 

 

Architraves

24000

2880

26880

 

 

 

Skirting

2800

336

3136

 

 

 

Doors

10840

1300.8

12140.8

 

 

 

Built in Shelves

15000

1800

16800

 

 

 

Baths

52500

6300

58800

 

 

 

Basins

45000

5400

50400

 

 

 

Sinks

15000

1800

16800

 

 

 

Cabinets

12000

1440

13440

 

 

 

Cupboards

120000

14400

134400

 

 

 

Total Lock up stage

301940

36232.8

338172.8

66366

7963.92

74329.92

Completion

30000

3600

33600

26546

3185.52

29731.52

Completion

30000

26546

 

 

 

 

Total costs

 

528740.8

 

 

297318.6

Balance

 

 

-251332

 

 

-19909.7

How budget matched with the actual figures

The aim of the project manager while creating a budget is to ensure the completion of all its goals and the objectives within a given span of time. In the current case stage, a budget is created by an architect to balance off all the costs incurred in the construction of a house. The estimated and forecasted figures of the budget are compared with the actual construction cost incurred by an architect to know the gaps which will further correct by taking corrective actions and protective measures to get rid of all the problems incurred in the development of a project (Gandomi and Kashani, 2018). Various costs incurred in the construction of a house includes the starting stage in which several costs required to build the house such as expected site costs, fencing costs, surveying costs and plumbing and electrical costs. Another stage of building the house is also converted into the forms of costs such as base stage, frame stage, look up a stage. The lookup stage is further converted into various categories such as external cladding, roof coverings, floorings, external doors and windows. Fixing stage is another important stage in which all the materials selected or purchased y an architect’s or an interiors designers as per the look of the house now finally installed with the help of all the labourers to give finished look to the newly built house as these elements enhance the overall of the house by giving appealing look to all the areas covered in the house to give a perfect place of residence to its clients (Oztekin and Masterson, 2018). The fixing stage covers various costs like Internal cladding, architraves, skirting’s, doors, baths, built-in shelves, basins, sinks, cabinets, cupboards. Base costs and framing stage costs are not matching with the budgeted figures as the estimated figures of these stages are less than the actual results which, in turn, showing the negative costs.

 
Determine the underestimated/overestimated figures

Costs such as expected site visits costs to the newly constructed house, fencing of the under-construction house, surveying of the house construction costs and the plumbing and the electrical fittings of the house are over-estimated as $33300 but in reality the actual figures are just 13275 that means these costs are overestimated by $20026 due to the lack of knowledge of the surveyor who did not researches deeply about the occurrence of the costs of all the components involved in the house construction. The over-estimation of costs  initially in the construction contract is not good as this will spoils the image of a contractor who charges higher prices from its clients will shifted the interest of its clients to other contractor’s door due to hiking of price. This needs to be improved by adopting proactive strategies in which the surveyor will cross-check all the costs with the quotes charges by another contractor to include its overall margin in the contract competitively to gain the attention of its majority of its buyers.

Base stage and frame stage are underestimated as the budgeted costs are underestimated due to casual attitude of the scrutinizer that trusted on few suppliers in taking the quotes of the framings of the doors and the windows without consulting the client about the quality of materials required by a client. As using low quality a material will in return increases the maintenance charges of the client and at the same time decreases the durability of the overall materials.

Lock up stage costs are over-estimated by $235574 as the actual figures are just $66366 due to the market competitions. The Installations of all the external claddings, roof coverings, floorings, doors, and windows are runs on an hourly basis which will directly impact o the overall incurred costs. The loyalty of the labourers with the contractors will reduce its hourly rates will decrease the total costs of the lock-up stage as the contractors will give continuous work to all the labours.

 
What business milestones have met or have fell short 

Various milestones created by an architect or project manager for building a house as according to the needs of the client. One of the milestone prepare by a project manager is to keep control on the costing while building a new house as per the specifications of the client have slightly met as some of the component’s costs are higher which needs to be decreased to achieve the overall objectives of an individual.

