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The Key Stakeholders of the System

Discuss about the System engineering for manager.

A system can be defined as a collection of components or elements that are put together for a common purpose. The word system can be used to describe a plan in an organization or an organization itself. System engineering in management is a field of management that aims at effective management of assets and resources allocated in a system. In any system, implementation, in requires the coordination of the management and the technical players. Management in any system provides the planning, collaborative environment, organizational structure and the program controls system engineering in management aims at ensuring success in a system. It focuses on: scoping and defining customer needs, application of system specification progressively in a hierarchy while at the same time involving all sub-systems and continuous release, configuration, and change of the interface, sub-systems and the whole system.

This paper seeks to look at the basic concepts of systems and systems engineering in management. The system to be considered is a public hospital. A hospital has many systems when looked from different points of view (Sullivan, 2007). At one point a hospital can be considered as a system comprising of the physical building, it can be considered as a system of interacting staff. A system of complex logistics and as a system of treating patients. In this paper, the public hospital is looked like a system of treating patients.  The hospital serves the population of a city. The hospital which is run by the government has many suppliers who supply its various needs. The hospital provides its services to the residents of the city either at nominal charges or free of charge. The services provided include ambulances services, diagnostic and surgical services, outpatient services, emergency services and all the ancillary administrative services.

Stakeholders in a health facility can be defined as entities in the health facility or the hospital environment that play a role in the facility performance or other entities that are affected by an action taken in the operations within the hospital (Sullivan, 2007). Stakeholders can also be groups or Persons have interest in the clinical services in the hospital. Stakeholders in a public hospital can be categorized into two main groups: external stakeholders and internal stakeholders (Bourlard, 2014).

Stakeholder

Perspective of the stakeholder towards the system

Internal stakeholders                                

Board members

The board of members view themselves as having the sole responsibility to ensure that the system runs smoothly

They carry the sole responsibility of ensuring that

·         They recruit, retain, supervise and compensate the general manager.

·         They understand that it is their role to provide direction in the running of the hospital.

·         Develop a system that helps in governing the hospital system.

·         They understand that they have a responsibility to protect the assets of the hospital.

·         They control and monitor functions in the hospital.

·         Board of members also perceive the hospital as a source of income as they get income from the government by running the facility effectively

Government

The government has the role to contribute funding to the hospital so as to ensure that all citizens have an access to free, affordable and quality health services. The government thus perceive the hospital as an avenue through which its objectives are met.

The government also perceive the hospital as a source of employment to many people who work in the facility thus helping in reducing unemployment in the country.

Key physicians

 They include: registered nurses, dentist and pharmacist. They perceive the hospital as they place of work. They take the hospital as their employer.

They also perceive the hospital as a point that helps them use their expertise to save lives

External stakeholders

Patients

They perceive the hospital system as a facility of improving their lives. They understand that the facility is run by the government and they should go seek all kind of treatment at no charge or at a nominal charge

suppliers

They take the hospital as a partner in business. Suppliers make profits when they supply different kind of goods and they are paid by the government.

Special interested groups

 Special interest groups include human rights groups and Non-government organizations. These groups have a role to ensure that the government provides its citizens with quality affordable health. They thus perceive the hospital as an avenue through which this is possible.

 Figure 1: stakeholders with their perception toward the system

Figure 2: Hospital management context diagram

A Subsystem can be defined as a complete system on its own.This means that whole system consists of subsystems of element or subsystems or parts. A hospital management system is a complex system that is made up of many subsystems that provide some services. Some the common subsystems in a public hospital include 1. Reception management system (Heagle, Heagle, Stowe, & (Association), 2005), 2. Transaction processing management system 3. Report management system 4. Decision support management system 5. Office information management system 6. An integrated information management system.

