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What is the motivation in volunteering in a major sporting event?" which the event would be Singapore Grand Prix (F1).

Focus on volunteering, cultural (difference between singapore/uk students when it comes to self volunteering(uk) and getting paid(sg).

The importance of volunteers in delivering sports services

Extensive importance has been given on the role of volunteers in sport events since past few decades. Volunteers are recognized as one of core components for delivering sports service. In any grand sport event, there are a number of roles and responsibilities to be played. These responsibilities cannot be fulfilled without the support of volunteers (Pierce et al., 2014). With the support of the volunteers administer authority becomes able to deliver services in an orderly manner. Responsible volunteers also extend support for improving quality of services and bring diversity in the services of sport organization. There are several roles performed by sports volunteers. They raise funds necessary for organizing the sport events. They often play roles as coaches or administrators. Participation and need of volunteers are observed at different levels of sport events (Allen & Bartle, 2014). Volunteers work for sport program organized by local community as well as in continental or world championships. Those organized by sport organization at national and international level and for event production the need of volunteers are equally important. Many studies have found necessity of volunteer group for feasibility of organized sport system and indicate difficulty to survive on part of the organizers. At major sport, events like Olympic or FIFA World Cup sports organizers generally employ a large pool of volunteers to assist to athletes, the large number of spectators or visitors attaining the events.

In context of enormous importance of volunteers in sports events at every level, the present study is designed to the capture the volunteer’s motivation in one such major sport event namely, Singapore Grand Pix (F1). Research in finding motivation for volunteers’ participation has significant importance for two aspects. First, the motivation of individual volunteer reflects from a theoretical and practical perspective the actuality and continuity for volunteer activity. Second, research in this area further explores the notion of future participation and commitment for volunteer services. Therefore, identification of volunteer motivation not only limited to theoretical and practical contribution of volunteer in a major sport events but also points towards future intention and scope in this direction (Aisbett, Randle & Kappelides, 2015). In the current study motivation factor for volunteers in Singapore Grand Pix (F1) are evaluated with assessment of participation rate and satisfactory factors.

Motivations for volunteers 

In sport events, volunteers participate for a number of reasons. Theorem of altruism and selflessness offer one aspect of historical understanding regarding the motivation of volunteer participation. This theory suggests that primary driving factor to work as a volunteer comes from desire to help others. In addition to this, other factor influencing volunteer participation also needs mention and helps to understand the practice of event management. The notion of  cotemporary volunteering more often involve expectation and project orientation in terms of time, form and involvement of volunteers. In this context, there are several studies conducted on different motivations for volunteerism. Some studies have found motivation in social services such as social contact, personal interest of the individual, altruism and emotional needs. While viewing volunteerism from the perspective of leisure activity, literature suggests the presence of co-production motive (Lee et al., 2014). Study defines leisure volunteering as activities undertaken not due to altruistic motive or help anonymously in market condition or help for a cause but is simply done for experiencing leisure. Service of volunteers often pertains to individual benefit or benefit for family members. This kind of service produces opportunities for their own children such as taking the position of youth athletic coach. It also plays an important role in assisting organization to present the overall event.  Evidence also finds volunteers to offer services for serving their own benefit. These kinds of benefits include link of interest in reference to individual interest or need and often linked with benefits of friends or families. Specific studies also found that the driving factor for volunteer service is not altruistic but often to meet interest of the volunteers (Güntert, Neufeind & Wehner, 2015). Joining of volunteers in an organization often resulted from financial motivation as well.  There are different reasons and motivation for volunteer services depending on the specific characteristic of events and organizations involved in conducting the events.

Motivation factors for volunteers in sports events

The self-determination theory corresponds to the idea of including different motives that affect different behavior applicable to volunteers. In a paper developed by Allen and Bartle (2014) analyzed relationship between motivation of individual volunteer and their work engagement in British Women’s Golf based on the theory of self determination. Four different motives are studied there- Intrinsic, identified, extrinsic motives and interjected regulation (Lee, 2016). The paper finds among the four motivations analyzed, the driving factor behind volunteer engagement is intrinsic motivation and regulation that is moderately identified.

The theory of Volunteer Function Inventory is developed based on idea that individual volunteer comprised of different objectives. One volunteer may be motivated to build relationship with other while other simply participates with objective of gain skill in career building. Researchers argued that the theory is essential in assessing the motivation of volunteers (Wright et al., 2015). It shows when concerned organization succeeds in meeting motivation and expectation of volunteers then volunteers continue their services as they gain satisfaction.  Additionally, VFI is also applicable in measuring volunteers’ motivation in different organizational context.

