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Theoretical Framework

Discuss about the Systematic Literature Review On Total Quality.

Total quality management (TQM) is an important concept in private sectors, where firms apply this approach to compete with other competitors in domestic and foreign markets (Yeng, Jusoh and Ishak 2018). On the other side, public sector plays an important part as it can provide benefits to citizens through providing social welfare (Rasul and Rogger 2018). Hence, this research paper has intended to focus on the productivity and organizational improvement of public sector through applying TQM and for doing so, the researcher has chosen the United Arab Emirates (UAE) for conducting the research.

Total quality management (TQM) is a management approach focusing on the long-term success through satisfying customers. Within this effort of TQM, all members of an entity intend to improve processes, products along with services and working culture. Productivity considers not only the indicator of efficiency but also measures effectiveness as well (Gutierrez-Gutierrez, Barrales-Molina and Kaynak 2018). This management process improves the performance by increasing profitability of an entity through increasing revenues and reducing costs of it. However, total quality management is applicable for public sector as well. The chief tasks of any public sector are maintenance of public order and safety, general administration along with providing of welfare services, for instance, health care, education and social services and those activities can be developed thorough applying this specified management system (Psomas, Vouzas, Bouranta and Tasiou 2017). For this specific research paper, the researcher has selected public sectors of Ali Ain and Abu Dhabi, the two important cities of the UAE, from where the researcher can collect data to proceed.

The researcher has intended to focus on the role of total quality management and how this can improve the productivity and organizational excellence of the UAE’s public sector in the context of Ali Ain and Abu Dhabi (Strauss and Parker 2018). Hence, for doing so, the concerned person has aimed to find different forms of quality management within public sector and their directions of works to evaluate the government sector of the U.A.E. Moreover, the research paper is going to analyze various policies and strategies implemented by the government to bring well-being for their citizens. For this, the research has chiefly focused on the Al Ain and Abu Dhabi to represent the U.A.E in a generalized version.

To conduct the research, it is essential for the concerned researcher to set some objectives based on which the person can set research questionnaires for analyzing this paper further (Kadota et al., 2018). Hence, those objectives are:

  • To find various forms of quality management performance in the public sector of the U.A.E
  • To observe directions of works of this management process or TQM philosophy through evaluating some specified works of this sector
  • To analyze various policies and strategies implemented by the government for satisfying citizens of the U.A.E with special emphasis on Al Ain and Abu Dhabi
  • To analyze critical success factors for evaluating the impact of total quality of management on the public sector of the U.A.E

Study Design

Based on aims and objectives, the researcher can set some questionnaires, which can help the concerned person to obtain some specific outcomes for this paper. Those questions further can help the researcher to focus on some particular areas on which the research can be operated. Those questions are as follows:

  • What are the various forms of total quality management found in the public sectors regarding public works?
  • How do people obtain benefits through this total quality management process?
  • How has the TQM affected the Al Ain Municipality of Abu Dhabi?
  • How has the TQM helped the public sector of Abu Dhabi to make strategic partnership between public and private sectors?
  • What are the critical success factors required within this public sectos?

Various authors have discussed and analyzed about the total quality management process and its implications on various segments of private and public sectors. Hence, it is essential to analyze some literatures from different aspects related to this concept for understanding how this management process has affected those sectors considering both advantages and disadvantages. According to Yazdani, Soukhakian and Mozaffari (2014), TQM has intended to provide some superior outcomes among all other methods regarding a particular position. However, some firms have also remained unable to implement this process successfully due to critical success factors. Quality is the chief factor for any business organizations to compete with other companies through developing products and services (Perlmutter 2017). In the dynamic business world, competition may increase. Hence, to sustain in the market within the changing business environment, producers need to understand and implement quality philosophies for obtaining higher level of performance regarding processes and products. For increasing quality, the concerned organization needs to work with its entire parts for the same goals. Hence, to compete with others, those organizations try to obtain a higher level of effectiveness based on entire process and functions for selecting a TQM as a strategy. Thus, companies need to understand various critical success factors for implementing the TQM successfully (Aquilani, Silvestri, Ruggieri and Gatti 2017). Based on Malcolm Bridge Model, critical success factors for Performance Excellence have been divided into seven categories, which are leadership, strategic planning, customer focus, workforce focus, operations focus, measurement, analysis along with knowledge management and outcomes. Based on their analysis on Pars oil and Gas Company, writers have suggested that inputs are more important than output for maintaining quality of products.  As s result, practitioners of this industry need to focus on inputs or on leading criteria rather than outcomes or lagging criteria. Hence, the Malcom Baldhrige model provides may features for evaluating performance of any business organization by considering advantages and weaknesses.

