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Physical environment

Discuss About The Territorial Ecological Load Factor Economic?

Social change can be defined as the change in the social order of the society. Social change chiefly refers to change in social institutions, nature, social relation and social behaviors. The two major factors that cause social changes are Physical Environment and change in population.

Geographical changes can bring about a huge accounting of social change. Change in physical environment that include storms, climatic change, floods, droughts and earthquakes imposes a highly negative impact on the social life of individual and therefore induces social change (Altman & Wohlwill, 2012). The fact that life of human being is closely related to the geographical condition of the world cannot be ignored. An example of major social change is that the North African desert was once green and highly populated. Another example of change in society due to environmental change is shift of community from the Sahara Desert. The Sahara desert was once highly populated and green. The major reason behind environmental change is environmental destruction by human beings.

In spite of being a social change by itself, population change can be considered as another major factor that brings about cultural and social change. In cases where a thinly settled frontier gets filled by individuals, the pattern of hospitality slowly fades away, growth of institutional structure is noticed and secondary group relation multiplies. While a population which is stable, will be able to resist the changes, population that are growing rapidly needs to improve productivity and migrate in order to cope up with the change in population. Historic conquests and migration of Vikings, Romans, Huns and Spartans can be considered as an example of pressure of growing population over limited amount of resources (Giddens et al., 2016).

  1. Elaborate with examples the three (3) factors which stabilize culture.
  • Positive relationship between a culture and its components: Religious beliefs of the Indians are a major reason behind their cultural stability. On the other hand, the climate of Iran is the reason behind the tradition of Nourooz followed since time immemorial by the Iranians.
  • Time: The more is the age of the culture, the more stable will it be. In spite of the fact that unlike other factors, this factor cannot be accounted, examples are there to prove that stability increases with prolonged practices. Throughout the whole history of mankind, selfishness has existed and even in this era of modernization a majority of the mankind has seen to be falling for ill-mannered selfishness instead of maintaining proper virtue and logic (Safiullin et al., 2013). The belief of the Indians on various kinds of gods and goddesses from time immemorial has become a part of their culture now. Idol worship is common in various parts of India.
  • Customs, traditions and believes: A society has been given a particular nationality by relating the culture to various kinds of tradition, believes and customs. This factor makes the individuals more organized and focused. These elements slowly become the identity of the society.
  1. Define control theory. Give one (1) example in your definition.

Control theory can be defined as the view that individuals refrain from executing deviant behaviors since diverse social factors prevent them from breaking norms of the society. According to the control theory, every individual’s tendency to deviate is controlled by inner and outer control systems (Lamont, 2012). Control theory can be divided into two types namely, centralized and decentralized control. While decentralized control can be defined as marketing control, centralized control can b defined as bureaucratic control. Another type of control named as clan control is the mixture o both centralized and decentralized control.

According two of the eminent sociologists, Walter Reckless and Travis Hirschi, an individual can be controlled by both internal and external controls (Downes & McLaughlin, 2016). While internal control comprises of motivation to be successful and conscience, external controls include parents, peers and legal codes. For instance, a person’s desire to steal is quelled by fear of embarrassment and legal punishment. This non deviant behavior is linked to social bonds and socialization by control theory. According to this theory individuals who were more socialized in their childhood and maintain a stronger bond with their parents, friends or society is considered to be less likely to get deviated.

  1. Explain with an example each the four (4) elements of social bonds identified by Hirschi (1969).

Population change

In 1969, an eminent sociologist Travis Hirschi developed social bond theory. According to this theory as defined by Hirschi, “Elements of social bonding include attachment to families, commitment to social norms and institutions (school, employment), involvement in activities, and the belief that these things are important” (Stets & Turner, 2014) The theory of social bond is derived from the theory of crime. According to Hirschi’s theory, there are four elements of social bond, namely, commitment, attachment, involvement in conventional versus criminal activities and finally, the common value system within a person’s subgroup or society.