VFI comprises of six factors. These are Values, Social, Career, Understanding, Protective and Enhancement (). Each of these factors addresses different aspects. Value refers to the scope and opportunities provided to individual reflecting humanitarian and altruistic concerns for others. The main objective of the volunteers is to help others. Social corresponds to opportunities of being with others or involve in an activity that is regarded as favorably important by others. Understanding refers to opportunities that that allow volunteers to learn new experiences, abilities and skills. Enhancement means the development and growth of ego and a positive striving of it.  Career is the employment scope that volunteers might get from volunteer workings. Protective is the own need of the volunteers to get involved in the volunteer activities to eliminate own negative feelings (Hochstetler, 2014).

The Singapore Grand Prix is a world famous motor race. This is a part of world championship of formula one as organized by Federation International Automobile (FIA).  Th.  Grand event is hosted in Marina Bay Street Circuit. It was considered as first street circuit in Asia for formula one race. The race has held for eighteen times with the first being held in 1966. The Grand prix in Singapore remain in calendar of F1 at least until 2021 in view of the attest extension signed in 2017.  The race begins at Midday GMT (8 pm local time). It is considered as the European Grand Prix’s standard time ( 2017). In 2008, Formula one is inaugurated with a five year agreement signed by the Singapore tourism board, Singapore GP Pte  Ltd and Bernie Ecclestone. In 2007, telecommunication company Sing Tel had announced to sponsor the event. The show was televised on channel 5 known as Sing Tel Grid Girls. As sponsored by Sing Tel the event was known as Sing Tel Singapore Grand Prix. Nearly, 110,000 tickets were available for the first Formula One Race of Singapore. Every year, the country hosted this grand event ( 2017).

Theory of self-determination and Volunteer Function Inventory

In order to make the event successful, event managers divide the roles and responsibilities in different categories.  In the race operation, there are more than 150 roles. The officials are not able to take the particular role of their choice but can only indicate their preference for a particular category. There are three broad categories such as Race Control Roles, Non Trackside Roles and Trackside roles. Under these broad categories, there are numbers of other roles. Race Control Roles include Clerk of the Course, Chief of Communication, Emergency Coordinator, Chief Observer and Chief CCTV controller (, 2017). The non-trackside roles include Secretary of events, Chief Editor, Chief of Sign on and Steward. The Trackside roles involves roles of Sector chief or Deputy Sector Chief, Trainee Sector chief, Flag marshal,  Observer, Fire Marshal, Track marshal, Crane operator,  Chief Course marshal, Chief Medical official and recovery marshal and others.

Singapore Grand Pix (F1) is a grand car race event that is organized in every year. It gives attention to values such as transparency, equity, accessibility, professionalism and mutual aid. The event managers also look for sustainable development. The objective of sustainable development includes minimizing the impact the sport event on environment. While designing the event, management gives importance to these principles. The volunteers have the responsibilities to share these values. Visitors of the events first contact with the volunteers. The Volunteers serve and make their sincere contribution to develop the Grand Prix as a successful and quality event. The event organizers consider volunteers as an integral part of the event and searching for honest, dynamics , working, helpful and sociable people (Holmes et al., 2015). Apart from having the experience working for such a grand event, the volunteers are provided T- Shirt with unique logo of ‘Team GP3R’, GP3R cap, party is given to the volunteers after completion of the events an daily meal. Different responsibilities of volunteer are as follows

Volunteers at the information desk have the responsibility of providing information to the public in different groups (Wagenaar, 2014). The volunteers here need to be dynamic, attentive and should be able to learn at the quick pace.

Volunteers giving responsibility of reception should be ready to welcome people at every doors, tents and lodges. They manage the access pass and check admission tickets. Welcome the spectators with a smile (Hoye et al., 2015). The volunteers welcoming spectators should be polite, respectful and smart. Teenagers from 15 years onwards are allowed to volunteer in reception in guidance with experienced people.

Singapore Grand Prix (F1) event

Group of volunteer having responsibility of accreditation welcome all the interested people coming for work record as an exhibitor or volunteer (Kilgallen, 2013). They have the responsibility of recording worker and record hard copy of the access card. Volunteers here should be available at day or night. They should posses IT knowledge. The volunteers should be ready to work under pressure. The retired people are welcomed for accreditation (Fairley et al., 2014). The volunteers preferred to have bilingual knowledge, though it is not compulsory.

Deliver lunches and water to the participants on time (Giulianotti, 2015).

The volunteers have the responsibility to circulate into paddocks and access bridges on site. On site security, involve accessing control to the onsite buildings (Ringuet-Riot et al., 2014). The volunteers enforce access to restricted zones and control other situation as well.

The volunteers prepare beverage order, look after delivery at different point and also ready to do other tasks as well.