Burhanuddin and Supriyanto have also conducted a research paper where they have discussed about the TQM model for improving university performance in Indonesia. Based on some reports, researchers have found that universities in Asian countries, especially in Indonesia, are improving slower rate. Te chief factor behind this slow performance of those higher educational institutions can be referred as the insufficient governance. To compete globally with other universities of developed countries, higher educational system requires dealing with new schemes for educational reformations. As a result, those higher educational institutions need to obtain enough capacity for providing effective services to students, community members and stakeholders. However, universities have also experienced various obstacles for which they have remained unable to adopt proper strategy for competing with others. Those constraints are social culture, characteristics of individual and sudden changes of global environment and those factors have affected most of the universities (Kurniasih et al. 2018). Hence, according to the researchers, universities can get rid of from those problems if they follow total quality management as an alternative technique for supporting universities to perform efficiently. According to their study, the chief motive of education at university level is to analyze that how human resource empowerment along with various steps of educational implementations can help individual learning capacity of each student to develop further. With the help of TQM objectives, researchers have seen that instead of expansion of universities with significant numbers, quality development has moved slowly. Some competitive factors, which can help those universities to compete with others, situated in Europe, America and Australia, are performing under the below level. Those factors are teaching and learning performance, research product, capacity of students, faculty performance and university inventions and so on. After their research, authors have concluded that to improve the quality of teaching learning system, those universities of Indonesia can follow principles of TQM model (Burhanuddin and Supriyanto 2018).

Literature Review

Total quality management can be found to operate within public sectors of many countries. For instance, Saleh and Hasan have published their work in an international journal, where they have discussed about the role of TQM on public sector in Iraq. According to those writers, TQM is a modern management strategy that can heal weaknesses of the government’s service quality along with poor performance issues and lack of their process management all over the world. Hence, researchers have tried to evaluate the role and impact of TQM philosophy along with its critical success factors (CSFs) based on organizational performance of the public sector organizations of Iraqi government. In study, CSFs of the TQM include Process Management (PM) and Human Resource Management (HRM). According to Saleh and Hasan, the chief goal of any public sector organization is to provide basic needs and requirements to their society and citizens in the form of education, health care, power and municipal services, based on available budgets and resources. With the help of TQM, various countries and organizations all over the world have started to understand and recognize the advantages and benefits of quality revolution for becoming flexible, efficient and effective in order to obtain competitive advantages in business process. Hence, researchers have studied the responses related to impact and role of TQM approaches on the management team of the municipal institutions of Iraq, based on their performance. After analyzing the whole paper, the concerned researchers have concluded that PM and HRM have played important roles as CSFs to improve performance of the Iraqi governments but with different magnitude. Hence, according to them, factors of TQM and service process related to the municipal institutions have direct relationships (Saleh and Hasan 2015).

According to the above discussions, the chief objective of this research paper is to find TQM philosophy within the public sector of the United Arab Emirates and to observe impacts of various policies and strategies taken by the central and local government, based on TQM objective. For doing so, the researcher has formed a set of questions to achieve research objectives with special focus on implementation of TQM in municipality of the Al Ain and Abu Dhabi (Fletcher 2017). The research methodology of the specific paper consists with theoretical framework, study design along with data collection process.

