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This research aims at identifying the impact of the Computer Aided Design (CAD) in the construction industry of Europe. For achieving this aim, south-west London has been chosen where development projects are going in many major infrastructural projects. The aim of study is to find out the effect of Computer Aided Designs (CAD) on construction works in the country.

Following are the objectives of the research:

To analyze effect of Computer Aided Design (CAD) on the construction industry

To identify current situation of construction industry in terms of using CAD

To understand exactly how CAD can be helpful in achieving sustainability and growth in the construction business

To recommend strategies for improving the use of the CAD in the construction sector.

Following are the research questions:

What is the effect of Computer Aided Design (CAD) on the construction industry?

What is current situation of the construction industry in terms of using CAD?

How can CAD be helpful in achieving sustainability and growth in the construction business?

What can be done for improving the use of the CAD in the construction sector?

These relationships can be studied based on the following issues,

  • Population in the mapped zones
  • Work places they travel
  • How often they use their cars
  • Based on public transports they use.
Objectives of the research

Answer:

Since advent of technology during the Industrial Revolution, several technical and mechanical process have emerged and evolved over time. The industrial revolution was a dawn of modernization on the face of the planet. Lives of billions were affected in a positive way, all across the globe, and this fact still beholds true. Millions of people have managed to improvise their knowledge in different technologies and improve drastically with time (Alwan, Jones & Holgate, 2017). This not only helped the individuals in growing up in their career but also proved to be a great zeal in the respective fields. Information technology is one of the most important field, whose improvements and innovations have changed the lifestyle of human beings on planet earth. It has enormous effects on graduating earthly life to utter intelligence. Information technology can be defined as the use of computational means to communicate, calculate, design, develop or analyze real-life entities that either help in business process or prove to be the backbone of behind the scene processes of development in any field. Construction is another prime aspect of mankind which has over the time developed. It has its root right in the Stone Age. Early humans used stones, rocks and boulders to build enormous structures to shelter their heads (Kidwell, 2017). Over the time, man learned to use various materials to build shelters for themselves. Humans have designed various structures which are unexplainable. The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the largest examples of what humans could achieve with a proper concept of construction.

Figure 1: Design on paper

(Source: Igwe, Nasiri & Hammad, 2017)

Information technology has been gaining a lot of attention in various industrial fields. It helps in providing various powerful and technological tools for the benefits of the operations in the industry. The advancement in the IT has been initialized with proper management of resources in the industry. Construction industry has been started implementing IT tools and techniques for making better design and construction. Information has been the most important part of the IT implementation. A proper data management helps in maintaining a proper approach to the completion of goals and objectives of the companies. There have been various evolution in the data management and implementation of new designs in construction industry. The traditional method of designing of a construction has been changed (Igwe, Nasiri & Hammad, 2017). Various limitations have been identified in the traditional method of designing including human error and calculation problems. Time required for preparing the design by human takes a lot of time and effort.

Research questions

Information technology, as mentioned before has proven to be a talisman in all other industrial fields and construction is no exception. The various design tools and software that have emerged and been developed over the years have inspired tremendous growth in the design process of construction of architectural structures. Several software packages have been developed over the years that have inspired new realms into the construction industry. Engineers are now able to design inch-perfect architectural figures that provide them with concrete digital blueprint of the structure that they are conceptualizing. The use of CAD or Computer Aided Design software products are useful not only to create or modify real-life architectural figures but the end products can also be analyzed thoroughly to spot design flaws and fix them in real-time simulation environments (Ikediashi, & Ogwueleka, 2016). This helps to produce strong and trustworthy buildings. Not only the software packages, but several hardware modules have been invented and developed which help to instantiate a complete version of the structure to be built, through 3-D modelling. Finally, the use of communication technology in IT, the construction industry has gained a lot over the past few years. This helps these companies to promote their projects before the general mass. Customer service, social media interactions, web portals for registrations are few of the use cases that can relate information and communication technology to the construction industry, as well. These companies can also maintain their local employee records alongside business requisites effectively through the use of improved information technological means.

Construction industry has been growing in the market at a great pace.  The use of technical tools and skills have been helping in transforming methods used in the designing purpose of construction. European construction industry has been one of the largest non-services sector in the economy of the Europe. It has been providing 8.1% of the GDP to the government (Reddy, 2015). The construction industry employs approximately 1.1 million people of Europe. Therefore, a huge number of people are engaged with the construction industry.  The implementation of the IT in the construction industry has been a great boom to the development if the country (Ganah & John, 2016).  The use of several IT tools and techniques in the construction industry have helped in providing an edge to the development of the country in the world. The full-scale digitalization process in the country have helped in providing a technical approach to the industry.  The use of technical abilities and tools including designing software such as Computer Aided Design (CAD) has been helping in enhancing the design purpose of the estimation. The construction industry has been generating most of the revenue for the UK government.