The volunteers control access to race tracks. They assist the track marshal and do circulation around the track. They should also ready to do other task (Masterman, 2014).

Volunteers needed for this grand event should have some common skills. All the volunteers should be energetic, have ability to work as a team, should be energetic, should know how to communicate with people and share information and should be comfortable to serve public (Welty Peachey et al., 2014).

Aim of the current study is to find out the motivation of volunteering in a major sport event. The chosen event is Singapore grand prix (F1). The research is conducted to identify volunteer motivation for secondary students, ITE student, and polytechnic and university students of Singapore. Among various roles of volunteers, chosen sector of volunteers are merchandising and route merchandising.

The research is designed with the following objectives.

  • To derive the motivation of volunteer participation in Singapore Grand Prix
  • To find out the role of secondary student, ITE student, polytechnic and university students in Singapore in the event as a volunteer
  • To find out areas of volunteering where they participate giving particular focus on the role in merchandising and route Marshalls
  • To find out cultural difference of volunteers between Singapore and UK students

What is main driving factor behind participation of students in Singapore Grand Prix (F1) as a volunteer?

What role do they prefer most as a volunteer?

How many of the volunteer participants work in merchandising and rout Marshalls?

How is cultural difference between Singapore and UK students important in volunteering in the Singapore Grand Prix?

Hypothesis 1

Null hypothesis: The motivation factors have significant influence on volunteer participation rate.

Alternative hypothesis: The motivation factors do not have significant influence on volunteer participation rate.

Hypothesis 2

Null hypothesis: Cultural differences between UK and Singapore students have any significant influence on participation rate of volunteers.

Roles and responsibilities of volunteers

Alternative hypothesis: Cultural differences do not have significant influence on participation rate of volunteers.

A quantitative research is conducted to find the answer of proposed research question and test the research hypotheses.  At first, data needs to be collected on number of volunteer participants in different roles in Singapore Grand Prix (formula one) in past few years (Brannen, 2017). The intended volunteer participants here are secondary students, the students in Institute of Technical Education and Polytechnic and University students.  In the grand event, there are numbers of roles to be played by the volunteers. The focus target area of the paper is the volunteer sector in the grand prix would be merchandise and route Marshalls. Components of Volunteer Function Inventory are used to find out the significant motivators of volunteerism. Six components are social, value, understanding, career, protective and enhancement (Das, Calhoun & Malhi, 2014). Survey is conducted and questionnaire is designed to collect responses from the volunteers and find out which factor is most important for motivating the volunteers. Then among different sectors of volunteer participation, role of volunteers in merchandising and route Marshalls are evaluated. For finding motivation factor the questionnaire is formed taking all the six factors in VFI and responses are collected from sampled volunteers. The questionnaire includes volunteer sector corresponding to merchandise and route Marshalls. Another objective of the paper is to find cultural differences between Singapore and UK students and extent of volunteerism of UK students when self-volunteering is considered. The collected responses are then analyzed using different statistical tools.

In the research area, broadly four scales are used to capture different types of variables. These are nominal, interval, ordinal and ratio (Gravetter & Wallnau, 2016). The simplest type of scales is nominal scale. Variables that do not have any quantitative values are labeled using nominal scales. Concepts those are non-numeric are traced with using means of ordinal scale. These variables include happiness, comfort, satisfaction and others. Interval scales are used when in addition to order of variables; exact differences of values of variables are also known.  Ratio scales provides order, values of interval and helps to calculate ratio. For the present study, the useful scales are nominal scale and ordinal scale. Satisfaction of the volunteers can be scaled using ordinal scales. Different components of VFI can be scaled with a nominal scale.

Secondary data

The data on volunteer participation will be collected from official websites of Singapore Grand Prix events. Information about sports volunteers is also available in popular daily newspaper of Singapore Straits Times. The information on number of volunteers in the Grand Prix will be obtained from these sources.

Values, principles, and objectives of the event

Primary data

Once the secondary data is collected, sample of volunteers will be selected from whom the responses can be collected. In the first set of questionnaire six motivation factors such as social, value, understanding, career, protective and enhancement. Responses are collected to see which of these factors motivate the students most (Creswell, 2013). The factors may be different for different groups such as secondary students, students in Institute of Technical Education (ITE), Polytechnic and University in Singapore. Then the responses will be sorted as per category of students. The second set of questionnaire is designed giving focus on volunteer sector such as merchandising the events and their role as a route Marshall. A set of responses will be collected from common people in Singapore who come as a spectator. The responses will be collected to know how many people are aware of the detailed information regarding sports and from what sources they come to know about the event. This will help to understand the role of volunteers in merchandising the events. From the sample volunteer, their participation as route Marshall is evaluated. In order to trace the role of cultural difference responses, first volunteer participants are grouped into two classes – Singapore students and UK students. Responses are collected from these two groups of students. This will help to understand the difference in motivational factors between Singapore and UK students and this will indicate importance of cultural difference in volunteering in the Grand Prix event.