Subsystems of a Hospital Management System

Figure 3: A high level hierarchy diagram

Hospital Reception module supports many duties of a receptionist. A hospital receptionist help in both back- and front-office duties (Heagle, Heagle, Stowe, & (Association), 2005), this means that they need and should have the ability to interact with both the patients, healthcare professionals and visitors who visit the facility from time to time. One of the most fundamental roles of the receptionist in a health facility is to greet the patients and vendors. Other than this, the receptionist will be required to schedule appointments, respond to emails and answer phones. Medical receptionists in the hospital will also be required to be organized and know computer, the subsystem should be able to maintain databases and spreadsheets, and they also need to be competent in filing paperwork and patient charts. Other duties expected of this subsystem to the hospital include

  • Keeping the inventory of all goods supplied and help in ordering stock
  • Filling insurance forms
  • Handling x-rays and lab work
  • Preparing bills
  • The emergence of Reception management system

For the reception management system (subsystem) to make a useful contribution to the extensive hospital management system and thus ensure effective delivery of services to other stakeholders, the required emergence of this subsystem would be the introduction of cloud computing. Cloud computing allows an organization to streamline and improve all kind of processes. Introduction of cloud computing in reception management system will enable the hospital to optimize all its processes starting from project management, information backup to data organization (Heagle, Heagle, Stowe, & (Association), 2005).

Stakeholders

Perception towards the private hospital

Owners

They are the sole decision makers in the hospital

They may or may not employee hire the management

Government

The government see the hospital as a facility of helping in improving health services in the country

the hospitals becomes the source of revenue to the government

the government perceives the hospital as an employer to many of its citizen thus help in solving unemployment

Patients

Patients perceive the hospital as a facility of improving their health. Despite the high charges, many people tend to perceive private hospital as providing better services those public hospitals.

Suppliers

The suppliers perceive the hospital as a business partner. By making supplies to the hospital, the suppliers make huge profits. They prefer private hospital than public as they are no huge bureaucracy involved in making payments

Financiers

They perceive the hospital as a business partner as they provide financial assistance in form of capital for development and acquiring materials and gain income inform of interest.

Interested parties

They perceive the hospital as an avenue where citizen will get an access to quality health. They have a role to ensure that the services are of high quality.

Key health professionals

They perceive the hospital as their employer and a platform of them delivering quality services to the citizens thus saving lives.

Figure 4: Stakeholders with their perceptions toward a private hospital

In most cases, every stakeholder in the system benefits from the system in one way or the other. Every stakeholder thus may impose constraints that are meant to ensure that they benefit the most (Chase, 2003). The following are the constraints that the stakeholders may impose to the private hospital to ensure that they draw maximum benefits.

Owners: the main reason for any entrepreneur investing his or her money in any project is to make profits. The owners of the hospital may reduce their spending on the project thus affecting its operations. The relationship between owners and other workers, patients seeking health services and all other stakeholders can have advanced effects on the system.

Financiers: The financiers of any business such as financial institutions which provide loans to business hold the destiny of the business. The amounts of money the financiers decide to offer to a business determine the size of the business. The fate of the business also lies in the hands of the financiers until the initial amount given to the business is fully paid to the financial institutions. The financiers thus have a role in the running of the system until they get their money back.

The paper looked at the key stakeholders of a public hospital that is run by the government. The stakeholder is; the board of management that is liable for the overall running of the system. The government which is the service provider and thus should ensure that the hospital is run effectively by providing financing. Other stakeholders include; the patients, health professionals, interested parties and the suppliers

The perception of each stakeholder on the system

  • Different stakeholders look at a system from a different point of view. While the physicians look at the system as their employer, the patients see the system as a blessing to good health. On the other hand, to the suppliers, the system is a partner in their business.
  • Context diagram for the hospital. The context diagram indicate all the key interfaces and the system boundary
  • Some of the subsystems of the system, these subsystems include: Reception system, Transaction processing management system, Report management system, Decision support management system, Office information management system, Integrated information management system
  • Stakeholders in a private hospital system: owners, government, suppliers, patients, financiers and interested parties.
  • Constraints that the new stakeholders may impose on the operations a private hospital system. For the owners, reduced spending on the system may affect the operations. Owners' relationship with other stakeholders may also have an impact on the smooth running of the system. Financiers also can affect the operations of the system as they provide capital that they have to pay back with interest.

References

Bourlard, H. (2014). Multimodal Interactive Systems Management. EFPL Press.

Chase, R. O. (2003). An introduction to Spanish for health care workers. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press,.

Heagle, C., Heagle, R., Stowe, J., & (Association), L. (2005). Receptionist training manual. Guelph, Ont.: Lifelearn,.

Sullivan, C. F. (2007). Health care food service systems management . Gaithersburg, Md.: Aspen Publishers,

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