Introduction to Construction Industry and CAD

Figure 2: Use of 3D modelling

(Source: Sunet al., 2017)

However, the construction industry in Europe has been suffering with low efficiency and productivity due to lack of technical enhancement. Traditional methods have been used in the construction industries of the Europe (Musa et al., 2016). Therefore, the scale and value of the construction has been decreasing in recent years.  The estimation of value of offsite construction at around £1.5 billion and potential for achieving £6 billion (Sunet al., 2017). The offsite market has been divided into small and innovative developers depending on particular technology. The current geographic distribution in the Europe has been uneven. The offsite construction region have not been suitable for the development of the construction sites in the country (Cascante & Martínez, 2018). The climatic changes in the Europe has been another factor for the inefficiency of construction in the region. However, this research has been focusing on the technological challenges in the construction industry.  The technical deficit in the Europe has been a major factor for uneven construction industry.

This research will throw light in the impact of the IT on the construction industry of Europe. The applications of the information technology in the construction has been discussed in the research. The potential uptake and growth of offsite construction has been based on particular technology and product range.

Construction industry has been maintaining a keen approach in the transformation of a country in the recent years. Various companies have been constructing different architectures and complexes that have been helping in development if the country. However, there has been duplicity in the quality of the architectural support in the construction.  Therefore, the quality if the design of the construction has been degrading in recent years (Eastman, 2018).  The traditional approach of designing the outline of the construction has been the slow and inefficient process. There have been various errors and risks involved in the handmade designs. It takes time for redesigning the drawing on existence if errors in the designs. Therefore, the traditional approach of designing is a time taking process for the companies in the construction industries (Zhao, 2017).  The implementation of information technology in the construction might have helped sin digitalizing design process of the construction. Various software and application s have been used in order to maintain and proper approach to the designing of proper and efficient design in a limited period of time.

Current scenario in the UK

There are five chapters in this research including introduction, literature review, research methodology, data findings and analysis and conclusion and recommendations.  The research structure helps in getting an outline of all the chapters discussed in this research. The first chapter deals with the introduction of computer aided design and construction industry.  The current scenario in construction industry in the UK has been discussed.  The aim, objectives and research questions have been initiated in this section.

The second chapter deals with literature review of previous researches. There have been various theories and models of the construction industry have been discussed in the chapter.  The concept of information technology in construction industry has been discussed in the chapter. Various applications of the information technology have been discussed in the section.  The use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) in the construction industry has been critically analyzed in the chapter.

The third chapter deals with the methodology followed by the researcher in this study. The research methodology consists of research philosophy, approach, design, data collection methods, sampling technique, data analysis and ethical consideration.  Proper justification of each section has been provided in the chapter. Data have been collected using primary data collection method. Online surveys have been conducted in order to collect data and information.

Figure 3: Structure of the research

(Source: Created by author)

The Fourth chapter deals with data findings and analysis. A quantitative approach has been followed for analyzing data and information. Data have been analysed by regression analysis. Various charts and graphs have been used for representing the results and outcomes of the study.  A proper analysis of the data and information have been done on basis of regression table.  

The fifth chapter deals with conclusion and recommendation related to the research topic. A detailed conclusion has been provided with inking with the objective have been dining in this section. There are some recommendations provided for the enhancement of the study in the future.

This chapter discusses about several previous types of research done on the research topic. The concept of the information technology in the construction industry has been discussed in the chapter.  Previous theories and models will be critically analyzed in the section. Various information technologies used in the construction industry has been discussed. However, the chapter has focused on the computer-aided design (CAD).  The application of the computer-aided design in the construction industry has been discussed in the chapter.

Impact of Information technology in the Construction industry

According to Kassem et al. (2015), in the business of construction, the production process asks for the effective management of resources and raw materials. Resources include workforce, equipment, technology, and financial support and so on. Therefore it is very important to plan and organize the activities to get the best outcome for the project. To complete construction work effectively many factors need to be improved. In a construction site, the supervisor or site manager works in coordination with all stakeholders and accordingly different modification can be made (Quezada et al., 2016). Such process makes the work must more realistic and it also helps to connect with other subcontractors and trade supervisors. In order to do that updating everyone with the latest information related to work and work-related progress is very important. Work cannot be initiated on the changed plans until it is approved by all decision making authorities and regulatory bodies. They certainly help to make the changes more prominent by giving their valuable inputs and suggestions. All stakeholders have the right to get informed about the plan and any change in the major structure. It helps in making the work error free and perfect. In all these scenarios effective use of technology can be very crucial as with the help of information technology, everyone can be informed about the management plan and also about the changes in the actual plan (Azhar et al., 2015). There are many tools which can be used for communicating and connecting with different stakeholders. Using emails or texts or any other application may help in successful coordination among all groups of the business venture.

On the other hand, information is used for remuneration and to set targets in different parts of the work. This is how the work can be effectively managed and adjusted with the help of information technology (Fawaz et al., 2016). It is often very difficult to keep records of the employees and to get all the details of them. But a computerized system will certainly help in this case and all operations can be performed without errors and the fastest way. This is how information technology can change the idea of doing business and can reshape the industry.

Quality standards are very important to achieve the goals of the business. To achieve high-quality standards there are many important factors which must be included such as experienced skilled operatives which can look after the issues of operation and also solve different problems in the same. Apart from that proper storage of materials, materials to a correct specification are also important. In order to let the system function well, effective planning and programming of resources are also important as it will have the positive impact on the overall venture and production (Oesterreich, & Teuteberg, 2016).