Theoretical framework related to a research process represents the conceptual model to make logical sense regarding relationship among various factors, which are important for the topic (Adnan et al. 2017). Hence, to analyze the impact of TQM philosophy and its various strategies in the public sector of the U.A.E, this research paper needs to establish a theoretical framework, based on literature review to define the related research concepts.


The design of the study represents includes various study types like descriptive, semi-experimental, correlation and review and so on along with sub-type like descriptive case study. Moreover, it also includes research problem, hypothesis, types of variables viz., independent and dependent along with experimental design and data collection methods (Turner, Cardinal and Burton 2017). The researcher creates this section of research paper to find answers for all questions that the concerned person set for obtaining an outcome. To study about the implementation of TQM, most of the researchers have used a descriptive cross-sectional method for the study design because of its capability to analyze status, demographic information and issues. The concerned researcher can also follow this study design for researching further.

To conduct a research, the researcher can get two types of data, which are primary and secondary. Moreover, each type of data can be of two forms, viz., quantitative and qualitative (Rimando et al. 2015). For any particular research work, the concerned person can follow various processes to collect data, for instance, interview through face-to-face, phone calls, questionnaires and e-mail under the method of primary data collection. On the other side, the person can collect information from any journal, bulletin or previous records of other researchers under the process of secondary data collections (Johnston 2017). However, for this research paper, the concerned person needs to apply survey methods for collecting required data to obtain desired objectives and hypotheses. For this, the researcher needs to form some questionnaires to carry out the survey. However, before distributing those questionnaires, a pilot study is required for testing, improving and examining those questions (Fiat et al. 2017).

In this context, the concept of sample is essential. It is not possible for the researcher to collect information from all central and local governments of the UAE for analyzing the impact of TQM on them. Hence, the concerned person has selected two cities, which are, Al Ain and Abu Dhabi, of the U.A.E as sample to understand the implication of TQM on local governments (Maximova et al. 2016). With the outcome from this sample, the researcher can estimate the outcome as a whole of the entire U.A.E, which is the actual population of this study. After that, the researcher can conduct a hypothesis testing to understand the role of TQM (Javanmard and Montanari 2014). For this, two hypotheses are required, which are, null hypothesis (H0) and alternative hypothesis (H1), where:

  • H0: TQM plays an significant role to develop productivity and organizational excellence on the public sector of the U.A.E
  • H1: TQM cannot influence the public sector significantly and thus it has less impact

After collecting data, the researcher needs to apply proper statistical methodology for obtaining appropriate outcomes. Here, the chief motive of this paper is to understand that whether TQM has affected the public sectors of the U.A.E directly to develop its performance through improving productivity and organizational performance. The hypothesis testing may accept null hypothesis to show a direct relationship between TQM philosophy and the quality of the government.

Sequential Activities/ Period

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3 &4

Week 5 & 6

Week 7 & 8

Literature review


Framing the research concept


Set questionnaires for survey



Data collection method


Pilot project for testing those questionnaires



Data interpretations and testing






In conclusion, it can be said that, the total quality management has earned huge significance in private sectors and with its philosophy and strategy; it is going to influence public sectors of various countries for developing their performance level. Hence, this research paper is going to analyze the impact the role of total quality management in the public sectors of the U.A.E. For simplicity, the researcher has selected Al Ain and Abu Dhabi as sample to show this impact. To obtain the outcome, the researcher needs to select proper statistical hypothesis after collecting data. The chief advantage of this research is that, the outcome may help the government of this country along with other countries to understand about the role of TQM on public sectors while this process has successfully helped private sectors to compete within strongly competitive market. With the help of this outcome, the researcher can conclude that whether this process of management can help other areas of the economy to develop further. Hence, the outcome of this research paper may help further any private and public organization to adopt this strategy.


Adnan, N., Nordin, S.M., Rahman, I., Vasant, P.M. and Noor, A., 2017. A comprehensive review on theoretical framework?based electric vehicle consumer adoption research. International Journal of Energy Research, 41(3), pp.317-335.