Due to the inclusion of various materials in the construction of house the costs of the overall contract price gets increases and another reason for increase in the cost is due to the involvement of GST tax rate of 12% to all the budgeted and actual figures of the budget to determine the variances incurred in the overall budget. The Taxation is the un-controllable risk which cannot be eliminated but can be reduced by taking proactive actions to get rid of all the uncertainties incurred in the current project of an architect which is to construct a house.

Comparison of budgeted forecasts and actual figures

 

Budgeted

Actual

Starting costs

33300

13274

Base Stage- Foundation

5000

26546

Framing

1450

39819

Lock Up

100400

92912

Prepare and analyse the Budget Variances

Particulars

Budget

Actual

Variances

Deposit

 

 

 

Expected Site costs

18000

 

 

Fencing

3900

 

 

Surveying

1000

 

 

Plumbing/Electrical

10400

 

 

Total

33300

13274

20026

Base stage

5000

26546

-21546

Frame Stage

1450

39819

-38369

Lock up Stage

 

 

External Wall Cladding

6400

 

 

Roof Coverings

72000

 

 

Flooring

10000

 

 

External Doors/Windows

12000

 

 

Total Lock up stage

100400

92912

7488

Fixing

 

 

 

Internal Cladding

4800

 

 

Architraves

24000

 

 

Skirting

2800

 

 

Doors

10840

 

 

Built in Shelves

15000

 

 

Baths

52500

 

 

Basins

45000

 

 

Sinks

15000

 

 

Cabinets

12000

 

 

Cupboards

120000

 

 

Total Lock up stage

301940

66366

235574

Completion

30000

26546

3454

 

Particulars

Budget

Actual

Variances

Deposit

 

 

 

Expected Site costs

18000

 

 

Fencing

3900

 

 

Surveying

1000

 

 

Plumbing/Electrical

10400

 

 

Total

33300

13274

20026

Base stage

5000

26546

-21546

Frame Stage

1450

39819

-38369

Lock up Stage

 

 

External Wall Cladding

6400

 

 

Roof Coverings

72000

 

 

Flooring

10000

 

 

External Doors/Windows

12000

 

 

Total Lock up stage

100400

92912

7488

Fixing

 

 

 

Internal Cladding

4800

 

 

Architraves

24000

 

 

Skirting

2800

 

 

Doors

10840

 

 

Built in Shelves

15000

 

 

Baths

52500

 

 

Basins

45000

 

 

Sinks

15000

 

 

Cabinets

12000

 

 

Cupboards

120000

 

 

Total Fixing stage

301940

66366

235574

Completion

30000

26546

3454


Colour codes are used to denote the positive or negative variances occurred in the overall budget is a proof of the underperformance of the budget prepared by the builder for the new construction of its entire house. The colour code analysis uses two colours such as red and green to showcase the overall performance of the crafted budget.

 
Prepare Recommendation to board

It is recommended to the board of the building construction firm to pay attention to the overall cost of construction incurred in a particular project. The standard costing technique should be adopted by the current project owner as negative variances incurred in the budget will lead to the entire failure of the project which needs to be controlled appropriately.

 
Review the budget

The budget created by a project manager such as architects or an interior designer whose aim is to produce the final output as per the needs and the specifications of its customers. Goals and the objectives of the builder are on track as this is clearly visible in the form of costing report.

Feasibility Report

Particulars

Status of Goal

Nature of Goal

Final Result

Taking clients requirements

Taken and working on it

Realistic goal

Increasing in the satisfaction of the client

Assuming consent of the client

Confusing

Unrealistic

It could leads to the failure of the overall project.

Prepare report to the builder

To

The builder

Sub: Suggestions

Sir,

This is to inform to the board of the construction firm to reconsider the overall costs incurred in an entity while building the newly constructed house to create a perfect balance among all the components of costs included in the budget. Benchmarking approach will be recommended to the construction house for comparing its actual performance with the best industry’s practice to improve its overall performance.

Yours Affectionately

Industry Analyst

 

 
Reference

Gandomi, A. H. and Kashani, A. R., 2018. Construction cost minimization of shallow foundation using recent swarm intelligence techniques. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. 14(3). pp.1099-1106.

Oztekin, A. and Masterson, R. R., 2018. A predictive analytic approach to determine construction cost estimates. International Journal of Operational Research. 32(2). pp.169-200.

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