Challenges in the Construction industry

According to Roztocki and Weistroffer, (2015) at the same time, supervision and inspection of the working sites and also materials are very important in a construction project. By doing effective site management and by providing adequate protection in order to complete work, the whole system can be regulated effectively. For this regulation, implementation of information technology in business is very important. This technological approach will ensure that all activities are coordinated for the process in a very systemic way. Such coordination helps to reduce project time and project cost as well (Gholizadeh, Esmaeili & Goodrum, 2017). Any form of delay due to lack of coordination and communication can be minimized and events like an alteration to contract programming can also be averted. All these activities are correlated and if one system fails to perform, the whole project may get delayed or affected badly. It will have a negative impact on the overall project and also it will increase the cost of the project. All these factors will be connected to the same thread with the help of information technology and this will have immense benefits on the overall wellbeing of the venture. This is why the implementation of information technology is so important in the construction business. The main idea is the construction business has multiple parts and all parts require enough attention.

According to Silverstone (2017), there is a common misconception that information technology hardware is not appropriate in the construction site to be installed as they are not suitable for the heavy physical work environment. It has been seen from many practical work experiences that such information technology hardware has helped extensively in resource planning and management of the construction materials and therefore they are useful in the activities or operation of the construction business. There are many information technology-based applications which helps to manage different operations in construction business such as the capture of relevant data such as time sheets and inspection forms. This is very crucial for proper time management and effective operational management. Apart from that, it is common practice in many construction projects to review technical drawings. With the help of this IT hardware, technical drawings can be viewed electronically and also it can be altered and revised (Smol et al., 2015). Another important tool related to IT functioning is project management software application which is extensively used for project management and administration. There is collaboration software which is used for interactive communication among all stakeholders. The use of this software can be extended to foreman and site managers with the use of smartphones and also by the use of other handheld devices.

Research methodology

According to Cao et al. (2015), there are multiple devices which are used as an IT tool in the construction industry. One of the most important tools is computed in the form of palmtops which can be accessed from any location. Apart from that a wireless computer with adequate bandwidth to be accessed while the user is in motion is also useful. But the most effective tool can be different mobile applications based on information technology which can be used for many purposes according to the needs of the construction sites (Dodgson, 2018). The main purposes of using these tools are to reduce the physical distance between different stakeholders and participants in business who holds different business related information and knowledge. Though the numbers of organizations are very less who have successfully implemented mobile computing system in the construction business. It is very much clear from this finding that the general construction industry is not aware of the potential use of these IT systems which can change the interface of the whole business. According to a research, it has been proven that the exchange of information and ideas regarding construction projects among the site members and other team personnel can be significantly improved with the proper use of mobile devices (Gillespie & Goddard, 2017). This is how the industry requires an understanding of the full potential and capacity of use of information technology and they should incorporate these devices as much as possible in their activities.

The industry has been slow in adopting the technologies that are related to construction and design processes. The CAD computer-aided designing has now reached to a point where it can be totally integrated with the field engineering and construction processes. Generative tools utilize the plan targets and parameters entered, for example, material, development or assembling strategy and costs, and the processing intensity of the cloud. Taking the goals and parameters, the computing power and cloud computing together produce a few plan alternatives. These choices can be extremely intricate: it would take days or weeks to devise and create them yourself in the3D CAD programming that is as of now accessible. Moreover, on account of 3D printing innovation, it will be conceivable to really deliver such complex plan alternatives (Gledson & Greenwood, 2017).  The computer-aided designs or CAD points to a particular set of software which is used by construction managers, engineers and architects to help them in creating precise illustrations and drawings of new buildings in three dimensional or two-dimensional formats.  

Data findings and analysis

The concept of CAD started in the late 1960s with a program known as Sketchpad that eases designed by an MIT student. With the concept, the user can draw on the monitor with the help of a light pen and the technology was pretty impressive at that point in time. By 1970, CAD software has long migrated into the commercial department from the research and development phase.  The technology was quickly adopted by the aerospace and automotive manufacturers and they were the first to implement this technology into their enterprises (Rashid & Yusoff, 2015). The CAD tools help the creator in picturing the last item that will be made, it assembles as well as the constituent parts. The tool can provide movement and perceive how the real item will function, in this way helping the architect to promptly make the alterations if required. Computer-aided design programming helps the originator in integrating, dissecting, and archiving the plan. The advantage of using the CAD software is that engineers can easily get a precise way in showing their idea to other proper and producing their model clearly without making mistakes about the materials required or what they want to build and how they want to build precisely. The CAD helps the architects to move their ideas from papers to software and thus make precise measurements abut conducting advanced analysis and spotting design flaws and more.

Each and every Cad software are different from each other as geometry stays in their heart. Coordinates such as X, Y and Z axis are present in each and every CAD software. The CAD software uses these coordinates to make the three or two-dimensional models for the construction process (Tay et al., 2017). BIM is the most exceptional and testing innovative advancement for the design, building, development and construction industry. The key advantage of BIM is its precise geometrical showing of the parts of a working in a coordinated information manner. The instruments assist the construction managers with considering the vast number of inspections. In the end, the better outline helps to complete assembling speedier and decreases the wastages that could have happened due to the defective construction plan.