Aquilani, B., Silvestri, C., Ruggieri, A. and Gatti, C., 2017. A systematic literature review on total quality management critical success factors and the identification of new avenues of research. The TQM Journal, 29(1), pp.184-213.

Burhanuddin, B. and Supriyanto, A., 2018. The Use of TQM as A Model to Improve University Performance in Indonesia. International Research Based Education Journal, 1(2), pp.108-114.

Fiat, A.E., Cook, C.R., Zhang, Y., Renshaw, T.L., DeCano, P. and Merrick, J.S., 2017. Mentoring to Promote Courage and Confidence Among Elementary School Students With Internalizing Problems: A Single-Case Design Pilot Study. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 33(4), pp.261-287.

Fletcher, A.J., 2017. Applying critical realism in qualitative research: methodology meets method. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 20(2), pp.181-194.

Gutierrez-Gutierrez, L.J., Barrales-Molina, V. and Kaynak, H., 2018. The role of human resource-related quality management practices in new product development: A dynamic capability perspective. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 38(1), pp.43-66.

Javanmard, A. and Montanari, A., 2014. Confidence intervals and hypothesis testing for high-dimensional regression. The Journal of Machine Learning Research, 15(1), pp.2869-2909.

Johnston, M.P., 2017. Secondary data analysis: A method of which the time has come. Qualitative and quantitative methods in libraries, 3(3), pp.619-626.

Kadota, A., Okuda, N., Ohkubo, T., Okamura, T., Nishi, N., Ueshima, H., Okayama, A. and Miura, K., 2018. The National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease and its Trends in the Aged 2010 (NIPPON DATA2010): objectives, design, and population characteristics. Journal of Epidemiology, 28(Supplement_III), pp.S2-S9.

Kurniasih, N., Hasyim, C., Wulandari, A., Setiawan, M.I. and Ahmar, A.S., 2018, January. Comparative Case Studies on Indonesian Higher Education Rankings. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 954, No. 1, p. 012021). IOP Publishing.

Maximova, T., Moffatt, R., Ma, B., Nussinov, R. and Shehu, A., 2016. Principles and overview of sampling methods for modeling macromolecular structure and dynamics. PLoS computational biology, 12(4), p.e1004619.

Perlmutter, H.V., 2017. The tortuous evolution of the multinational corporation. In International Business (pp. 117-126). Routledge.

Psomas, E., Vouzas, F., Bouranta, N. and Tasiou, M., 2017. Effects of total quality management in local authorities. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 9(1), pp.41-66.

Rasul, I. and Rogger, D., 2018. Management of bureaucrats and public service delivery: Evidence from the nigerian civil service. The Economic Journal, 128(608), pp.413-446.

Rimando, M., Brace, A., Namageyo-Funa, A., Parr, T.L., Sealy, D.A., Davis, T.L., Martinez, L.M. and Christiana, R.W., 2015. Data collection challenges and recommendations for early career researchers. The Qualitative Report, 20(12), p.2025.

Saleh, J.M. and Hasan, M.R., 2015. Evaluating impacts and role of TQM practices on organization performance of public sector in Iraqi government. International Journal of Internet of Things, 4(1A), pp.7-15.

Strauss, K. and Parker, S.K., 2018. Intervening to enhance proactivity in organizations: Improving the present or changing the future. journal of management, 44(3), pp.1250-1278.

Turner, S.F., Cardinal, L.B. and Burton, R.M., 2017. Research design for mixed methods: A triangulation-based framework and roadmap. Organizational Research Methods, 20(2), pp.243-267.

Yazdani, A., Ali Soukhakian, M. and Reza Mozaffari, M., 2014. Evaluation of critical success factors in total quality management implementation and prioritization with AHP-case study: Pars Oil and Gas Company. European Online Journal of Natural and Social Sciences: Proceedings, 2(3 (s)), pp.pp-1624.


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