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Introduction to Organizational Learning

Discuss about the Organizational Learning.

Organizational learning is the method to create, retain, as well as transfer organizational information. There occurs improvement in an organization over time with the gaining of experience. Organizational learning occurs with the help of the processes of learning that is associated with the aspect of facilitating, impeding, directing the change, disseminating as well as using the organizational knowledge. Organizational learning is also considered being the manner in which a company will be creating as well as organizing knowledge in relation to their functional aspects as well as cultural aspects (Yousef, 2014). The objective of organizational learning is having a successful adaptation of the changing environments, for adjusting under doubtful circumstances as well as for increasing the effectiveness.


According to me, there are three theories of learning such as behaviourism, cognitive information processing as well as constructivism. In respect of behaviourism, it can be stated that there is the existence of knowledge in an independent manner and outside of individuals. The behaviourists are having the belief that there is the actual occurrence of learning when new behavioural changes are acquired via relations amongst stimuli as well as responses. Therefore, association is leading towards a behavioural change. (Thurlings, 2013) I believe that, learning process in respect of behaviourism is depending upon objectively observable behavioural changes. According to the behaviour theorists, learning is defined as the gaining of a new behaviour or behavioural change. This organizational theory states that there occurs the commencement of learning when an indication from the environment is presented and there occurs the reaction of the learner to the stimulus with certain kind of response (Johnson, 2014). Outcomes that are doing the reinforcement of the needed behaviour are arranged for following the behaviour that is being desired. The repetition of the new pattern of behaviour keeps on happening for becoming automatic. The behavioural change within an organizational employee will be signifying the fact that there has been the occurrence of learning. From the organizational perspective, behaviourism regarding the employees lead towards their motivation. The motivation of the employees is a process that is targeting the physiological requirement and is leading towards increased output. An employer might desire the improvement of motivation through the empowerment of the staffs in making decisions or solving the workplace problems (Lau, 2014). Certain employers are also offering the staffs the capability of having a schedule that is considered flexible or having participation in programs related to training. In relation to this, I also believe that the choice of leadership style of an employer might be eliciting varied responses from the staffs. Majority of the leaders are not using a single leadership form but various types of leaderships in varied circumstances. For instance, an autocratic leader will be making decisions in respect of the team members without consulting them, whereas a democratic leader will be allowing the members if the team in providing their viewpoint prior to the making of a decision (Merriam, 2013). A laissez-faire leader will not at all be making any interference and will be allowing the organizational staffs in making various organizational decisions. Another effective way of understanding employee behaviour is to relate the previous experiences of the employee. The most effective means of predicting in what ways a staff will be acting is by looking at how the behaviour of the staffs was in the past, when he/she was faced with a similar situation earlier. For example, as per the organizational context it can be stated that the companies will be offering raises for the staffs who are exhibiting outstanding performances. The motivation for getting a raise will be serving as motivation in respect of the staffs for doing their jobs in a productive way.

Behaviourism as a Theory of Learning


In respect of cognitive information processing or cognitivism, it can be stated that it is depending upon the thought process behind the behavioural aspect. The theory is depending upon the idea that individuals are processing the information that is received by them, and not just providing mere response to stimuli. There occurs the use of cognitivism when an organizational staff will be playing an active role to seek the ways for understanding as well as processing information that is being received by him/her and relating it to what is already known and has been stored in the memory (Hodges, 2015). According to the theorists of cognitive learning, there is the occurrence of learning via internal information processing. There occurs the governing of cognitive information processing by an internal method rather than by external situations. The cognitive learning approach will be paying more attention to what is going on inside the head of the organizational staff and focusing upon the mental processes in comparison to the observable behavioural aspects. Learning is having the involvement of the process of reorganizing the experiences, either through the attainment of new insights or discarding the ones that are old. In addition, there occurs the observation of the knowledge properties in respect of the cognitive management (Kennedy, 2014). These properties will be including the aspects that knowledge is developing in a continuous manner. Knowledge assists in understanding the situational reality in respect of the past, present as well as future of an organization in the steadfast fact synthesis. There can also occur the storing of knowledge in a systematic ways in different storage media that will be facilitating its use. There also might occur explicit knowledge as well as implicit knowledge. As because cognitivism is having an association with organizational knowledge, there are two knowledge related approach that can be identified. The first approach is regarded as a paradigmatic or functionalistic knowledge that is relating to the organizational theory and originates from positivism (Harasim, 2017). Organizational managers functioning in this manner are mainly having an interest in universal laws of cause and effect organizational relationships. Another approach is considered being the thematic approach, which is focusing upon the understanding of a fact and as a result, the context is having a major significance in this regard. This approach takes into consideration the actions as well as goals of human beings. This assists in revealing the organizational values at the level of the different employees, organizing them as well as passing the culture of the organization on to the new staffs (Ertmer, 2013). As a result, I can elucidate on the fact that the descriptive approach in comparison to the paradigmatic approach is more effective in relation to the culturally defined scenarios of organizational behaviour as well as interaction. For example, as per the organizational context, it can be stated that the managers of a company will be implementing cognitive information processing by assigning this learning theory regarding the staffs who are struggling in respect of focusing on the results. Organizations might as well do the adaptation of goal-setting strategic aspect where, the goals will be providing the staffs with the means for gauging their development.