Figure 4: Use of CAD

(Source: Saieg et al., 2018)

Architects and engineers have to make the designing process from the basic levels. The work of a construction manager is to take those designs from the architect and make them into real-life models. Hence, an architect might use the CAD software more extensively than a construction manager. Building Information Modeling is a model-based process that gives the understanding to enable you to design, outline, develop and oversee structures and foundation (Saieg et al., 2018). The following critical part subsequent to outlining is making the illustrations. With CAD programming better and institutionalized illustrations can be made effectively. BIM unites data about each segment of a working in one place. It permits every one of the partners in the development venture (Architects, Contractor, Design architects and Project Owners) to convey and cooperate. Along these lines, the danger of mix-ups are diminished and additional costs are reduced. The CAD software can be used in a lot of ways such as giving the required exact measurement and simplifying the blueprints of the construction model.  Once the project gets a green light, the tool can be used by the construction people to change the measurements or adjust it. BIM information can be utilized to show the whole building life-cycle, from origin and outline to destruction and materials reuse. Sequences, products, systems and spaces can appear in relative scale to each other and thus with respect to the whole venture. By putting clash discovery, BIM checks problems at the different phases of development.

Conclusion and recommendations

Figure 5: Construction framework

(Source: Smits, van Buiten & Hartmann, 2017)

The difference amongst BIM and CAD is that framework is normally referred to as 2D reports, which are made independently and have no association between independently made archives. In CAD, two lines speak to a divider. In BIM, the divider is a function which has its own particular properties like width, bearing or bearing excellence, inside or outside, flame rating and materials (for example, sheets). The BIM stage gathers all data into one area and cross-interfaces that information among related items (Smits, van Buiten & Hartmann, 2017). There is no linkage between the information made by CAD. The CAD software makes it easier to go back to the blueprints and make the adjustments at a quicker pace.

Manually, the architects have to determine the view scale before starting the drawing. The scale means that the actual size of the model needs to be specified in the piece of paper. With the help of CAD, however, the models can be drawn at a 1:1 scale and the measurements need to be only configured saving the user a lot of time. The CAD levels are similar to the overlays which are transparent. The overlays can be printed, edited and displayed in combination or separately. The track contents can be named and the lock layers can be altered as well. To comply with the standards set by the construction industry, the line weight, line type as well as colour can be assigned in the setting menu of the CAD tools (Mandujano et al., 2017). The objects can be organized as well for plotting. The layers can be assigned with a plot layer and the objects can be drawn in a similar manner to that of paper. Unlike manual drafting, the CAD can be used to conform to the industry standards by changing the style whenever required.  The line types, dimensions and texts can be created and changed by the user whenever he or she wants to increase the flexibility of the Cad Tools. The text style can be saved by mentioning the characteristics and fonts and the command settings, border information, title block, layouts, layers and styles can be altered by the user whenever required.  Drawing templates can be used as well which conform to the industry standard. Moreover, several methods can be used to get the exact dimensions. Points can be located in an instant with the help of the snapping feature in the rectangular or integral grid (Ibem & Laryea, 2015). The coordinates can be specified and changed and locations can be snapped for polar tracking. The size and resolution of the construction model can be changed as required. The display can be zoomed in to make the changes and zoomed out and new text and dimensions can be created whenever the project desires. Baseline, angular originates radial and linear dimensions can be altered as well.

Benefits of using CAD in the construction process

Use of 3D modeling in construction industry

The entire building can be visualized with the help of a CAD software with the minimal details such as where each material does. The model is very detailed which shows from the tiniest screws to the bigger steel beams. The blueprint which is created by the CAD software is very detailed and accurate which helps to get a strong blueprint that is flexible as well as perfect. The flexibility provided by the blueprint helps the construction managers to make any changes that they have to make in the middle of the project (Kassem, Dawood & Chavada, 2015).  The project progress is marked with the details of the blueprint embedded with comments and adjustments. The software also helps the concerned people related to the construction process to get a high-quality design as the accuracy of the project details are higher than a regular paper blueprint.  This also helps the concerned people to avoid any costly mistakes that might hamper the timeline of the project and cause delay. The CAD tools also help to make documentation of the entire project.  The software helps all the details of the project to stay compiled properly in a computer than piling up papers on the deck that are hard to manage and analysis (Kessler et al., 2015).  The plans can be also accessed from the clouds that are provided by some of the CAD software nowadays.

They are justifiable as well as affordable and they help to improve productivity as well as increase the workflow streamlining. Investing in a CAD software is justifiable as it saves time, increases collaboration as well as improves the productivity

A number of platforms can be used for the CAD software, so a lot needs to be considered before choosing the right CAD software for the construction process. Some CAD software run on Linux operating systems only and some of them work on IoS or Mobile devices only.  The second factor that needs to be considered by the construction-related concerned people is what type of modelling they need from the CAD software. Some CAD software provides 2D modelling techniques and some of them provide 3D functionalities (Cao & Wang, 2014). The licensing is another concern that needs to be understood by the construction managers whether they want to change the software for their own benefit and which is properly suited for their business. The presentation of Computer Aided Design has prompted an expansion in profitability everywhere throughout the world. The computer aided design is the application of PC innovation to help plan an item and contains every one of the exercises of an outline procedure (Ruparathna & Hewage, 2015). This makes it conceivable to form an idea thought into an item to be made, including all the related particulars. Architects utilize CAD programming to expand plan profitability, enhance outline quality, enhance communication through documentation and make a database for creation. Many of the tools that are used in the construction process nowadays are proprietary and changes cannot be made to that software.