Once the data has been collected, statistical analysis needs to be done to draw conclusion. In order to find the significance of different motivating factors, a regression will be run taking number of participants as dependent variable and the six motivating factors in VFI as independent variables (Fox, 2015).  Significance of the co efficient of independent variables will indicate the significance of motivating factors in volunteering in Singapore grand prix. Separate regression will be run for different category of students. Participation of volunteers in merchandising and route Marshal can be directly analyzed from the collected data and responses from the volunteers. In order to analyze cultural impact on volunteer participation, participation of volunteers will be regressed taking the cultural differences as independent variable.


Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Week 6

Week 7

Week 8

Week 9

Selection of topic and search for justification

Constructing literature

Selecting appropriate methods

Data collection

Data analysis and representation

Reviewing the outcomes

Conclusions and recommendations

Submitting draft of the project

Printing and final submission


Aisbett, L., Randle, E., & Kappelides, P. (2015). Future volunteer intentions at a major sport event. Annals of Leisure Research, 18(4), 491-509.

Allen, J. B., & Bartle, M. (2014). Sport event volunteers' engagement: management matters. Managing Leisure, 19(1), 36-50.

Different responsibilities of volunteers

Brannen, J. (Ed.). (2017). Mixing methods: Qualitative and quantitative research. Routledge.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Das, P., Calhoun, V., & Malhi, G. S. (2014). Bipolar and borderline patients display differential patterns of functional connectivity among resting state networks. Neuroimage, 98, 73-81.

Fairley, S., Green, B. C., O'Brien, D., & Chalip, L. (2014). Pioneer volunteers: the role identity of continuous volunteers at sport events. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 19(3-4), 233-255.

Fox, J. (2015). Applied regression analysis and generalized linear models. Sage Publications.

Giulianotti, R. (2015). Sport: A critical sociology. John Wiley & Sons.

Gravetter, F. J., & Wallnau, L. B. (2016). Statistics for the behavioral sciences. Cengage Learning.

Güntert, S. T., Neufeind, M., & Wehner, T. (2015). Motives for event volunteering: Extending the functional approach. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 44(4), 686-707.

Hochstetler, J. J. (2014). Revising the Volunteer Functions Inventory: An Exploratory Study of Additional Functions. Northcentral University.

Holmes, K., Hughes, M., Mair, J., & Carlsen, J. (2015). Events and sustainability. Routledge.

Hoye, R., Smith, A. C., Nicholson, M., & Stewart, B. (2015). Sport management: principles and applications. Routledge.

Kilgallen, C. (2013). Developing elite sporting talent in. Sport management in the Middle East: A case study analysis, 173.

Lee, C. K., Reisinger, Y., Kim, M. J., & Yoon, S. M. (2014). The influence of volunteer motivation on satisfaction, attitudes, and support for a mega-event. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 40, 37-48.

Lee, M. (2016). Determinants of volunteer motives and future behavior in community sporting events (Doctoral dissertation, The Florida State University).

Masterman, G. (2014). Strategic sports event management. Routledge.

MENG, W. (2017). Formula One: Singapore to host F1 race for four more years. The Straits Times. Retrieved 10 October 2017, from

Pierce, D., Johnson, J., Felver, N., Wanless, E., & Judge, L. (2014). Influence of Volunteer Motivations on Satisfaction for Undergraduate Sport Management Students. Global Sport Business Journal, 2(2), 63-72.

Ringuet-Riot, C., Cuskelly, G., Auld, C., & Zakus, D. H. (2014). Volunteer roles, involvement and commitment in voluntary sport organizations: evidence of core and peripheral volunteers. Sport in Society, 17(1), 116-133.

Roles & Responsibilities - Singapore Grand Prix Race Officials. (2017). Retrieved 10 October 2017, from

Singapore F1 - Formula 1 Night Race - Singapore Grand Prix. (2017). Retrieved 10 October 2017, from

Wagenaar, M. (2014). Eventful Cities. The Case of Singapore.

Welty Peachey, J., Lyras, A., Cohen, A., Bruening, J. E., & Cunningham, G. B. (2014). Exploring the motives and retention factors of sport-for-development volunteers. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 43(6), 1052-1069.

Wright, D. R., Underhill, L. G., Keene, M., & Knight, A. T. (2015). Understanding the motivations and satisfactions of volunteers to improve the effectiveness of citizen science programs. Society & natural resources, 28(9), 1013-1029.

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