Attachment: Attachment can be described as the level of norms or values held by an individual in the society. This element is crucial, special when it comes to the parental figures of an individual. Attachment with parent is really important for both psychological and physical development of a child. Another vital attachment that plays a highly crucial role in the life of an individual is school (Popp & Peguero, 2012). Examples of a child loosing attachment with his school are there. Often it is seen that students from the lower class of the society are demoralized or ill-treated by their peers who belong to the upper middle class and middle-class family. As a result, these students loose attachment with the school and eventually lose interest for further education.

Commitment: This element includes the level of commitment of an individual to legal behaviors of the society. During the phase of adolescence, individuals are taught to maintain the norms of the society and this teaching bears immense importance throughout the whole life of the individual. For example, if a child is raised in an environment where unethical objects like drugs and dealt with, he will not develop commitment towards the society.

Involvement: According to Hirschi, an individual should always involve in conventional activities in order keep himself away from criminal acts. It has been found that individuals who are involved highly in conventional activities are less likely to perform criminal activities due to lack of time (Salvatore & Taniguchi, 2012).

Belief: Belief plays a major role when it comes to prevention from deviation. An individual should believe in morals and common goals of the society. Lack of believe tends to push an individual to perform unethical activities. Examples are there where a criminal, in order to justify his deviant behavior believes that whatever he is doing is right.

The factors responsible for stabilizing culture are as follows:

According to the conflict theory, struggle in the society arises when power, status and resources are unevenly distributed among the society and this conflict shows up as the engine of the society. The founder of the conflict theory is Karl Marx. In his work, Marx has focused on the causes as well as the consequences due to conflicts between the bourgeoisie that includes the capitalists and the owners and the proletariat (Ritzer & Stepnisky, 2017). Conflicts theory has been used by a good number of socialists in order to assess a range of problems prevailing in the society. Some of the examples of the problems are:

  • Exposures to environmental hazards are shaped by class and race.

A minority community of US died in 2016, due to the intake of intoxicated water. According to researchers, a majority of the worst toxic polluters are located in areas where poor and non-white communities reside (Alexander, 2014).

  • A good number of women, even in today’s world, experience gender oppression.

When it comes to politics, health care, economy and safety, the condition of women irrespective of the fact whether they reside in an underdeveloped, developing or bellow developed country, is far worse compared to the condition of men. Women suffer underrepresentation in Politics, are often found to be ripped of economically and lack reproductive rights and health care options.

  • Even in this era of modernization, capitalism has created a global system of inequality and power.

Global capitalism includes a tiny group of capitalists or elites control a major part of the global resources. Researcher states, more than 40 percent of the corporate wealth is controlled by just 147 global investment group and approximately 700 groups across the world controls 80 percent of the global resources. This unequal distribution of wealth is resulting in enhanced gap between the rich and the poor (Seidman, 2016).

  1. Discuss briefly what are quantitative and qualitative research methods? Give one example of research that has been done on each of these methods.

Qualitative research may be defined chiefly as exploratory research method. This type of research is performed when the researcher wants to gain an in-depth understanding of the underlying opinions, reasons and motivations. Qualitative research method provides insights into the research issue and the data collection method in this research method is unstructured and semi-structured (Neuman, 2013). Some of the data collection method for qualitative analysis includes open-ended interviews, surveys and focus groups. 

Quantitative research method includes quantifying the research issue by generating numerical data which are transformed into usable statistics. In this method, opinions, attitudes, behaviors and other measurable deliverables are quantified. The data collection method of quantitative analysis is more structured than that of qualitative analysis. Some of the data collection methods include close ended interviews, online polls, website interceptors and other systematic observation. In order to conduct a research on how social media affect global marketing, both qualitative research method and quantitative research method can be used (Bernard, 2017).

Control Theory

Agents of socialization may be defined as the institutional sources of socialization that exist in the society. The chief three agents of socialization are family, schools and peers.