Design tools for construction industry

Figure 6: Cloud-based CAD

(Source: Leite et al., 2016)

Some of the CAD software is open sourced and helps to tweak them as per the requirements of the construction project. The BIM Compatibility is another factor that needs to be considered. The BIM or Building information modelling is not present in all the Cad software (Leite et al., 2016). They are similar to the CAD tools but they can provide a BIM file instead of a CAD 3D file which provides a lot of internal details like connections, specifications and performance characteristics which can assist construction managers a lot. The cost specification is another factor that needs to be considered during a construction process. Powerdraft provided by Microsoft is a lot cheaper than AutoCAD which costs a whopping 2500 dollars. Some critics although point out that it is not better than Auto Cad in certain 3D characteristics (Umar et al., 2015).  Complaints from micro stations provided by Microsoft have resulted in a bit bad press for the product and some reviews also point out that it is one of the best software for 2D modelling.

The recent developments in this field are the development of the 3d capabilities further. In the present days, the CAD software is mostly used for the 2d printing capabilities and the 3D advantages of the models are still being explored. Another development in the Cad software in the recent decade is automation. BIM being the trend-setting innovation allows to try out models and rapidly produces alternatives for better basic leadership in regard to time, cost, process and hazard. BIM helps in identifying issues (particularly conflicts) and limit configuration changes. Utilization of BIM improves budgetary dangers and limits money related claims because of variety. It additionally encourages better co-appointment by getting every single important train of members the development venture to work together and accomplish an incorporated outline at a beginning time which enhances site wellbeing administration and instruction (Ghaffar et al., 2018). It is vital to take note of that since the information is caught precisely amid the Construction stage, it is reliable and can be utilized all through the Building Lifecycle for its Operations and Maintenance. Construction managers want that the information they access is automatically uploaded in the software and the design quality of the model can be assessed properly in real time  The advantages of the cloud environment can be combined with the CAD to tools to enhance their functionality that will help in the construction processes of the future.

Advantages of CAD in construction industry

The Cad software in the last decade was very pricey and many offered small time investments to avail them for construction projects. With time, as software engineers are entering the market the price of the CAD software is rapidly dropping. This has resulted in the adoption of the CAD tools by the small companies related to construction as the barrier to availability decrease as time goes on.

With the use of CAD software, the takeoffs of construction processes have become easier and faster. The CAD tools help the construction managers to reduce their time by 80% in completing project estimates and generating takeoffs (Ghaffarianhoseini et al., 2017). The documentation process helps to estimate the materials specifications, components and helps to understand the dimensions and geometry of the 3D models which makes it easier for the construction managers to properly assign the required work to the correct people thus meeting the deadline in the required time frame. Moreover, for future references, the information can be stored for designing later on and the components are designed from time to time. Any copies can be printed off the model and the drawings can be saved in soft copy to ease up the process. By creating a database for the construction process, the construction managers can easily analyse the time required to complete the required project and of the project, estimations are compromised, they have the proper flexible CAD tools at hand to make sure that the construction project deadline is met.

Figure 7: BIM model

(Source: Ogwueleka, 2015)

In the construction process, the management of raw materials and resources is crucial. Financial support, technology, equipment and workforce are some of the resources that can be considered here in the construction process. Planning and organizing the activities result in better completion and outcome of the project (Ogwueleka, 2015). To make future comparisons, the performances are recorded and measured and the targets are set up properly. With the help of the effective use of IT technology, these processes can be made to work seamlessly in the construction. It can help the construction processes by making the management aware of the actual plan and other plans (Hamdan et al., 2017).  A number of tools are used for connecting and communicating with more than one stakeholder.  In business ventures, the group of people have to use the texts and emails. The utilization of CAD has become firmly finished the years and has changed profoundly - and will keep on doing so after some time. The most critical parts of future CAD advancements and programming will be comfort and speed. The planning procedure ought to, at last, be made quicker, more productive and less demanding. The generative plan will move the part of fashioners, architects, and modellers (Love et al., 2016). From utilizing the PC as an illustration device, designers will co-make with innovation and spotlight on defining objectives and criteria.

At last, deciding the best plan will be left to innovation. For remuneration, information is used and in different parts of the work, certain targets are placed.  With the help of IT technology, this work can be effectively adjusted and managed. For maintaining information about the employees and a number of critical details about them, the IT can help a lot in the process. A computerized system will be able to fasten the process of data recovery and operations can be performed with ease in the case of the construction process in the fastest way possible (Enegbumaet al., 2015). With the help of the IT technology, the idea of reshaping the industry and making it better for business will become a possibility. In the businesses, achieving a proper quality is a challenge. The proper use of IT helps to mitigate these problems in the construction process.

This chapter focuses on the appropriate approach requires for the collection of the study within the deadline. Various theory and models discussed in the methodology have helped in better and deeper analysis of the research. Applications of research methodology have helped in maintaining a keen approach to analyze the impact of the computer-aided design in the construction industry in Europe.  The decision-making system of the organization can be organized in the research methodology. The research has tried to provide a detail of each methodology components in the chapter with a proper justification.