Cognitivism and Its Influence on Organizational Knowledge


In respect of constructivism, it can be stated that every individual employee is constructing their individual perspective about the workplace, depending upon their personal experiences as well as internal information. Learning is depending upon the ways by which an individual will be interpreting as well as creating the meaning of his/her experiences (Kesim, 2015). According to the constructivist theories, learning is considered being a method in which new viewpoints or concepts are constructed by the employees of an organization depending upon the previous information or experiences (Kolb, 2014). Each of the organizational employees does the generation of their mental models that is used by them in making sense of their experiences. According to me, the theory of constructivism is used for focusing on the aspect of preparing the individuals for solving the problems. As a result, for getting success, an organizational employee is having the requirement of an important knowledge base upon which there occurs the interpretation as well as creation of ideas (Crook, 2017). In addition, regarding constructivism there does not always occur predictable results since the employees are doing the construction of their individual knowledge.

Constructivism is considered being a methodical theory that provides the explanation regarding the systems as well as the interface amongst the systems as well as their parts. Moreover it is a methodical theory due to the fact that it is offering the most effective way to understand the process of system transformation. For example, in respect of constructivism, it can be stated that within an organization if a staff does the submission of a report with some typographical errors, the individual should not be criticized for his mistakes and instead he should be encouraged by providing constructive criticism that will assist him to discover ways for making improvements.

I would like to state that the three theories of learning such as behaviourism, cognitivism as well as constructivism are the part and parcel of any organization.  Briefly speaking, behaviourism is related with new behavioural aspects as well as behavioural changes whose acquiring is done with the help of relations amongst stimuli as well as response. Cognitivism is related with the fact that leaning takes place via internal information processing. Last but not the least, constructivism is related with the process of constructing individual information regarding the organization depending upon personal experiences. Knowledge provides assistance in acknowledging the situational reality regarding the past, present as well as future of a company in the persistent fact synthesis. There can also occur the storing of information in methodical ways in different storage media that will be facilitating its use. Moreover, the learning process for behaviourism is depending upon objectively observable behavioural changes. The behaviour theorists state that, learning is explained as the achievement of a new behaviour or behavioural change. This organizational theory states that there occurs the advancement of learning when an indication from the environment is presented and there occurs the reaction of the learner to the stimulus with specific kind of response. The first approach regarding cognitivism is considered as a paradigmatic or functionalistic knowledge in relation to the organizational theory and initiates from positivism and the second approach regarding cognitivism is the thematic approach, which is focusing upon the understanding of a fact and therefore, the context is having a huge importance in this respect.

Reference

Crook, C., & Sutherland, R. (2017). Technology and theories of learning. In Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 11-27). Springer International Publishing.

Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (2013). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 26(2), 43-71.

Harasim, L. (2017). Learning theory and online technologies. Taylor & Francis.

Hodges, C., & Grant, M. (2015, April). Theories to Support You: Purposeful Use of Learning Management System Features. In Global Learn (pp. 481-486). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Johnson, G. M. (2014). The ecology of interactive learning environments: Situating traditional theory. Interactive Learning Environments, 22(3), 298-308.

Kennedy, J. (2014). Characteristics of massive open online courses (MOOCs): A research review, 2009-2012. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 13(1).

Kesim, M., & Alt?npulluk, H. (2015). A theoretical analysis of MOOCs types from a perspective of learning theories. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 15-19.

Kolb, D. A. (2014). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. FT press.

Lau, K. H. (2014). Computer?based teaching module design: principles derived from learning theories. Medical education, 48(3), 247-254.

Merriam, S. B., & Bierema, L. L. (2013). Adult learning: Linking theory and practice. John Wiley & Sons.

Thurlings, M., Vermeulen, M., Bastiaens, T., & Stijnen, S. (2013). Understanding feedback: A learning theory perspective. Educational Research Review, 9, 1-15.

Yousef, A. M. F., Chatti, M. A., Schroeder, U., & andHarald Jakobs, M. W. (2014). A Review of the State-of-the-Art. In Proceedings of CSEDU2014, 6th International Conference on Computer Supported Education (pp. 9-20).

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