Family is considered to be one of the chief agents of socialization as an individual receives his 1st learning of social development from his family. Parents or individuals who play the parental role in the family teach socialization that includes close relationship, sharing of resources and group life (Bernard, 2017). However, the teaching of socialization may differ from family to family. While being from an immigrant family I grew up bilingual and was taught to give importance to collectivistic values, one of my friends who was from a traditional American family was taught to put emphasis on the English languages and individualistic values.

In spite of the fact that the official purpose of the school is to educate an individual, schools do play an effective role in socialization. Students learn social skills during interaction with the teachers and other students. For instance, I learned the importance of obeying authority, to maintain silence when others are studying and show interest in acts that may seem boring but have beneficial effect in future. 

The phenomenon of choosing peers starts from the earliest years of an individual. Per groups are crucial for an individual since it helps him to exert independent thinking process and develop an identity and personality of his own (Giddens et al., 2016). I have learned various social values like loyalty towards friendship, trusting an individual and helping my peers when they are in distress, from my peer group. 

The three types of criminal offence are simple offences, minor indictable offences and major indictable offences. While simple offences deal with driving under influence of drugs or alcohol or minor criminal damage to property, minor indictable offence deal with deception, stalking, theft, serious stress pass and others(Golovkin, 2015). Major indictable offences are rape, murder, treason, robbery, unlawful sexual intercourse and damage to property more than 30.000 dollars.

A real-life example of simple offence is when an individual of Australia named Duncan Smith had been arrested and fined for driving under the influence of alcohol.  Another instance of an American Individual who was arrested for damaging a property worth 3000 dollars can be seen as an example of minor indictable offence. A horrifying real case can be given as an example of major indictable offences, where John Wayne Gacy, an entertainer by profession murdered about 33 young men after raping and torturing them (Anderson & Bokor, 2012).

Reference List:

Alexander, J. C. (2014). The Antinomies of Classical Thought: Marx and Durkheim (Theoretical Logic in Sociology) (Vol. 2). Routledge, 56-59

Altman, I., & Wohlwill, J. F. (2012). Human behavior and environment: Advances in theory and research (Vol. 2). Springer Science & Business Media, 12-34

Anderson, P. D., & Bokor, G. (2012). Forensic aspects of drug-induced violence. Journal of pharmacy practice, 25(1), 41-49.

Bernard, H. R. (2017). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Rowman & Littlefield, 45-47

Downes, D., Rock, P., & McLaughlin, E. (2016). Understanding deviance: a guide to the sociology of crime and rule-breaking. Oxford University Press, 190-198

Giddens, A., Duneier, M., Appelbaum, R. P., & Carr, D. S. (2016). Introduction to sociology. WW Norton, 43-45

Golovkin, B. M. (2015). Types of Crime. JE Eur. L., 14.

Grusec, J. E., & Hastings, P. D. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of socialization: Theory and research. Guilford Publications, 21-28

Lamont, M. (2012). Toward a comparative sociology of valuation and evaluation. Annual Review of Sociology, 38.

Neuman, W. L. (2013). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Pearson education, 78-81

Popp, A. M., & Peguero, A. A. (2012). Social bonds and the role of school-based victimization. Journal of interpersonal violence, 27(17), 3366-3388.

Ridgeway, C. L. (2014). Why status matters for inequality. American Sociological Review, 79(1), 1-16.

Ritzer, G., & Stepnisky, J. (2017). Modern sociological theory. SAGE Publications,234-345

Safiullin, M. R., Elshin, L. A., Shakirova, A. I., Ermolaeva, P. O., & Prygunova, M. I. (2013). Influence of Territorial Ecological Load Factors on Social and Economic Well-Being of Population: Methodology Development and Econometric Model Construction. World Applied Sciences Journal, 25(7), 1057-1061.

Salvatore, C., & Taniguchi, T. A. (2012). Do social bonds matter for emerging adults?. Deviant behavior, 33(9), 738-756.

Seidman, S. (2016). Contested knowledge: Social theory today. John Wiley & Sons, 11-14

Stets, J. E., & Turner, J. H. (Eds.). (2014). Handbook of the Sociology of Emotions (Vol. 2). Springer, 27-3

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