Research philosophy has been helping in determining a proper approach to gain knowledge regarding the research topic. The thinking process of the researcher has been maintaining the keen approach to the analysis of the study. There have been three approaches to the research philosophy including positivism, interpretivism and realism. Positivism is a research philosophy that helps in maintaining proper logic and hidden facts about the research topic. Positivism philosophy has been focus using on theories and models related to the impact of computer-aided design in the construction industry (Akinbile & Oni, 2016). The scientific analysis of the theories and models have been dining in the positivist philosophy.  Interpretivism deals with the concept of complex structure that is involved with the computer-aided design in the construction industry. It deals with defining the content with various concepts in order to entertain with the natural law and purposes.  The use of the computer-aided design in the construction industry can be interpretatively defined by this philosophy.  The realism is a mixed approach of both interpretivism and positivism. Realism philosophy deals with the human beliefs with the impact of computer-aided design in the construction industry and its human realities.

Justification of chosen philosophy

In this research, positivism philosophy has been chosen for analyzing the concept of CAD in the construction industry. The study has been time-limited so interpretivism has been discarded for thesis research. The section of positivism philosophy has been used for manipulating the role of researcher towards the importance of the CAD in the construction industry.

Research approach deals with the approach followed by the researcher in order to complete the study. The study can proceed in two ways including inductive and deductive approach. Inductive approach deals with the study of the research topic in case there is no data collection yet done.  The first stage of the inductive approach is an observation that helps in collecting relevant information about the research topic (Trebbe, Hartmann & Dorée, 2015). It deals with the development of new theories and models related to the information technology in the construction sector. The deductive approach deals with existing theories and models based on the information technology. It focuses on building the deep analysis of the concept.

Justification for selecting the chosen approach

The research has been trying to understand the effect of CAD on the construction industry. Therefore, existing theories and models related to the topic has been used for deep analysis. Therefore, the inductive approach has been discarded and deductive approach has been selected for the research.

The research design has been explaining the framework of a research topic. The process of data collection has been an approach that can be applied in the better description of research design.  The three types of research design have been Exploratory, Explanatory and descriptive research design.  The exploratory design focuses on acknowledging different thoughts and views in order to complete the study (Xu, Feng & Li, 2014). Explanatory research design helps in providing the occurrence of various incidents that are affecting the use of information technology in the construction industry. Descriptive research design refers to attaining details about all components of research and its attributes.

Justification of selection of chosen design

Descriptive research design has been used in this research in order to link the results with objectives. The impact of CAD on the construction industry can be described using the descriptive design.

Data has been considered to be an important aspect for the continuation of a research. Data can be collected by using the primary and secondary method.  The primary data collection method deals with the raw data collected from participants (Sarhanet al., 2017). Online survey has been conducted using Google forms and questionnaire. The secondary data collection method deals with collection of data from online journals, articles and government databases.  In this research, primary data collection method has been used. Twelve close-ended survey questionnaire have been prepared using Google forms and uploaded online.

Sample considered for analyzing impact of CAD in construction industry are smaller number of participants which are suitable for the survey guidelines. The sample for employees was simple random probability sampling where no criteria for selection were considered. 300 employees of different companies in construction industry in London have been surveyed and provided with survey questionnaire. The answers of the participants has been collected as data and information for the research.

The researcher have to follow some code of conduct during the process of research study. Private and personal data of the participants have been kept secure and safe. Data and information of the research has not been published before the completion of research study.  The results and outcomes if the research has not tampered in any case. The Data Protection Act 1998 has been imposed in the research and no personal data of the participants have been leaked outside the research (Ede et al., 2017). No participants have been forcedly allocated with the research. They have freedom for leaving the research at time they want. There has been no physical and mental harassment with the participants.

There have been some limitations in the research during data collection method. The survey participants have not been providing proper answers to the questions in the survey form. Therefore, those answers have not been taken as data for the research. The time and budget has been one of the main problems for this research. The time frame for research has been less than expected (Krimi, Lafhaj & Ducoulombier, 2017). However, the researcher have finished the research in time. Budget has been another limitations for research. The budget allocation for the research has been less than expected.  Therefore, the use of advanced data analysis tool including SPSS cannot be used. However, the researcher has been able to analyze data properly.  

Task Name

Duration

Start

Finish

Predecessors

Impact of Computer Aided Design on Construction Industry

93 days

Mon 6/4/18

Wed 10/10/18

   Study Initiation

11 days

Mon 6/4/18

Mon 6/18/18

      Study Requirements Analysis

2 days

Mon 6/4/18

Tue 6/5/18

      Approval of Research Topic from Supervisor

1 day

Wed 6/6/18

Wed 6/6/18

2

      Development of Research Plan Charter / Document

2 days

Thu 6/7/18

Fri 6/8/18

3,2

      Development of Research Framework

4 days

Mon 6/11/18

Thu 6/14/18

4,2

      Prepare Draft Research Proposal

2 days

Fri 6/15/18

Mon 6/18/18

5,4

   Research Planning

21 days

Tue 6/19/18

Tue 7/17/18

      Formation of Research Team

2 days

Tue 6/19/18

Wed 6/20/18

6

      Analysis of Research Requirement

1 day

Thu 6/21/18

Thu 6/21/18

6,8

      Identification of Research Questions

4 days

Fri 6/22/18

Wed 6/27/18

8,9

      Identify Scope of Research

4 days

Thu 6/28/18

Tue 7/3/18

10

      Estimate Research Timeline

4 days

Wed 7/4/18

Mon 7/9/18

10,11

      Allocation of Resources and Time for the Research

2 days

Tue 7/10/18

Wed 7/11/18

10,11,12

      Initiation of Research

4 days

Thu 7/12/18

Tue 7/17/18

13

   Research Development

26 days

Wed 7/18/18

Wed 8/22/18

      Determination of Research Problems

4 days

Wed 7/18/18

Mon 7/23/18

13,14

      Access to Necessary Media

1 day

Tue 7/24/18

Tue 7/24/18

13,16

      Access to Online Library

1 day

Tue 7/24/18

Tue 7/24/18

13,16

      Selection of Literary Sources

2 days

Wed 7/25/18

Thu 7/26/18

13,17,18

      Literature Review

4 days

Fri 7/27/18

Wed 8/1/18

19

      Collection of Necessary Data

10 days

Thu 8/2/18

Wed 8/15/18

19,20

      Collection of Secondary Data

5 days

Thu 8/16/18

Wed 8/22/18

21

   Data Analysis

8 days

Thu 8/23/18

Mon 9/3/18

      Analysis of Primary Data

4 days

Thu 8/23/18

Tue 8/28/18

21,22

      Analysis of Secondary Data

4 days

Wed 8/29/18

Mon 9/3/18

24

   Research Evaluation

13 days

Tue 9/4/18

Thu 9/20/18

      Evaluation of Data

6 days

Tue 9/4/18

Tue 9/11/18

21,22,23,24

      Reflection on Research Undertaken

2 days

Wed 9/12/18

Thu 9/13/18

27

      Documentation of Learning Outcomes

2 days

Wed 9/12/18

Thu 9/13/18

27

      Issues Identification and Future Planning

5 days

Fri 9/14/18

Thu 9/20/18

29,28

   Research Closure

14 days

Fri 9/21/18

Wed 10/10/18

      Complete All Activities in Research

1 day

Fri 9/21/18

Fri 9/21/18

30

      Documentation of Entire Research

10 days

Mon 9/24/18

Fri 10/5/18

32

      Validation of the Research and Learning

2 days

Mon 10/8/18

Tue 10/9/18

33

      Team Sign Off

1 day

Wed 10/10/18

Wed 10/10/18

34

Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no significant impact of work experience on issues faced while working in the Construction Industry;

Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is significant impact of work experience on the issues faced while working in the construction industry.

Analysis: The multiple regression model has been employed to analyze calculate impact of work experience on challenges faced while working in the construction industry. In order to do so, work experience and position have been taken as independent variable and issues faced in construction industry as a dependent variable. A regression model has been created for analyzing the null hypothesis.

The multiple correlation coefficient has been 0.323178492. This value shows that correlation among variables have been well established and have been positively valued.  Therefore, this can be analyzed that dependent variable has been linked with independent variable including work experience and position. However, computed logistics falls under range from -1 to +1 does not shows any statistical significance of variable correlation.

The coefficient of determination is R square valued at 0.104444338. This shows that the value of dependent variable is analyzed by variable of independent for coming to feasible point.

The adjusted R square 0.09536776 refers to explanatory power. It helps in relating this statics that can be neither considered as percentage including R square nor a significant test.

The last factor is standard error of regression that has been 1.12504163. This value indicates that at the variation estimation has been observed in success of project dependent on variables to soft skills.

Analysis of variance

The analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been helping in providing various steps for variation which exists independent variable has been broken down efficiently for explaining portions and explained parts.

The SS Regression can be regarded as variations that has been outlined by regression line. The SS Residual has been termed as variation that has been based on dependent variable and not properly explained. However, the F statistic has been evaluated by employing ratio based on mean square regression in the relation to mean square residual. The particular statistics has been judged against critical F value for 3 and 12 degree of freedom.

Regression Model:

Issues faced in construction industry = A + B * Age + C * Work Experience + D * Current position + e

Where,

A = Intercept of the model

B = Coefficient of Age

C = Coefficient of Work Experience

D = Coefficient of Current position

e = error term

Hypothesis 2

Null Hypothesis (H0): Technology do not have a significant role to play for designing activities in the field of construction;

Alternative Hypothesis (H1): Technology has a significant role to play for designing activities in the field of construction;

Analysis:

As discussed in the above section, the impact of IT in construction industry has been discussed.  The regression model has been created for analyze hypothesis. The use of designing activities has been taken as dependent variable. Satisfied with traditional method for designing, Satisfied with technical method for designing and Satisfied with implementation of Information Technology for designing have been taken as independent variable.

The multiple correlations coefficient has been valued as 0.172579054. The value has been evaluating the correlation among independent variables and dependent variables. Therefore, it can be analysed that use of dependent variable on the independent variable has been analysed in the regression table. The computed statistical falls under this range from -1 to +1.

The coefficient of determination has been valued as0.02978353.  This shows that the value of dependent variable is analyzed by variable of independent for coming to feasible point.

The adjusted R square that has been connected in order to measure of explanatory power is valued at 0.019950255. This point helps in relating statics cannot be considered on R square or F statistics.

Analysis of variance

The analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been helping in providing steps for variation that exists independent variable has been broken down effectively into unexplained portions.

The SS Regression has been considered as variation as outlined in the regression line. The SS Residual can be termed as variation which has been based on dependent variable.

Regression Model:

Use of technology for designing activities = A + B * Satisfied with traditional method for designing + C * Satisfied with technical method for designing + D * Satisfied with implementation of Information Technology for designing + e

Where,

A = Intercept of the model

B = Coefficient of Satisfied with traditional method for designing

C = Coefficient of Satisfied with technical method for designing

D = Coefficient of Satisfied with implementation of Information Technology for designing

e = error term

Hypothesis 3

Null Hypothesis (H0): The use of CAD for designing activities do not have significant impact in the Construction Industry;

Alternative Hypothesis (H1): The use of CAD for designing activities have significant impact in the Construction Industry;

Analysis: A regression model has been created including independent variables and dependent variables. The dependent variable is use of CAD for designing activities. On the other hand, the independent variable have been software used in the construction industry, satisfied with using CAD for designing, improvement in Time and Performance. The multiple correlations co-efficient is valued at 0.410430414. The value shows the correlation among dependent and independent variables in the research. The dependency of the use of CAD for designing activities has been properly analyzed by third hypothesis.  The regression analysis shows that the statistic falls in the range of the -1 to +1 that helps in explaining the determinants of correlation analysis. A number of factors needs to be improved and changed to finish a construction process. The stakeholders are all managed by the supervisors working in the site and the modifications to the original plan are done accordingly. This helps the project to be connected with other trade supervisors and subcontractors and helps the entire project to be realistic.  It is very important to update each and every one about their work-related progress. After approval from the regulatory bodies and authorities, the work can be started for the changed plans. If changes are seen in the perceived plans, then the stakeholders need to be informed about the change of plans immediately. It helps to make the work perfect and error free.  With the help of specific time sheets, the labor is controlled by the site supervisors.

Regression Model:

Use of CAD for designing activities = A + B * Software used in the construction industry + C * Satisfied with using CAD for designing + D * Improvement in Time and Performance + e

Where,

A = Intercept of the model

B = Software used in the construction industry

C = Satisfied with using CAD for designing

D = Improvement in Time and Performance

e = error term

Conclusion

It can be concluded that use of information ecology has been helping in developing construction industry in Europe.  There have been various applications of information technology in construction industry. The research has focused on Computer Aided Design in construction industry.  The development of the designing software in construction industry have been enhancing the quality of work in the industry.  The estimation process in industry has been an important part in the construction industry.  The use of CAD has been an important advancement in construction industry.  With the help of IT technology, this work can be effectively adjusted and managed. For maintaining information about the employees and a number of critical details about them, the IT can help a lot in the process. A computerized system will be able to fasten the process of data recovery and operations can be performed with ease in the case of the construction process in the fastest way possible.  The research has been focused on aim and objectives initiated at first. The use of research methodology has been focusing in research questions and objectives.  

Data has been collected by using primary data collection method.  The use of online survey with 300 participants have been done in the research. The answers of the participants have been taken as data for the research. Regression analysis has been done in order to find outcomes and results of the research. Utilization of BIM improves budgetary dangers and limits money related claims because of variety. It additionally encourages better co-appointment by getting every single important train of members the development venture to work together and accomplish an incorporated outline at a beginning time which enhances site wellbeing administration and instruction. Drawing templates can be used as well which conform to the industry standard. Moreover, several methods can be used to get the exact dimensions. Points can be located in an instant with the help of the snapping feature in the rectangular or integral grid. The coordinates can be specified and changed and locations can be snapped for polar tracking. The size and resolution of the construction model can be changed as required. The display can be zoomed in to make the changes and zoomed out and new text and dimensions can be created whenever the project desires. Baseline, angular originates radial and linear dimensions can be altered as well.

There are various strategies that can be recommended for the modification and enhancement in the computer-aided design in construction industry.

Standardization of database and knowledge bases: Construction databases contain various relevant information rejected t the design and estimation. However, there might be difficulties in fetching data and information from the databases.  This have been essential for the database administrator to take care of the database operations. There is a need of electronic data quality checker that might help in providing security to the data and information stored in the database. The entry of third party in the database might be detected using these techniques. Analysis of the estimation of design might be done over inline CAD software.

Stats of Knowledge Capture: Different materials and IT professionals might look forward about knowledge computer systems in order to digitalize technical databases of the software in the construction industry. Data related to raw materials and design of the construction work might be stored over the cloud computing.

 Optimizing modelling: Process optimization in the CAD has been an important point in case of the production process design. The future of the industry has been depended in the inventory control, and proper designing software. Therefore, update in the CAD software is an important point for enhancement in the designing process in construction industry.

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My Assignment Help. 'The Essay Explores The Impact Of CAD In European Construction.' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/u22983-dissertation-and-independent-project/advanced-engineering-informatics.html> accessed 22 May 2024.

My Assignment Help. The Essay Explores The Impact Of CAD In European Construction. [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 22 May 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/u22983-dissertation-and-independent-project/advanced-engineering-informatics.html.

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